The Process of Decision Making Essay
Decision science essay.
We have to think about the qualitative factors that are involved in our decision making too. In the decision making process, as we saw in a case called The Nancy M. Hohman, we saw that many times the numbers will not speak louder than our personal preferences. The Nancy M. Hohman was a less than one year old ship, worthy US$ 40 million, carrying 200,000 tons of crude oil and 28 crew members and had an engine malfunction 9 miles way off the coast of South Africa. However, Port Elizabeth (the nearest one) was too small for the ship and the next close one was 380 miles away.
The Process Of Decision Making
The process of decision making can be easily understood as selecting one course of action over other courses actions available. There are also steps that are involved in making decisions. These steps include: (1) pinpointing the problem; (2) identifying the cause; (3) setting objectives; (4) formulating alternative courses of action; (5) evaluating alternatives against organizational objectives; (6) choosing the best course of action; and (7) implementing and evaluating the decision (Holzer and Schwester 2011). Now while these mentioned steps of making decisions seem extensive they are generally how decisions are made. Also in decision making there are numerous amounts of models that emerge and try to explain how all decisions in administrations are made. With decision making comes actors who implement and enforce the results of these decisions. With regards to the topic intended for this essay, the actor is the American administration and their implementation of policies regarding the recent outbreak of Ebola and how these administrators are enforcing policies with respect to the public. This paper specifically will revolve around Graham Allison’s three decision making models in his book Essence of Decision Making: Explaining Cuban Missile Crisis and the way his models analyze the decision making process. Allison’s three different models will give us different lenses to look at and analyze how the American administration is handling the Ebola situation here in the United
Decision-Making In Health And Social Care
Decision-making in the workforce is a process of responsibilities used by upper management to implement, enforce rules, regulations, and maintain a successful environment. Decision-making implemented more effectively by making a plan, thinking it through, accepting more than one opinion and determining what is best. However, decision-making often utilized more effectively by opening doors of opportunities for a suggestion, question, discussion, and feedback. Although, more involvement helps improve understanding, utilize behavior skills and present opportunities for better communication. Everyday life consists of decision-making, the right decision may not always be applied, but ensure room for improvement and opportunity. Individuals approached decision-making in many different ways. As stated by (Jones, Graham, & Bateman, 2006) decision making is a procedure used to recognize a problem, weigh the alternatives and evaluate a solution in which, certain situations will require different approaches to become effective.
Bus 640 Final Paper
Managers within organizations are faced with the challenges daily of making excellent decisions. In everyday life we are challenged in making sound decision, decision that will last for a life time. Folk often wonder after making a decision if it was the right choice, will it affect the people around me, was this a good choice for my family, and will the decision affect them. In order to be an effective manager you have to possess the skill of outstanding decision making skills. In order for one to be successful within their personal life they may also need to possess an understanding of effective decision making. The decision- making process should be one that makes a positive change. Can the decision making process work
Top-level executives and key managers are at the helm of the decision-making process with the focal point being selecting the best choice. Selecting the best choices or alternative of choices derive from assessments, interviews, surveys and audits that evaluates the strategic position of the selected choices. Consequently, the chief executive officer at some point should show how the middle-managers, front-line managers, employees and client fit into the decision-making process.
Essay about Decision Making Process Model
The decision is to select an action among a number of actions that solves a given problem, that prevents a problem from happening, or that forces to apply new ideas for development. The need for understanding decision making process is increasing because the complexity of modern organizations is increasing, and because the modern organizations' effectiveness depends on the decisions made by the managers. The question is how to select the most appropriate action to solve the problem satisfying all stakeholders.
Essay Making Management Decisions
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Decision Making is “A commitment to action” (Mintzberg, H., 1983, p. 188) ; Management decisions are made for a lot of different reasons, mainly because decision making is a fundamental aspect of the management functions and management decision-making which makes it a key management role. (M. Teale, V.Dispenza, J. Flynn, D.Currie, 2003, p. 10)
Rational Decision Making Process
This report will discuss about the approach to rational decision making process. It discusses how an everyday problem faced by management can be tackled by using
Why Mangers Should Understand The Nature Of Managerial Decision Making
Why Mangers should understand the nature of managerial decision making. Programmed decision making has a new name its called workflow, which create high engagements from employee based workgroups. Programmed workflow is best practiced in computer based programs and platforms, especially in machine based manufacturing or applications such as 3-D printing. Verified or programmed decision making is decisive and predictable making it easier to measure quality. In the task environment, routine automated decision making is decisive due to the pre-programed nature or scripts. Enabling work groups to follow well established rules or guidelines. This also extends to training (walkthroughs), basic communication through the organization, product titles and even consumer based groups. Management and workgroups must use reasoning or decisive decision making in a methodical, reflective method, with consideration to many variables. Workflows take into consideration reasoning in order to create results from discerned data to well formed information and finished product.
Decision-Making Model Essay
Throughout this paper, the values of the Six Thinking Hats will be discussed and the meanings behind the Six Hats. Six Thinking Hats’ is “used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation (de Bono, 1985)”. There are five values behind the Six Thinking Hats. They are role-playing, attention direction, convenience, possible basis in brain chemistry, and rules of the game. Decision-making can be difficult, but these are decisions that are made after all the information has been provided beforehand.
Essay on Decision Making
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In contrast, the Non- Programmed decisions which are type of decisions which are non-routine and deployed to resolve non-routine problems, they are relevant in solving unique and unusual problems that arises, of which the alternatives cannot be decided in advance. Non-Programmed decisions are usually of high importance and significance with long-term consequences on organizations, such decisions are decided at the top management level.
Small Group Decision Making And Functional Perspective Theory
In the problem analysis phase of effective decision making, group members should recognize any obstacle that may arise that needs to be improved or changed and determine the characteristics, magnitude, and possible cause(s) of that obstacle confronting them. This phase lays the groundwork for what the group should be prepared for as they work together (Hirokawa & Salazar, 1999 p. 170).After analyzing the problem, the group should then discuss and establish goals and objectives in order to generate proposed solutions of
The Decision Making Under Uncertainty
First of all in every Organizations Decision Making is much needed factor to grow in recent market. It depend on a company or organizations that how they use different strategies to making decision and organization growth.
Decision Making at the Executive Level Essay
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The focus of my term paper is the decision making process used by today's top-level managers. Top-level managers, such as Chief Executive Officers (CEOs), Chief Operations Officers (COOs), and Chief Financial Officers (CFOs), must make critical decisions on a daily basis. Their choices and the resulting outcomes affect the company, the employees, and the stakeholders. Due to the high importance of their decisions, the process they use to reach them merits a close examination.
Essay on The Strategic Planning Process
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The decision making process can also be divided into seven steps, where the first step will basically involve defining the problem. These steps allow for the main issue to be identified, and therefore the manager should make sure that it has been done correctly. After the problem identification stage, we can move forward and identify the limiting factors, and in this the manager should make use of all resources available to do it the best way. Some of the resources include information, time, personnel, equipment and supplies. Using this, managers can be able to identify the factors that might hinder them from achieving their goals.
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Decision Making Essay | Difference Between a Good Decision and a Bad Decision
October 18, 2021 by Prasanna
Decision Making Essay: Making decisions is an essential skill for many professions, but it’s also a skill that we need in our personal lives. We need to be able to make decisions not just for ourselves, but also for the people around us. The ability to make decisions is a skill that is mostly learned through experience. However, other ways to improve decision-making skills also exist – such as reading, researching, talking to other people as well as analyzing different sources of information.
Regardless, it is important to make decisions on your own. The first thing that you should do is to define the problem that you are trying to solve. You want to know why a decision is needed, what it will change about your life, and what’s important to you about the decision. After reviewing all of these factors, you should come up with some options for which way you want to go about solving the problem. In this essay, we shall explore the factors that influence the process of decision making as well as the repercussion of poor decision making.
You can also find more Essay Writing articles on events, persons, sports, technology and many more.
Difference Between a Good Decision and a Bad Decision
One of the most important things to do when making decisions is to know the difference between a good decision and a bad decision. The primary difference between a good decision and a bad decision is the impact that it has on your life. As the name suggests, a good decision is one that has a positive impact on your life, while a bad decision will have a negative impact on your life.
Moreover, good decisions will usually lead to more opportunities. However, when you make bad decisions, it can have repercussions which are not immediately apparent, but can have long lasting consequences. To sum up, a good decision is one that achieves the desired goal. A bad decision is one that does not achieve the desired goal or achieves it in an undesirable way.
Why is Being Able to Make Decisions Essential for Success?
