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How to Read the Chicago Tribune Online
The Chicago Tribune offers a variety of ways to access its articles online. If you’re a subscriber, you can read the entire paper in digital form.
Reading the Digital Edition
The Chicago Tribune offers its entire paper in digital form to its subscribers. To access this version of the paper, just log into your account and click on the “eNewspapers” link in the menu. From there, you can choose whether you want to read the Chicago Tribune news or one of its affiliate newspapers. If you prefer reading the paper on your phone or tablet, you can also get the digital paper delivered to your device each day. To get access, subscribe to the paper. You can also purchase a subscription from Amazon.
If you’re interested in reading Chicago Tribune articles from the past, you can find plenty of articles and snippets online. For example, Newspapers.com has archives of the paper dating back as far as 1849 as part of a joint project with the University of Illinois. Clippings and sample articles are free, but you can purchase a plan for full access. Whether you need the information for research purposes or you’re a history buff, this is a great way to dive into history.
Accessing the Paper Through a Library
If you have a library card, that card might grant you access to the Chicago Tribune’s digital edition. For example, the Chicago Public Library offers access to the full newspaper and the full historical archive, and the New York Public Library grants readers access to the paper. Just sign into your library’s website and use its search function to find the paper.
Reading Free Articles Online
If you just want to read the odd Chicago Tribune news story once in a while, go to the paper’s homepage and read some free articles. Although most of the paper is accessible to subscribers only, it does offer some free stories on its website.
Downloading the App
If you don’t enjoy reading articles on your internet browser, you can read the online version of the Chicago Tribune on its app. Its publisher offers app access to both Android and iOS users, and you can download it for free from the Play Store or Apple App Store. If you want to access all articles or the digital version of the paper, you need to sign into a subscriber account when you open the app.
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- Chicago Style Format for Papers | Requirements & Examples
Chicago Style Format for Papers | Requirements & Examples
Published on September 25, 2019 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 5, 2022.
The information in this article is largely drawn from Turabian style —a version of Chicago style aimed at students and researchers. When writing a paper in Chicago style, these are the guidelines to follow; for the sake of simplicity, the term “Chicago” is used here.
Chicago Reference Generator
To apply Chicago format:
- Use a standard font like 12 pt. Times New Roman.
- Double-space the text.
- Use 1 inch margins or larger.
- Indent new paragraphs by ½ inch.
- Place page numbers in the top right or bottom center.
Note that any specific formatting advice from your instructor or faculty overrules these guidelines. Template documents set up in Chicago style are available to download below. Just select the one with the citation style you’re following.
Author-date Notes and bibliography
Table of contents
General formatting, block quotes, numbers and acronyms, in-text citations and notes, bibliography or reference list, frequently asked questions about chicago format.
Chicago doesn’t require a specific font or font size, but recommends using something simple and readable (e.g., 12 pt. Times New Roman). Use margins of at least 1 inch on all sides of the page.
The main text should be double-spaced, and each new paragraph should begin with a ½ inch indent. Text should be left-aligned and not “justified” (meaning that the right margin should look ragged).
Page numbers can be placed either in the top right or the bottom center of the page—one or the other, not both.
A Chicago title page isn’t required—often it’s sufficient to just include your title at the top of the first page—but if you’re asked to include one, Turabian provides guidelines for how to present it.
All text on the title page should be center-aligned and double-spaced, and written in the same font as the rest of your text. The title should appear about ⅓ of the way down the page, in headline capitalization and in bold.
If you have a subtitle, the main title ends with a colon and the subtitle appears on the following line, also in bold and the same size as the main title.
About ⅔ of the way down the page, add any information your instructor requests you to include—your name, student code, the course name and code, the date, etc. Each new piece of information appears on a new line.
The title page should not have a page number, but should be included in the page count—in other words, the page numbering starts on page 2.
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Headings should use headline capitalization:
- Summary of results
- Summary of Results
If you use different levels of heading (e.g., chapters, sections, subheadings), make sure your presentation makes clear which type of heading each one is.
All headings of one level should be presented the same way, and higher-level headings should stand out more from the text. For example, you might use a larger font for chapter headings, bold for section headings, and italics for subheadings:
Prose quotations of five or more lines (or more than 100 words), as well as poetry quotations of two or more lines, are presented as block quotes .
Block quotes do not use quotation marks . Instead, a blank line separates them from the surrounding text on both sides and they are indented by an additional ½ inch. Unlike the rest of the text, they are not double-spaced.