If you are able to make decisions quickly, you are more likely to be successful. The ability to make decisions quickly has always been an important part of being a successful professional. One of the most important skills required for making decisions is the ability to accept uncertainty.
There will always be unknowns when it comes to making decisions. As much as we try, there may never be enough information when it’s time to make a choice. However, making successful decisions requires you to process and interpret large volumes of data. Doing so is an effective way to ensure that the decisions made are well-educated and informed. Moreover, in a world of increasing complexity, it can be overwhelmingly hard to make the right decisions, hence, data analysis is an excellent tool for decision makers to use.
How to Become a Better Decision Maker?
Each day we make a series of decisions, from what we have for breakfast to which job to apply for. But how can we make better decisions?
Here are a few tips to consider when making important decisions:
Define the Problem
Before you can make a decision, you need to understand the issue at hand. When faced with a problem, take some time to figure out what is going on and why this is an issue. Moreover, learn to think critically about the problem you are trying to solve.
Be Aware Of Your Personal Biases And Beliefs
One of the most dangerous biases we have as humans is our confirmation bias. This bias happens when we selectively search and interpret information to confirm our preexisting beliefs. Unfortunately, this bias is very common and can lead to poor decisions, such as not hiring a new employee because they don’t fit into a desired archetype.
You need to gather all the information you can on the problem. This starts with understanding the problem, but also includes your understanding of the context for this problem.
Consider alternatives and different perspectives
There are many benefits to being decisive, but there are also drawbacks. Remember to consider all points of view when making a decision. For example, you may think your idea is the best for the company, but if you provide feedback or ask others for their thoughts, they may give you new ideas that will better suit the company’s needs.
Take time to analyse and evaluate your decision
It can be difficult to think objectively and analyze your decision when you’re in a hurry, but it’s often helpful to take a step back and evaluate things more carefully. This is important because we might find new insights or different perspectives.
Tips to Consider When Making Decisions
Following are a few tips and points to consider when making an important decision:
- Ask yourself what outcome you require
- Consider what happens if you take action and also if you don’t
- Think about how much time and energy would be needed for the decision you need to make
- Consider the probability of achieving your desired outcome or goal if you take this course of action or if don’t take any action at all
- Think about the pros and cons associated with your chosen decision.
Biological Process and Mechanisms of Decision Making
Our brain controls most biological processes in our body. It is also responsible for controlling external factors like our intuition, past experiences, learning as well as decision making. Human emotional response is governed by two information-processing systems:
- Affective system: The affective system is a part of the human nervous system that is responsible for emotional arousal. Mechanisms in this system are not always logical and therefore less controllable. In other words, it’s the part of the brain that says “I’m hungry!” when you see a picture of a pizza or make you laugh when someone trips over their shoelace.
- Cognitive system : The cognitive system is activated when the person has to make a decision based on their thoughts. This system is more controlled and can override the affective system when making decisions. It’s vital to help control emotions, since it can affect how people make decisions.
These two systems are deeply intertwined with one another and impact cognition and the decision making process.
How the Environment Shapes our Decisions
Since the 1960s, environmental psychologists have proposed that our surroundings can affect our decisions, behaviors, and thoughts. These scientists have found that the physical environment may be an important factor in decreasing crime rates, increasing recycling, and improving academic performance. For instance, a study of 54 third graders found that children who were given a messy desk to work at were less likely to do their homework than children who were given perfectly neat desks. Many studies also showed that the environment in which an individual is brought up can influence certain behaviour. For example, a study by researchers from Cornell University found that there is a positive correlation between the wealth of an individual’s family and their academic performance. The study showed that families with incomes of $250,000 or more had an average GPA of 3.5 while the national average was 3.1. Other factors such as political uncertainty, economic instability or natural disasters can also hamper decision making processes.
Decision making skills are important for life, it is a skill that can help shape our futures. It influences how we spend our time, who we spend our time with, and what we do with the limited resources that we have. Moreover, we need to be able to make decisions not just for ourselves but also for the people around us. Hence, it is always better to be prepared and well-informed before making an important decision.
FAQ’s on Decision Making Essay
Question 1. What are the 5 stages of decision-making?
Answer: When making decisions, humans go through 5 specific stages. These stages are:
- recognition of the problem
- defining the problem
- generating possible solutions
- evaluating possible solutions
- choosing a solution
Question 2. Why is decision-making important?
Answer: Decision-making is one of the most important skills that everyone needs to have. It is the process of choosing between two or more things. Moreover, the decision that you make will have an effect on your life, so it’s important to do your research before making a decision.
Question 3. How to make a good decision?
Answer: In order to make a good decision, the individual should have the knowledge and skills to break down a problem into its constituent parts. They need to be creative in order to generate a range of possible solutions. They also need to be able to weigh the consequences of each solution and identify potential trade-offs. Finally, they need to implement a decision which is deemed feasible for the current problem.
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Essay on Decision-Making: Top 7 Essays | Management | Public Administration
Here is an essay on ‘Decision-Making’ for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Decision-Making’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Decision-Making
- Essay on the Problems of Rationality in Decision-Making
Essay # 1. Introduction to Decision-Making:
Of all the problems in management, the problem of decision-making is the most difficult. Even in ordinary life, ‘to do or not to do’ is one of the most important riddles that an individual faces before leaping to action. He runs about for advice and guidance, for consultations and suggestions and ultimately when he comes to take a decision, he gets too late and changes his mind.
This is what usually happens with most of us and in most of the cases. But can an organization take decisions the way we take? Can they keep things pending for long? In business, decisions have got to be quick and on time otherwise the enterprise shall soon be out of its gears.
In Public administration, however, decision-making is not as easy as in business, though here too, we can’t keep things pending indefinitely. In business we need quick and speedy decisions; in Public administration we need right decisions.
Effective management whether of private or public organization means, in the ultimate analysis, making right and responsible decisions. A good leader is the one who can decide, who can solve the problem ‘to do or not to do,’ and who can willingly undertake the responsibility for making decisions.
It is usually seen that even Ministers, when faced with public repercussion, pass the buck to the Cabinet to avoid personal responsibility for their decisions. In fact, responsibility is a burden which most of us do not carry well, which most of us are not willing to accept. But leadership means that decisions must be made and responsibility accepted. Management is impossible without the capacity and the willingness to decide.
Essay # 2. Characteristics of Decision-Making:
The following characteristics of decision may be noted:
(i) Decision-making is a process of selection and the aim is to select the best alternative;
(ii) Decision is aimed in achieving the objectives of the organisation;
(iii) Decision-making involves the evaluation of available alternatives;
(iv) Decision-making is a mental process;
(v) Decision-making involves rationality;
(vi) Decision-making is a continuous or on-going process.
Essay # 3. Factors in Decision-Making:
Millet refers to three aspects which must be considered in order to understand decision-making process.
(i) Personal Differences:
There are differences in the personal qualities of individuals which make some decisive and others indecisive. “We must observe the personal differences among men and women which enable some to be decisive and which make others indecisive. Common experience reveals that some individuals are willing to make choices and to abide by the consequences. Others prefer to avoid clear-cut choices, to temporize, to postpone, to hope that somehow, some way circumstances will intervene to make a choice unnecessary. We do not know now why there should be these differences among individuals or how extensive such differences may be.”
Perhaps, these differences among individuals are the result of social and professional environment in which they are nurtured. Opinion is veering round to the acceptance of the premise that intellectuals make no good administrators because they lack the capacity to make decisions.
Barnard has analyzed the “limitations of the intellectual” as threefold:
(a) He may be irresponsible (absent-minded and non-punctual);
(b) He may be non-decisive (ultra-careful, ultra-judicial in his examination of a problem, seeing so many aspects of it and so many possible consequences of a particular action that he cannot make up his own mind); and
(c) He may be non-persuasive (“queer”, uninterested in people).
(ii) Role of Knowledge:
Decision-making depends upon the availability of facts and the necessary data. “The careful accumulation of detailed facts, their analysis and interpretation, the use of broad concept of human and physical behaviour to predict future developments—all these elements in the use of knowledge enter into decision-making in varying degree”.
The really critical factors in the decision process, according to Simon, are:
(1) The availability of information and
(2) The computational capacities available to deal with the information.
(iii) Institutional and Personal Factors:
There are institutional limitations which circumscribe decision-making. “On the one hand, decision-making must consider the aspirations, traditions, and attitudes of the agency administering government work. On the other hand, there are personal predilections among administrators which also limit decision-making.” In a democratic society like ours, decisions are highly circumscribed because the administration has to carry people along with and not to exist in some sort of ‘ivory’ tower.
Who Makes Decisions?
Decision-making in any large-scale organization is a co-operative effort; it is a collective activity in which all levels in administration participate. In the words of Seckler-Hudson, “decision-making in government is a plural activity. One individual may pronounce the decision, but many contribute to the process of reaching the decision. It is a part of the political system.”
Although the announcement about a decision may come from a particular individual in the administration, it should be remembered that decisions are not arrived at as quickly and as speedily as lightning makes its frightening sound in the cloudy sky.
Decisions are the product of long deliberations to which many people and agencies participate. It may, however, be mentioned that the top administrator is a person who must have a final say, who must ultimately give the final word.
This is because of the fact that in the final analysis, it is he who has to own the burden of responsibility of the consequences of a particular decision.
The ancient witticism which says “that an administrator is a person who gets to know less and less about more and more until eventually he arrives at that happy state where he knows nothing about anything” does not hold good in respect of responsibility of the administrator.
As he rises up ladder, his functions decrease but his responsibility increases. As it is he alone who can see the enterprise as a whole, the power of final decision-making must rest with him.
Essay # 4. Bases of Decision-Making:
There are no fixed bases, nor there can be any, for decision-making. Much depends on the nature of decision to be taken and the nature of agency taking it. Of course, all decisions must be taken rationally and not emotionally or impulsively.
Seckler-Hudson provides a list of twelve factors which must be considered in decision-making:
(i) Legal limitations;
(vi) Internal morale;
(vii) Future as anticipated;
(ix) Pressure groups;
(xi) Nature of programme; and
We can only lay down one criterion, i.e., that every decision should be made objectively and not subjectively. In other words, bias or predilection should not enter in decision-making. Merits of the case should be the sole basis on which a decision should rest.
Essay # 5. Techniques of Making Decisions:
There are no universally accepted techniques of decision-making except that the problem should be carefully analyzed, studied and investigated before taking a decision on it. In fact, decision-making is a practical experience and can be learnt by actually taking to it.
One cannot learn music by reading literature on music alone. He has to take to practice on the instruments before he is able to produce the melodious notes. Similarly, the techniques of decision-making cannot be learnt by reading literature on the subject alone; it has to be practiced.
Terry lays down the following sequence of steps to facilitate decision-making:
(1) Determine what the problem is;
(2) Acquire general background information and different viewpoints about the problem;
(3) State what appears to be the best course of action;
(4) Investigate the proposition and tentative decisions;
(5) Evaluate the tentative decision;
(6) Make the decision and put it into effect; and
(7) Institute follow-up and, if necessary, modify decision in the light of results obtained.
Griffiths observes that “decisions are totally pragmatic in nature, that is, their value is dependent upon the success of the action which follows”.
Their effectiveness can be measured in terms of their action-orientation and goal-directed behaviour as well as the amount of efficiency with which decisions are taken. Decisions should ultimately find their utility in implementation. A decision brilliantly conceived may be worthless without effective implementation.
Essay # 6. Problems of Decision-Making:
Decision-making is a highly complex and difficult process.
Some of the problems which impede the process of decision-making are:
(i) Routine Taking Too Much Time:
It is revealed through a study of decision-making in public or business enterprises that routine takes too much of time with the result that decisions are either avoided or postponed.
Prof March through his research has proved that a person responsible both for routine work and long-term planning devotes greater share of his time on routine activities and this he calls “Gresham’s Law of Planning.” In his own words “In preliminary experiment, subjects were asked to handle a relatively simple administrative job.
The job involved three kinds of activities:
(i) Routine Communication:
They were to communicate to relevant clerks information on the current inventory levels in various warehouses.
(ii) Intermediate Planning:
They were to make any necessary reassignments of warehouses to groups of clerks so as to maintain an approximately equal work load in each group.
(iii) General Planning:
They were to suggest any other changes in procedure that might be appropriate. The subjects were told that each of the three jobs was equally important and should be given equal attention.
After a training period to allow the ‘executives’ to become accustomed to the task, the work load (the rate at which information on warehouses was received) was varied systematically. As the work load varied, we observed the proportion of communications dealing with routine activities as opposed to planning activities by the subjects.
Two results of this experiment are significant.
First, despite instructions to spend only one- third of the time on routine matters, subjects spent a good deal more than that even when the work load was relatively light.
Second, consistently as the work load increased, subjects spent a small proportion of their total time on planning activities. At peak loads, virtually no planning was evidenced.
(ii) Which Problem to be Solved First?
The second problem of decision-making is which problem should be solved first. It is usually seen that in a large-scale organisation, there are several problems, each looking more urgent than the other. The administrator finds it extremely difficult to determine the priority of these problems.
Sometimes, the problems are very heavy as in the case of planners of our country who have to determine priorities of various demands within the limited resources. Should there be more schools, hospitals or more industries and projects? These are the problems which not only take much of their time but also create a constant worry in them.
(iii) Lengthy Procedures:
Thirdly, decisions are delayed because of the lengthy procedures and other formalities attached to arriving at a decision. The whole procedure is circumlocutory and dilatory and it checks quick decisions. Even after all these formalities are complete, there is no certainty that the decision arrived at is a right decision.
Procedures are not computing machines that they always give the right decision.
In the words of P.M. Marx “It would be difficult in a large-scale organisation to point to a single decision of some consequence that is reached without being part of a specified operating method, pinned down by checks and balances, reviews and concurrences, supporting fields and staff papers……….. (But) the right decision must meet a higher test.
It must accord with the general interest, the constitutional spirit, and the moral principle. Nothing short of this will do.”
(iv) Problem of Bias in Decision-Making:
The problems mentioned above do have some solutions but the problem of bias in decision-making rarely finds solution. This is because of the nature of bias. Bias is generally invisible; it travels on wings which cannot be seen except when it is openly accepted as part of policy by an organisation of agency or government.
What is bias? In simple terms, it may be defined as a “swaying influence or undue leaning to one side.”
It may take two forms:
(i) Prejudice and
Prejudice is an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed before taking a decision without knowledge of reason. Predilection is a mental preference of a favourable predisposition towards a particular issue or matter or person. Both are irrational and may occur consciously or unconsciously.
Bias is conscious or deliberate when an individual or an agency willingly develops it as part of policy; it is unconscious when it develops without the willing response from the individual or agency. There can develop a general bias also as most of us have developed against the police in our country.
Bias should not be confused with unethical acts such as favouritism, corruption, nepotism, etc. These vices are deliberately developed whereas bias is generally unconscious. A distinction should also be made between ‘official bias’ and ‘personal bias’.
‘Official bias’ is developed as a part of policy and is inherent in the duty imposed on authority whereas it becomes ‘personal bias’ when that authority uses it in favour of, or against, some individual or groups of individuals.
It may also be mentioned here that bias is relative to time and place because it is generally connected with values and traditions. As our values and traditions change, bias also changes. We must admit that the old bias we had against the backward classes is almost disappearing today.
(a) Finding Out Bias:
It is very difficult to exactly locate bias. Of course, there are certain ways by which we can find out, if not exactly, to some extent, whether a particular authority has acted impartially and without bias.
First, we have to see that proper rules have or have not been followed in decision-making.
Second, we have to find whether decision has been taken subjectively or objectively.
Third, we have to see whether the act or decision of an authority can be justified before an impartial tribunal or not. Through the application of these tests, we can make some rough estimate as to whether a decision is free or not from bias.
The situations wherein bias can find a convenient place are:
(i) Where the official has the discretion to decide;
(ii) Where there are no established procedures, rules and norms;
(iii) Where the authority has both executive and judicial functions;
(iv) Where administration has regulatory powers;
(v) Where the situation is abnormal, i.e., in times of emergency;
(vi) In smaller communities.
(b) Causes of Bias:
Bias can develop on account of many causes; lack of education and training, strict adherence to rules and regulations leading to bias for red-tape, fear of external repercussions to a decision, caste, class, community, religion, language, region, province, group attachments, party affiliations, ideology, profession, value attitudes, etc.
(c) Elimination of Bias:
The word ‘bias’ is used almost as a filthy word in the dictionary of administration but actually this should not be so. All bias is not bad. It is only the unhealthy bias which is undesirable and should be eliminated.
If we are developing a constructive bias, as for example, bias in favour of preferential service to the Jawans or to their widows or bias in favour of backward classes, it is a healthy bias and need be developed and acquired.
In the field of law, unhealthy bias is eliminated to the extent that principles of justice provide that:
(i) No man shall be a judge in his own case; and
(ii) Justice should not only be done but manifestly and undoubtedly seem to have been done.