Chicago recommends using words, not numerals, for numbers lower than 100. For example, you would write “ninety-five,” not “95.” But numerals should still be used when you’re referring to a specific measurement (e.g., “15 cm”) and when using decimals (e.g., “1.5”).
Acronyms should be introduced the first time you refer to the thing they stand for:
After this point, you can use the acronym alone.
Neither numerals nor acronyms should be used at the beginning of a sentence. Either rewrite the sentence so that the numeral or acronym appears elsewhere, or write out the full phrase or number:
- 100 people responded to the survey.
- One hundred people responded to the survey.
- The survey received 100 responses.
Chicago provides guidelines for not one but two citation styles : author-date and notes and bibliography.
In author-date style , citations are placed directly in the text in parentheses . In this style, you have some flexibility about how exactly to integrate the citation:
In notes and bibliography style, citations appear in Chicago footnotes or endnotes (the format is identical either way), and the reader is referred to them by superscript numbers in the text.
Footnote and endnote numbers appear at the end of the relevant clause or sentence, after any punctuation except a dash .
Endnotes appear on their own page just before the bibliography ; footnotes appear at the bottom of each page. Footnotes should be separated from the text by a short rule and be presented in the same font size as the main text, or smaller. Word’s footnote function automatically creates footnotes like this:
At the end of your paper, you’ll likely include a bibliography (for notes and bibliography style) or a reference list (for author-date).
Bibliographies and reference lists are not double-spaced, but leave a blank line between entries.
If an entry extends onto a second line, a ½ inch indent should be applied to all but the first line of the entry.
If you have to create a Chicago style annotated bibliography , follow the same format as a normal bibliography, but indent and double-space the annotations under each source reference.
Turabian style is a version of Chicago style designed specifically for students and researchers. It follows most Chicago conventions, but also adds extra guidelines for formatting research papers , theses and dissertations .
More information can be found in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, now in its ninth edition.
- A reference list is used with Chicago author-date citations .
- A bibliography is used with Chicago footnote citations .
Both present the exact same information; the only difference is the placement of the year in source citations:
- In a reference list entry, the publication year appears directly after the author’s name.
- In a bibliography entry, the year appears near the end of the entry (the exact placement depends on the source type).
There are also other types of bibliography that work as stand-alone texts, such as a Chicago annotated bibliography .
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
Footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page. Endnotes appear in a list at the end of the text, just before the reference list or bibliography. Don’t mix footnotes and endnotes in the same document: choose one or the other and use them consistently.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , you can use either footnotes or endnotes, and citations follow the same format in either case.
In APA and MLA style , footnotes or endnotes are not used for citations, but they can be used to provide additional information.
Chicago format doesn’t require you to use any specific font, as long as you choose something readable. A good standard choice is 12 pt Times New Roman.
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Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) /Turabian Citation Style: Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Sample Papers
- Chicago/Turabian Citation Style
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CMS Sample Papers
Cms 17th edition changes, part iii: source citations and indexes.
Note: In previous editions of the Manual , source citations were referred to as documentation .
Chapter 14: Notes and Bibliography
- The use of ibid. is now discouraged in favor of shortened citations. ( 14.34 )
- Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Sample Paper
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Chicago Style Guide, for 17th Edition
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View sample paper
Note-- This paper is written using the footnote/endnote style. The same general formatting rules apply to the author/date format.
- 1" margins on all four sides
- Times New Roman; 12 pt. font
- Block quotes
- Table Titles
- Figure Captions
- Use a 1/2” indent for paragraph beginnings, block quotes and bibliographic indents.
- Bibliographic and notation entries should be single spaced internally, but contain a space between each entry.
- Page numbers should be placed in the header of the first page of text, beginning with number 1. Continue your page numbers till the end of your bibliography.
- Longer publications should use Subheadings.
- Cover/Title page
- Body of the paper
- Appendix (if needed)
- Endnotes (if using endnote style)
- Center the title of your page around half-way down.
- If your paper has a subtitle, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the next line.
- Center your name directly under the title.
- Center your teacher’s name, course title, and date, in three separate lines, directly underneath your name.
- Do not bold, underline, or otherwise decorate your title.
- Do not put a page number on your cover page and do not include it in your page count total.
Names and Numbers
- Use the full name of any person or agency the first time you reference them in a paper. For agencies, include the acronym in parentheses after the full name when first used, e.g. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). After that, you may choose to use only a person’s last name, or agency acronym.