These principles are now well established in administrative adjudication but in pure administration, we have yet to devise these types of principles. The Americans have developed the ‘conflict of interest’ clause which prevents public officials including ministers from taking decisions on matters in which they have interests.
In our country too, this clause is getting well established. It is on account of this fact that rules and regulations are constantly being framed to keep the civil servants free from outside pressures, of pecuniary and non-pecuniary gains so that their actions may not be coloured by unhealthy bias.
An amendment to the All India Service (conduct) Rules, 1954, provided that “no member of the services shall, except with the previous sanction of Government, permit his son, daughter or dependent to accept employment with private firms, with which he has official dealings, or with other firms having official dealing with Government.”
It is for the same reason that High Court Judges are not allowed to practice before the same court after their retirement and the Comptroller and Auditor General is not allowed to hold any remunerative post after retirement.
(d) Provisions and Safeguards for the Eradication of Bias in Decision-Making:
The Universities also provide safeguards against bias of the examiners to the examinees by issuing them confidential answer-books, by refusing appointments as examiners to persons who have any interest in any of the examinees appearing in the same examination.
To quote a University regulation “No person shall be appointed as paper-setter in any paper for an examination, if any of his son or her close relations intends to appear at that examination in that paper-the term close relations includes wife, husband, son, daughter, grandson, grand-daughter, brother, sister, nephew, niece, grand-nephew, grand-niece, uncle, aunt, first cousin, son-in- law, daughter-in-law, brother-in-law, and sister-in-law.
Before setting the paper, the paper-setter should inform the Registrar by name, if he is the author of a book or booklet on the subject and the standard for which the book can be utilised.”
Thus every effort is made to eliminate the possibilities of bias entering into decision-making and in the execution of policy. There already exist several provisions and safeguards for the eradication of bias in decision-making but still we can mention a few more which can help officials in arriving at rational decisions.
(i) Simplification of Procedures:
Lengthy and cumbersome procedures, unnecessary rules and regulations open up the gates for bias. It is, therefore, essential that improved rules of procedure should be established and useless regulations be weeded out. In this connection, the activities of Organisation and Management should be speeded up.
(ii) Limited Use of Board-Type Organisations:
Limited use of board-type organisation can help to reduce the making of arbitrary decisions, for in this type of organisation authority is diffused among a group of persons, each person preventing the other to act with a bias. This type of organisation is very useful where the agency exercises quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial powers or where such matters like the recruitment to public services are involved.
(iii) Use of Consultative Bodies:
Consultative and advisory bodies are very useful as they help to arrive at right decisions. They provide mines of information and represent different points of view regarding a particular policy. Their suggestions can be filtered and incorporated in a policy before a final decision is taken.
(iv) Conflict of Interest Clause:
This clause should be extended to administrative officials to help them maintain their impartiality and neutrality in their official dealings. No official should be allowed to decide on matters in which he has any interest, pecuniary or non-pecuniary.
(v) Protection from External Pressures:
The officials must be safeguarded against external pressures so as to enable them to take right decisions. We, in India, are witnesses to the increasing pressures and pulls under which our officials have to work.
Pressures from Ministers, Members of the Legislatures, political party chiefs, workers’ unions and several other official and non-official organisations are exerted on the officials. This tendency is certainly bad as it curbs initiatives and independence of the officials, and must be nipped.
(vi) Publicity of Decisions:
Much of the bias in decision-making can be checked if proper publicity is given to the reasons for taking a decision.
Such publicity is very important for the regulatory activities of administration. If, for example, the official records are open to public scrutiny and the officials are required to defend the positions they took, they will be more conscious in making decisions for otherwise they will have to bear the brunt of public criticism.
(vii) Education and Training:
Last but not the least important is the proper education and training of officials. They must be properly educated and trained in the art of making right decisions.
Our Government has already started training programmes for the civil servants but they are not sufficient nor do they cover all officials who are involved in the actual implementation of policies on the ‘firing line’. It is, therefore, essential that these training programmes are expanded and their scope enlarged.
There is also, an urgent need to educate our public. In India, not merely the officials but the general public too are biased. It cannot help the general public to always look to the officials through coloured glasses. This hardens the attitude of administration towards public which is not in any way a healthy development.
Essay # 7. Problem of Rationality in Decision Making:
The question of decision-making has long pre-occupied the decision-theorists. There are mainly three components of decision-making. First, the decision-maker is forced with a problem which he analyses and tries to comprehend. Second, he has a number of alternatives to solve the problem. Third, he chooses one of the alternatives which according to him, will produce the best results.
The question is why does the decision-maker choose one alternative not another? In other words, what is a rational choice? In this context we shall briefly describe Simon’s Theory of Decision Making.
Herbert Simon was born in 1916 in Wisconsin (U.S.A.). He receiving Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Chicago. He has written about 600 papers and 20 books. In recognition of his outstanding contribution in analyzing the decision making process he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1970.
His book ‘Administrative behaviour in (1947) is considered one of the most influential books on social science thinking.
The main contribution of Simon lies in the field of organisational behaviour. He equates ‘Administration’ with decision making. According to him, decision-making involves choice between alternative plans of action and choice in turn involves facts and values. A fact is a statement of reality while values an expression of preference. One must be rational in making a choice but total rationality in decision making is not possible.
According to him rationality is limited because of incompleteness of knowledge, lack of perfect anticipation and other psychological reasons. As such the administrator has to be content with ‘satisfactory’, ‘good enough’ alternatives. Most of the decisions are, therefore, ‘satisficing’ Simon called it “Branded Rationality’.
Simon considers rationality as “the selection of preferred behaviour alternatives in terms of values whereby the consequences of behaviour can be evaluated”. He further points out that ‘a decision may be called objectively rational if in fact it is the correct behaviour for maximizing given values in a given situation.
It is subjectively rational if it maximizes attainment relative to the actual knowledge of the subject. It is consciously rational to the degree that the adjustment of means to ends is a conscious process. It is deliberately rational to the degree that adjustment of means to ends has been deliberately brought about (by the individual or by the organisation).
A decision is organizationally rational if it is oriented to the organization’s goals, it is personally rational if it is oriented to the individual’s goals.
Simon is of the view that objective rationality is impossible. What exactly can be achieved in a situation is subjective rationality. As opposed to the concept of economic man evolved by classical economic theorists, he has presented the concept of administrative man.
The decision of economic man is directed to maximum profit. It is completely rational in the means-ends sense. He is fully aware of all possible alternatives and their consequences. Probability calculations are neither frightening nor mysterious to him.
On the other hand, the administrative man:
(i) In choosing between alternatives, tries to satisfy or look for the one which is satisfactory or good enough;
(ii) Recognizes that the world he perceives is a drastically simplified model of the real world;
(iii) Can make his choices without first determining all possible alternatives and ascertaining that these in fact are all the alternatives because he satisfies, rather than maximizes;
(iv) Is able to make decisions with relative simplicity because he treats the world rather as empty.”
Thus administrative man tries to be rational and satisficing, rather than maximizing. He does not work on the basis of perfect knowledge which is mostly a real situation. A human being will choose an alternative which fulfills certain satisficing conditions or which satisfies in order to achieve as much maximization as possible.
The economic man is not a realistic description of modern management decision-making behaviour. He is an automation, stripped bare of any of the human characteristics that will real men possess.
However, the difference between administrative man and economic man is one of relative degree because under some conditions, satisficing may be maximizing, whereas in other conditions, satisficing and maximizing are poles apart. There are many social, economic and organisational variables that influence the degree to which satisficing becomes maximizing.
Administrative man model represents the real situation of decision-making behaviour. As against this, economic man model presents a very hypothetical position. As such, the administrative man model holds good for managerial decision-making behaviour.
That is why others also have emphasized this model both in economic theory as well as in organisation theory. Among these others the notable thinkers are Cyert and March, Chamberlain, Joel Dean, and R.A. Gordon.
Simon also points out that every decision consists of a logical combination of fact and value propositions. A fact is a statement indicating what the product is was or has been. On the other hand, value is an expression of preference.
Every decision, according to Simon, is made up of several fact statements and one or more value statements. To illustrate his point Simon has given the example of a war attack. Suppose a commander wants to decide on the method of attack.
The value proposition with which he starts is: I should attack; to attack the enemy one must do it successfully. This is a value statement. The ‘fact’ statement is: An attack is successful only when carried out under conditions of surprise. There is another fact statement—the conditions of surprise are concealment of the time and place of attack.
Combining these statements you get a decision set the time and place of attack value statement Attack successfully—is a value statement of the first order. Decision on time and place is a value statement of the second order.
A value statement which one begins with, is a value statement of first order, and the subsequent one is of the second order. It may also be noted that decision-making is influenced by personal value system of the decision-maker. He projects his values to others and often falsely assumes that groups either within or outside their own organisations share the same values as he does.
In his analysis of decision-making, Simon employs two terms—programmed decisions and un-programmed decisions. A programmed decision is one in which a certain programme exists in our mind or on paper which automatically gives us the solution.
Every bureaucratic rule or regulation is a programme and every application of a programme gives us a programmed decision. An un-programmed decision is one for which there are not any precedence or rules and regulations to direct us. The decision is to be worked out personally.
It may be emphasized that despite the recent advances in decision-making theory and decision-making studies, it has not been possible to ensure complete rationality in decision-making. The decision-making mechanism puts a limit on the rationality of decision. The decision maker just does not have full knowledge of all alternatives and their consequences.
The limits of human mind cannot make exact predictions of future events and consequences of various alternatives. At best the most probable alternative providing a certain amount of satisficing can be chosen. Further, human factors such as personal value systems, perception of problems, social and economic factors and limitations in human processing are a major source of limit on rationality in decision-making.
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Decision-Making Process: Stages and Basic Principles
Personal or professional, decision-making is always tough and requires step by step approach. Before making a decision, different alternatives are considered and they depend on the importance of the decision to take. After finding different alternative solutions, they are analyzed to choose the best alternative (Mellers, Schwartz, & Cooke, 1998, p. 448).
I should begin by stating that planning without problem-solving or decision-making criteria will hardly make a dent in goal achievement. Managers must make a series of decisions about how to solve various problems of how to control the resources of the organization. The decisions that are made can be programmed or non-programmed. Non-programmed decisions are those that are not routine and complex in nature because the problem may be new. For instance, virtually all strategic decisions are no-programmed. Programmed decisions, on the other hand, are routine in nature and are made by lower managerial levels. While strategic decisions of a non-routine nature are dealt with by the top managers (Lawler and Galbraith 1994 p.6-17).
The steps to decision-making begin with identifying and diagnosing a problem as for instance, why former customers stopped buying from the company. It is essential that the management identifies the exact nature of the problem, so as to address the same. For instance, employee turnover in a company may not be necessarily due to lower remuneration of the workers but due to inflexible working hours and increasing their wages hardly solves the problem. A good decision-maker looks for alternative solutions before making the decision; if the decision-maker does not look for an alternative then he is a poor decision-maker. This requires digging down the problem to its genesis. The alternative solutions for the problem of raising money for a company, for instance, could be borrowing money from the bank or raising money from friends and family members. The managers should get over the tendency of saying yes to most of the alternatives as this strategy results in ambiguous outcomes. Converting the decision into action is the next major step, for a decision is not really a decision until it is implemented (Mellers et al, 1998, p. 447-462).
It must be understood that decision-making is not always rational. This is due to the fact of bounded rationality. Partly because of bounded rationality decision-makers use a simplified strategy known as heuristics that is akin to the rule of thumb in decision making.
Decision made by an organization
Marketing decision making.
Sales were decreasing at a faster rate in my company. A good marketing decision was required to be made. I had to consider a number of options available to restore the company’s market share. Various buyers were contacted so that they can give their views on the products. This gave the buyers a chance to create the products that they really desired to have. This was to help find a workable plan to be introduced or not. Before changing the marketing plan or introducing the market plan, there was a need for a marketing strategy. There was a successful marketing strategy for our product. The approach employed to market was based on the four Product mixes and the target market:
The product:- our product was one of the unique brands in that it contained a diversity of goods. It contains and an assortment of ground coffee, filter paper and beans. Product diversification has been enhanced, and thus the plan of changing the marketing plan was a necessity. There was a concern that complications of the production of portion packs with the two-cup approach would affect inventory levels and warehousing as well as customer dissatisfaction. It was considered that color distinction was necessary if the two-cup approach was chosen, though the two colors chosen would be easily confused by the buyer.
The Place:- We had a very vigorous marketing team such that they had so much penetrated into the market. The good services that we offered had also given us a good reputation in the industry. Our distribution team was doing so well and has also contributed to their success in the at-home market.
Later we started facing major problems in the market. Apart from competition that was very stiff, the company also lacks efficient ways of distribution. This is because its distribution channel is very poor. The management has with time employed other means of performing sales and one major way that is used is called e-commerce.
Promotion:- Various ways of succeeding in sales have been employed by these companies. One major style that does really well is the use of discounts. Other means exist some of which entail giving free gifts like sweets or other related groceries. Another related package that works to benefit both the client and the business is the free delivery of goods whenever a client buys goods above some value. This works to bring more sales to the company and also to reduce the cost on the side of the client.
There are also two promotional activities that our company offered to their buyers in order to increase their customer-base that is: a promotional offer as a referral program- were a first-time buyer who purchases the product or a brewer online, types in the name of the person who referred them. Another discount mechanism used is the utilization of the point of purchase site.
Pricing:- The company has control over the products because it can adjust its discounts and pricing policies. Pricing based on the consumption survey seemed to be like the ideal price to be $0.55 per cup. The home portion pack has a constant price setting. This constant is fixed irrespective of whether there is a two or one-cup strategy in use. This price setting is at $ 0.55.
I carried SWOT analysis for the company product to help come up with a new marketing plan.
The new marketing plan
In making a decision I found out to be prudent to maintain both direct and indirect channels in the at-home market. One brand had also created various strategies to keep close relationships that will be a good bedrock towards success. Such relationships also overlap with the employment relationship within the firm such that everyone is counted equal.
The price: Pricing the brewer is a main concern of the company. Based on the sales projections, breakeven point and cost-benefit analysis are changed to price high and lower later. One of the company’s main objectives in the future should be to not only lower brewer costs but to also create partnerships with high-end retailers to sell the product. It was first sold in the market at $ 0.55 and this was subject to changes as one purchased more products.
This pricing was determined by adding the cost of producing one unit of an item plus what the company desires to get as a contribution margin. A brand refers to the name, design or symbol that is intended to identify and differentiate the product of a company from that of competitors. This increased sales after 4 months of its introduction. This was one of the best decisions I made while I was the marketing manager in my company.
The boy next door was so good to me; every time I had a problem he was there to assist me. One day we went out to play together, little did I know the boy had other plans for me. While playing in the fields the boy teased and told me how beautiful I was.
He requested me to be his intimate friend. Without thinking of many options available thank the boy for his kindness I agreed to have sex with him the following day. At 4 p.m. the following day I went to his home and we locked ourselves in his bedroom.
This premarital sex has remained an issue in my life until today. Due to the fact that this society deals with different forms of liberated actions, even young adults are capable of doing such acts that are ‘prohibited’ at an early age. This is because I become pregnant and eventually a teenage single mother.
A problem is an issue, a concern, or an obstacle that makes it difficult for someone to achieve an objective or something that he or she desires needs to be handled with care. Decision-making is therefore the process by which someone will attempt to work out through an obstacle that is standing in between him or her and the desired goal. It will thus involve mental processes that occur when one wants to move from the particular condition or circumstance to the desired state. A solution will help one move from the initial state through intermediate states to the desired goal that one strives to attain. One needs to examine the problem so as to come up with solutions that could be used in solving the problem. Ways that one could use so as to come up with solutions include using the means-end analysis, working backward, and difference reduction methods. These methods will enable one to develop solutions that are suitable for the problem at hand as they will draw from the problem representations that were developed (Mellers et al, 1998, p. 447-472).
Using a means-end analysis involves coming up with sub-goals that will bridge up the big difference between the state that one is at and the final destination that one wants to be at; working backward where one will look at the final state or goal that he or she wants to achieve and then work backward from that point; and difference reduction where one finds an appropriate operator that will enable him or her to move closer to the desired goal as ones evaluate the progress made so far along the way (Christensen-Szalanski, 1978, p. 309-312).
Organization Decision Table
Personal decision table.
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The Decision Making Process
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A decision is an act of reaching a conclusion in one’s mind. The decision making process is a cognitive process that results in the selection of one proposed idea over another. In order for the decision making process to be productive, a careful planning process must take place. Planning is important to decision making because it helps to define the purpose, goals, and scope of the decision. Ensuring that the person making the decision “Ask, Acquire, Appraise, Apply, and Assess” the entire situation is essential, Making decisions on evidence-based research and with the best interest of the organization tends to give the best results.