- Write out any numbers lower than 100.
- Footnotes will always appear at the bottom of the page where the reference occurs and endnotes go on a separate page after the body of the paper.
- Place the note number at the end of the sentence in which the reference occurs and after any punctuation; remember to superscript it.
- If using endnotes, title the top of the first page as ‘Notes’ in 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Do not embolden the title.
- All notes should be typed in 12pt font using Times New Roman.
- Within the notes themselves, numbers are full-sized, and are followed by a period.
- Indent the first line of any footnote 1/2” from the margin. Other lines will be flushed left (this formatting is opposite of the bibliography).
- Notes should be typed using single-space, but different notes should contain a space between them.
- Only use Arabic numerals, not Roman.
- Never reuse a number.
- Use a shortened citation for sources you refer to more than once.
- If citing multiple sources in a single note, separate each citation with a semicolon.
- Never use two note numbers at the end of a sentence (see above).
- If citing the same work again immediately after you've already cited it, use ibid .
- The bibliography should start on a new page, and be titled ‘Bibliography’ at the top in 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Do not embolden the title.
- Use proper formatting for each type of source and always using a hanging indent. The first line of the citation will begin on the margin, subsequent lines are indented (opposite of a footnote/endnote).
- The bibliography must be ordered alphabetically.
- Entries should be typed single-space with a blank line between each separate citation.
- If you have multiple bibliographic entries from the same author, it is acceptable to use what is called the ‘3-em’ dash to replace the name of the content creators. For Example:
Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion ? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
—. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.
—, ed. Resistance and Revolution in Mediterranean Europe, 1939-1948. New York: Routledge, 1989.
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Ready, Set, Cite (Chicago)
- Formatting the Paper
- Chicago Style Basics
Paper Formatting Basics
Major paper sections, sample papers.
- Citation Basics
- Notes-Bibliography System
- Citations: Author-Date References System
- Annotated Bibliography
Using Word to Format Your Paper
The video below gives you step-by-step instructions for using Word to format your paper.
Please note: Your teacher is the final authority for how you should format your paper. For example, Chicago Manual of Style provides for variations in where you place the page numbers for your paper. Turabian recommends that you pick a format and use if consistently. Therefore, the video may show you some style variations that you will not use in your paper.
Margins: Should be set at no less than 1" and no greater than 1.5" on all four edges of the page
Font: Uniform typeface and font size. 12 point, roman, proportional serif font (such as Times or Palatino). Except for footnotes which should be in a smaller font (usually 10 pt.)
Line-spacing: Double-space throughout the paper, except for the following items which should be single-spaced
- block quotations
- table titles and figure captions
The following items should be single-spaced internally but with a blank line between items:
- certain elements in the front matter, including the table of contents and any lists of figures, tables, and abbreviations
- footnotes or endnotes
- bibliographies or reference lists
Paragraphs and indentation: Indent all paragraphs consistently. Use tabs rather than spaces for indentation, columns of text, and other content requiring consistent alignment. Block quotations have their own rules for indentation, depending on whether they are prose or poetry.
Page numbers: Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. Do not number the title page. Page numbers are usually placed in one of three locations. Choose one of these locations and follow it consistently:
- centered in the footer (at the bottom of the page),
- centered in the header (at the top of the page), or
- flush right in the header.
For more details check out these paper guidelines:
- General CMS Guidelines From the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue
Class papers will either include a title page or will include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines to format your title page if your paper includes one:
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name and class information should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
This is the text of your paper.
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized "headline-style," meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name.
- A prose quotation of 5 or more lines should be "blocked." Block quotations are single spaced and use no quotation marks, but leave an extra space before and after. Indent the entire quotation .5".
- Label this page Bibliography (for the notes and bibliography system).
- Label this page References (for the author-date system).
- Leave two blank lines between "Bibliography" or "References" and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- Use "and" not "&" for multiple author entries.
- Write out publishers' names in full.
- If there is no publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation "n.d."
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout your paper.
- Chicago has an optional system of five heading levels. Usually only used for longer papers.
Tables and Figures
- If you have any
To see what your paper should look like, check out these sample papers with built-in instructions .
- Sample Paper (with built-in instructions) Example of a paper written using the Notes and Bibliography system. From the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
- Sample Paper (with built-in instructions) Example of a paper written using the Author-Date References system. From the Online Writing Lab at Purdue University
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