Types of Plans
Strategic planning is used by organizations to establish their goals, define their strategies, and make decisions. Strategic plans incorporate the formulation and implementation of various processes. Organizational plans are specific to an organization’s goals in a particular organizational area. It lists a plan of work, programs affected, and time frame for accomplishing these goals.
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Specific plans are veritable tools used for implanting general policies without substantial legal challenge to the nature of their cause. Objectives are straight forward. In situations when flexibility in warranted, directional plans are used. Directional plans are flexible and provide managers with a set of general guidelines but do not lock managers into a particular course of action.
Before any decision can be made, part of the planning process includes setting goals. Goals should be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time bound). Goals serve as a basis for grouping people, organizations, and ideas.
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Specific goals are focused and state exactly what the organization believes it needs to accomplish. Not only do goals need to descriptive and focus, but they also need to be written so that they can be readily understandable by all those involved. Measurable goals are quantifiable. They address important questions such as how many and how much. The goal should be challenging but realistic and attainable. Attainable goals allow for flexibility. Short-term goals should be relevant to long-term goals. Any goal adopted and implemented by an organization should advance the mission and vision of the organization. Ensuring that the goals that are set are reached in a reasonable time is imperative. Goals should have a beginning, end, and intermediate points for evaluation.
Decision Making Process
In most local and state health departments, decisions are currently being made as to how to better serve underprivileged people, many of whom speak different languages and embody various cultures. If I had any influence in this decision making process, I would begin by assessing patient needs. I would also want to evaluate the employee needs. I would incorporate the expertise of multiple physicians, family values, availability of resources in the community. After analyzing all data collected I would establish a plan (See Figure1: The Five As in the Decision Making Process). The evaluation process would determine if my decision and implementation of alternative plans were making a difference in both patient satisfaction and employee morale. When it comes to making a decision, the first thing is to ask what the needs are for the organization.
It is then necessary to acquire information. The research based evidence will provide the data for making these determinations. Appraising the situation and determining how the decisions you make will not only affect you but also how it will impact the organization as a whole is as necessary as a first step in the decision making process. Once you have considered both the potential negative and positive impacts, it is time to apply your decision. After the decision has been applied, it must be accessed to determine if the goals and mission of the organization are truly being obtained. Using this evidence based research to make decisions will ultimately provide this organization with a more successful future.
Making a decision and successfully implementing that decision requires various steps and hard work. These plans must remain flexible but must also align with the organization’s goals and missions. Goal setting requires three things: reviewing the organization’s mission; evaluating available resources, and obtaining the goals by writing them down and effectively communication these goals with those involved. Because the utilization the 5 “As” is evidence based, it may assist with eliminating any conflicts they may arrive. Managers need to focus on sound decision making processes to enhance the planning process and consistently reach organizational goals.
Grey, K.D. (2014, January). 5 Steps to good decision making. Corporate Wellness Magazine. Liebler, MA, MPA, RHIA, J., & McConnell, MBA, CM, C.R. (2012). Management principles for health professionals (6th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. Robins, S.P. & Coulter, M. (2012). Management (11th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
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Decision Making Essay
Introduction Decision-making is an indispensable facet of modern management. It is a primary function of management. A manager's major job is rational decision-making. He takes hundreds of decisions consciously and subconsciously. Decision-making is the key part of the manager's activities. Decisions are important as they determine both management and organizational actions. A decision may be defined as “a course of action which is consciously chosen from among a set of alternatives to achieve a desired result.” It represents a well-balanced judgment and a commitment to action. It is justly supposed that the first important function of management is to get decisions on problems and spots. Way and closures are united together through decision making. To decide intends to arrive at some clear conclusion for catch up activity. The decision is a choice from around a set of choices. The statement "decision" is inferred from the Latin words kick the bucket size, which signifies 'a removing or a cutting off or in a handy sense' to reach a conclusion. Decisions are made to accomplish objectives through suitable catch up activities. Decision making is a procedure by which a choice blueprint is taken. Decision making falsehoods inserted at the present time administration. This clearly hints that decision-making is necessary in planning, organizing, directing, controlling and staffing. For example, in planning other choice plans are prepared to meet different possible situations. Out of such other choice plans, the best one (i.e., plan which most appropriate under the available business environment) is to be selected. Here, the organizer needs to take right choice. Decision making is the center of arranging capacity. In the same way, choic... ... middle of paper ... ...iendship, to avoid conflict, afraid of being boycotted and others. In the end, the discussion cannot be made rationally and it affects the decision making. Conclusion In my conclusion, nominal group technique is used for a meeting with a small group of participants with the aim of producing and prioritizing ideas about a particular topic. The procedure helps organizers and directors in captivating chose stakeholders to take an interest in a gainful discussion and to make plans before choices are made or projects are created. Besides, the ostensible gathering method for doing things is utilized to help assertion getting ready for the motivation behind prioritizing issues. Furthermore, these methods for doing things could be connected when you need to guarantee to all parts take an interest unreservedly without negative impact from different members.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that group decision-making methods include brainstorming, dialectical inquiry, nominal group technique, and the delphi technique.
- Describes nominal group technique as a structured decision-making process in which group members are required to compose an exhaustive list of their ideas or proposed other choices in writing.
- Describes the delphi technique, which is a group decision-making process that can be used when the individual members are in different physical locations.
- Explains that people are given writing paper and silently write down their ideas in a few words.
- Describes a round-robin approach where each group member presents, but does not discuss, the first idea on his or her inclination. the facilitator then asks each person for their second idea.
- Explains that the facilitator reads each idea and asks if there are questions, interpretations, or explanations.
- Explains that the facilitator calls for each person to write down, in a few minutes, the ideas that seem particularly significant.
- Recommends letting them know that the discussion had drifted; usually they will quickly return to the topic.
- Compares what one person says to another's ideas. "it sounds like you're adding to what abu said."
- Analyzes how the person accepts ideas and asks if they could develop the idea more.
- Recommends letting people know when someone has been cut off, and then allowing them to finish what they were saying.
- Summarizes feelings as well as content: "joe, you seem disturbed about something..."
- Opines that it is important to clarify the decision the group needs to reach so people don't waste time on other things.
- Urges members to let members know when it may be time to move on to the next problem or agenda item.
- Recommends breaking big problems into workable pieces and dealing with each part separately.
- Concludes that nominal group technique helps organizers and directors in captivating stakeholders to take an interest in a gainful discussion and to make plans before choices are made or projects are created.
- Explains that decision-making is an indispensable facet of modern management. it is the key part of the manager's activities.
- Explains that brainstorming is a useful way to create other choices, but does not offer much in the way of process for the evaluation of other options.
- Explains nominal group process is used in health, social service, and education fields, as well as industry and government, to maximize participation in group problem solving.
- Explains that participants rate each item from no importance (0) to top priority (10). the organizer's job is to make inquiries, make proposals, stay informed regarding the primary plan, and choose if and when individuals are primed to settle on a choice
- Opines that voting is anonymous, there are chances for equivalent support of gathering parts and preoccupations incorporated with other assembly routines are dealt with something essential as irrelevant.
- Explains that decision-making is the most important function of management. it creates proper background for the first management activity called planning.
- Explains that group decision making has many advantages, but it also has certain disadvantages.
- Explains that decision making is the process of making choices amongst the available alternatives/information to get a desired objective. not all decisions are always 'correct', as it depends on the nature of the information.
- Explains that professional managers, in their routine life, are supposed to make different types of decisions. decisions can be made at various times in various ways and at different moments.
- Explains that strategic decision making helps the decision maker or the organization to get a direction in achieving their mission, vision, long-term goals, develop plans and strategies that can be used along with the resources to achieve it.
- Explains that these decisions are usually for the long-term, for which predictions are not always very accurate.
- Opines that all the information about the key variables for this type is not available, and if it is available it's not complete.
- Describes the implication of this on the organization, which may result in disastrous outcome and organization may be dissolved.
- Explains that this type of decision is taken to support the strategic decision. it is usually used for medium-range in respect to significance and time which results in reasonable outcomes for the organization.
- Explains that tactical decisions have a short-term impact and involve low cost; they are often made with low efforts as the organizations rules and policies are taken under consideration.
- Explains how the group/team builds up, shares, analyses ideas, and agrees upon a decision after consulting everyone. this approach takes more time in decision than when not done in groups.
- Explains that the professional uses the competencies of his group to get and evaluate alternatives, but the final decision is taken by his own judgment after taking the views of other colleagues.
- Explains that the group members handle the decision making process, while the manager is also included. the good judgment of participation results in commitments and motivation of a higher order.
- Explains that a normative model is typical to the decision making model of the corporate planning and management science.
- Explains that decision-making begins with a problem or situation to be solved. all other steps are dependent on this one.
- Explains that the decision-making process cannot be ended due to time and cost limitations. if the manager is satisfied with the alternatives, he may put an end to this part to move forward.
- Explains that all the available alternatives with favorable and unfavorable consequences should be analyzed and then compared with one another or against the desired objective.
- Explains the process of critical thinking requires you to ask more questions of both others and of yourself before a decision or determination is made.
- Explains that browne, keely, mccall and kaplan refer to critical thinking as a "systematic evaluation of arguments based on explicit rational criteria."
- Explains that making a decision for many is disconcerting, while for others, it is second nature. decisions are streams of choices.
- Explains that decision-making is rarely the logical, rational, systematic process suggested by management textbooks. it does not unfold in identifiable stages where a problem is defined, alternative solutions are generated, the alternatives are weighed against
- Opines that an effective manager must understand both critical thinking and the decision making process, and utilize these tools in conjunction with their innate knowledge of their business and its special needs.
- Opines that critical thinking and decision-making are inseparable and that one should utilize every tool available to make an informed decision.
- Agrees with s on the definition and use of critical thinking and decision making skills.
- Explains that they have a unique insight into the communication process at the university of xyx. if critical thinking skills were taught to employees, many of the issues brought to their office could be avoided.
- Explains that critical thinking is a precursor to making an informed, educated, and unbiased decision. anyone who wishes to enhance their skills would benefit from paying close attention to what they have heard and read and then asking critical questions.
- Opines that decision-making is one of the most important topics or factors in any group/team. it is usually not an easy process, as decisions are complex and involve multiple factors.
- Opines that teams need to embrace even small decisions to try to make the best choice possible, at all times. having more experience will make quick decisions easier.
- Explains that mike's work teams make decisions at many levels, and in many situations. working on projects continuously requires quick action and that action will call for many different types of decisions.
- Explains that special projects in the workplace are designed/implemented just for customers, so teams need to understand the direct customer impact. this pressure places important decision making tasks to the teams.
- Explains that certain teams may require special emphasis on specific steps of the decision-making process, such as gathering information/ideas, analyzing ideas, and collecting data.
- Opines that problem solving is a vital component of decision making as both concepts correlate strongly with one another.
- Opines that it is important to identify and deal with situations where an intervention is needed, such as poor team performance or groupthink.
- Opines that if a work group is having trouble agreeing on decisions, this can lead to loss of cohesiveness and poor team work, which leads to poor performance.
- Explains that conflicting personalities, new people working together, power differentials, or one member trying to push their ideas on everybody else can lead to poor decision-making. groupthink can cause issues.
- Opines that improvements should be welcomed in any field of communication, team relations, or systems. interventions can be seen as a safeguard to make sure the proper decision is reached.
- Explains that making decisions is an important part of our everyday life, but they depend on the effectiveness of the decision-making process. poor decisions lead to inability to achieve set objectives.
- Describes their decision to pursue organization leadership as a means to transform their future career despite it being costly.
- Outlines the key sections of the paper that reflect upon previous work done to evaluate decision framing, intelligence gathering, and conclusion.
- Analyzes how daniel kahneman aims to improve people's way of decision-making by helping them learn some of the frequent errors and ways they can influence poor decisions.
- Explains that kahneman (2011) discusses the effects of emotions and the need to make a good impression on others, in individual decision-making.
- Analyzes how daniel's work complements winning decisions by schoemake and russo (2002) in various ways.
- Explains that using different sources to research about the same subject helps in getting a broad view of the consequences and benefits.
- Analyzes the relationship between critical thinking and the decision-making process, explaining what the textbook authors believe and relate how both apply to today's workplace.
- Explains that critical thinking involves the ability to weigh evidence, examine arguments, and construct rational bases for generally accepted beliefs.
- Explains that a good manager does not distinguish between "critical thinking" and "decision-making" when working. he employs both to arrive at the solution.
- Explains that the six steps to critical thinking and decision making are ineffective when applied in today's business environment. they suggest case study and specific dissection of past decisions is the best way to learn how to make future decisions.
- Explains that in their field of work, decisions must be made as to time management, importance of curriculum vs. methodology, and allocation of skill acquisition importance.
- Explains that a team leader's job is to make decisions that benefit the team and the whole company. communication and interpersonal skills of the group members influence the decision.
- Explains that in one decision making style, the leader makes the decision without consulting the group and takes complete responsibility for the outcome. when overly used, it has a number of disadvantages.
- Explains the advantages and disadvantages of a team leader's decision-making style.
- Explains that consensus by the whole group is a style of team decision-making where all members are involved, and the leader is not individually responsible for the outcome.
- Explains that decision-making is a process of diverging to explore possibilities and converging on solutions. it reduces doubt and uncertainty about alternative choices to allow individuals to choose the best reasonable choice.
- Analyzes the different decision-making processes used by 's work environments. data gathering, surveying, and other techniques are used to build individual support.
- Opines that when using a process for decision making, one should look at both the positive and the negative sides of each process.
- Concludes that the presented material was based on different scenarios that required different purposes. each scenario in each workplace may use multiple ways to find an overall solution.
- Explains langdon, k., and smart things to know about decision making, an introduction to the decision-making process.
- Explains that each organization has its own style of decision-making processes that work for them. janelle's method of surveying is beneficial in that it allows one to remain anonymous.
- Describes the four principles of effective leadership that will be described in the essay.
- Explains that to be an effective leader, a leader must have an extrovert personality. they can easily make friends compared to the introvert.
- Describes how dr.voon formed them into five peer learning groups (plgs) in their first tutorial of leadership and organization dynamics.
- Explains tukman's model of group development, which is the process of information gathering and exploratory stage which putting people into a group.
- Explains the theory of leadership, which recommends that leaders should adjust their leadership style based on the follower they are leading and the information of the task.
- Explains that a leader must be able to delegate authority. mary kay ash mentioned that people need recognition and praise more than sex and money.
- Explains that a leader must make the follower feel they are important and appreciated. they must learn to praise others and be able to take criticisms.
- Explains that muizzuddin acts as a good listener in the group. he treats all of the members as true partners, listening to our feedback and accepting the criticisms.
- Explains that behavioural theory is the leadership theory that concerns on a person’s life of reinforcements and punishments as the reason for his/her behaviour.
- Opines that as a leader, they should be able to bring every member to get to know each other and break the ice when the group is formed.
- Explains that a leader must be able to make decisions and take responsibility for the consequences.
- Explains that an effective leader must be able to maximize the potential ability of the followers. a transformational leader is enthusiastic, active and with a high emotional intelligence.
- Explains that to be an effective leader, a leader must have an extrovert personality, be able to delegate authority, make decisions and take responsibility for the consequences.
- Opines that personal attributes play a big role in the maximization of the company profits and success.
- Explains that every organization aims to increase its boundaries, market base, and profits. meeting the expectations of the client will ensure brand loyalty and an increase in the market range.
- Opines that embracing change is one of the most vital aspects learnt in formal and informal business settings.
- Opines that understanding markets, customers, and company goals is a core starting point for individuals who ply their trade in the organization.
- Explains the importance of organization strategy in the production division of an organization.
- Opines that decision making is a key aspect of any operations docket. project managers are delegated with duties and responsibilities regarding communications, quality, cost, and time.
- Explains that managerial economics provides a logical and experiential framework for analyzing the question such as "what or how much should i produce, and for whom?", or "should i try to retail or whole sale?"
- Explains that managerial decisions are an important component in achieving the objectives of the organization.
- Explains that managerial economics encompasses all the problems and areas of management and a firm. decision-making, forecasting, demand analysis, capital management, and profit management are considered.
- Explains that managerial economics is concerned with economic theory and tools of analysis, which are directly related in the process of decision-making.
- Decision making software
The decision-making process is choosing among two or more courses of action for a given situation. Making decisions is a part of everyday life. Some consider it an art, others a proficiency. Decisions may be personal or professional, but, in each case, the choices will often have lasting consequences. In other words, the decisions we make have the potential to affect ourselves and others in the short and long term. Therefore, it is valuable to possess a skill set that will allow you to reflect and weigh alternatives -- finally electing the option that is the most appropriate for each situation.
Experts and laymen, alike, have offered a wealth of suggestions about how to become an accomplished decision maker. Some advocate an elementary approach, such as creating a mental checklist that is habitually referred to when the individual is faced with choices. Others prefer to implement a much more highly complex set of procedures that should end in optimal results. In this article both concepts will be incorporated. In this case, the decision-making process will be separated into four steps, with explanations of how they can be applied in formal and informal situations. This will allow the reader to internalize the process of decision making, while developing an understanding of its application in diverse settings.
Step 1 – Identify the Goal or Problem that Requires a Decision
The first step in the decision-making process is to identify the decision that an individual is facing. The problem may be simple enough to explain with basic language, and that will not ultimately require hours of reflection, such as, "The babysitter didn't show up today and I have to go to work, so now what do I do?" However, this very same challenge might be stated in more eloquent and exaggerated language, such as, "I am required to be on the job site today and our in-home child care worker has failed to appear at our agreed-upon time. It is possible she has decided not to continue her employment with us, and now I must decide how to move forward with this conundrum, both immediately, and long term."
Also, decision making is not always associated with a problem, but can also take the form of goal-setting. For instance, a person may be thinking about their future and say to themselves, "Going to college is probably a good option, if I want to make a lot of money in the future." The aim is apparent, although perhaps addressed somewhat artlessly. Another way this same goal can be clarified might be with more sophisticated verbiage such as, "I am faced with the decision of attending college and postponing employment, or finding a job and joining the workforce immediately. These are choices that require greater investigation." Ultimately, no matter how the problem or goal is identified, the most important point is the essence of the first step in the decision-making process -- to be able to state the problem in plain and understandable verbiage.
Step 2 – Gather Information and Alternatives Associated With Choices
With a clear idea in mind of the decision that a person is facing, the next step is to brainstorm or research all of the possible options. This, too, depends on the seriousness of the challenge faced, and how quickly the decision must be made. If we return to the first example in Step 1, we find a parent who may be moments away from expecting to leave his or her home and head to work, safe in the routine of the caregiver's arrival. Instead, with the chance that the parent is left to fend for themselves at the last minute, he or she is likely to run through a mental list of choices to alleviate the immediate problem, and address it long-term in the following hours or days. Perhaps the parent has family or neighbors to whom they could turn for last-minute babysitting. Another option might be to contact their place of employment and explain the situation, remaining at home and looking for immediate childcare alternatives. No matter what choice the parent makes, they are clearly at Step 2 in the decision-making process -- listing all the possible options and solutions that are available, no matter how extreme they may first appear. In the case of the life choice regarding college attendance, this is a decision that will require greater thought and research. Relevant information will need to be gathered prior to a determination. It is important to remember that this step also includes seeking the advice of experts in the field, and the opinions of trusted family members or associates. Their expertise may provide the decision-maker with real-world and relevant insight that would further advance the process.
Finally, information-gathering will result in the identification of alternatives for each preference, along with the degree to which the choice is viable or desirable. It is important to incorporate these findings into the information-gathering step. By this, what is meant is that your investigation into choices should include acknowledgment of consequences that might affect the pursuit of a particular option, and/or its outcome, or the "good and bad" outcomes that can result from the pursuit of each option. For example, when deciding whether or not to attend college, one of the repercussions of pursuing an advanced education could be that the individual must live with his or her parents, until the degree is complete. This might make the choice less palatable, but should be confirmed as an authentic fallout in Step 2 of the decision-making process.
Step 3 – Make Your Decision
Once the alternatives have been explored extensively, and a list of choices has been generated from which an optimal decision can be made, the natural next step is to actually elect one of the options that have been developed. Now, selecting the best possible solution is also not as easy as it may sound. However, if you have put in the effort to state the problem clearly and investigate your options, then the actual process of deciding on an alternative will be simpler, and you will be able to move forward with greater confidence. Sometimes, when an individual reaches this point of the decision-making process, the best choice from among the opportunities might be evident and stand out from among the rest. For example, in the case of the mother who has last-minute babysitting issues, if all of the choices she can brainstorm include leaving the children with family members, asking a neighbor to watch them, or staying home herself, the first two options might seem salient. But if there are no neighbors or family nearby with whom the person could entrust her children to, then it is obvious she has no choice, but to stay home with the children.
However, in the instance where a young person is mulling over the pros and cons of college attendance, a variety of choices may arise. Perhaps they could attend college part-time and work part-time; or maybe the individual could attend a less expensive university, freeing up some cash for moving out of the home. Here, there is a broader spectrum of choices, and, therefore, the implications for decision making are more challenging. Even so, this is the point where a preference must be indicated. It is also the time in the decision-making process that can cause the most stress. It requires personal insight, a level of gut instinct, and a leap of faith -- all at the same time. If the decision-maker has put in the adequate amount of effort, then this will allow the individual to select the appropriate option with greater confidence.
If possible, it is recommended that even after a decision has been made, the person faced with the task take some time to reflect on their choice over the course of several days, asking themselves such questions as, "How do I feel, now that I have opted for this direction," or, "What is my comfort level, now that I have made this choice from the options I listed?" Now, it might be a good idea to let your subconscious do the thinking for you. In other words, you have actively implemented the decision-making process to this point. You have named your problem, you have considered all of the choices you have available, and you have made a reasoned decision based on the information you collected. Now, trust yourself to internalize the decision and listen to your inner voice -– whether or not it is telling you that the choice is the right one for your future, or if there are still some misgivings about the decision.
Step 4 - Put Your Decision into Action and Evaluate
It is not uncommon for people to put off decision-making because they are hesitant to make life-defining choices. Yet this is part of growing up and becoming an adult, and each time a person implements the decision-making process, he or she becomes more adept and competent in the skill, and more confident of their own ability to utilize it for their own benefit. In other words, taking action is the adult part of the decision-making process and the end result of all the pre-planning that goes into it. No matter what decision you are faced with making, you eventually have to act on it. There is an exhilarating feeling that comes with action, particularly if it is based on the proper application of the decision-making process.
If we use the two examples from this section, we find that the parent has decided to stay home and spend the time finding a quality daycare replacement. In this case, it is the father, and he is spending the morning contacting nursery schools in the area and setting up visitations for the following day. He and his wife have agreed to take turns staying home with the children over the next few days until a proper solution can be found. The individual who is trying to decide whether or not to attend college has come to the conclusion that he will need an advanced education if he is going to be able to enter environmental work. He does have limited funds, however, and does not want to live at home. So he has enrolled in a nearby community college, found gainful full-time employment, and is moving into an efficiency apartment near the school.
Conclusions and Review
The decision-makers in both instances are satisfied with their choices, and even more content with their ability to manipulate the decision-making process to their advantage. Over the next few weeks and months, they will review the choices they have made to determine if they were the best options for their situations, and whether or not the plan needs to be "tweaked" in some way. Either way, this application of the decision-making process has advanced their expertise in the four steps that are required to navigate life's choices.
If you are venturing into this study to become more adept, if not expert, in decision making, then it is valuable to remember the four steps of the process. First, state the problem in clear and plain language. Second, research all of the options that are available to address the problem. Third, make the choice from the alternatives considered. Fourth, enact the decision and evaluate to ensure that it is the correct one to meet its stated purpose. Remember, practice makes perfect, and this is especially true of decision-making.
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What I Learned When Making Decisions Essay
A summary of no ordinary joe.
“Don 't make a permanent decision for your temporary emotion”. This quote speaks volumes when analyzing one’s daily activities and how decision making is an influential piece to those activities. Human beings are obligated to make decisions every day--some that are made impulsively--but they do not at all reflect one’s actual character. Many people often often predetermine one’s character/morality based off of an incautious decision, but remain oblivious to the reasoning behind the choice that was made. Although one’s choices can be either detrimental or benign to their lives, they have no correlation with their true disposition.
Decision Making By Elie Wiesel Analysis
The decisions made by Elie Wiesel in the book Night both positively and negatively impacted his life. These were decisions that the author thought were best for him or for his mother, sister and father. However, the particular decisions made by the boy in Night affected his identity, innocence, and significantly changed his view of life during his experience in the holocaust.
Wes Moore Decision Making
Throughout your average day you make hundreds of decisions. Things like what you were going to wear, what class to go to, what to eat for lunch, or what pencil to use are all examples of decisions everyone makes on a daily basis. However, some decisions you make can change not only your life, but the lives of others. In the novel The Other Wes Moore, both Weses make decisions that impact their lives severely. Many people, like the author Wes Moore, have made decisions that have put them into Valley Forge Military Academy.
Book Review: I Am A Seal Team Six Warrior
Making decisions in life is like growing a flower. Each and every day it may seem like nothing has changed, but later in the future, every choice one makes will lead to a blooming future. Some decision results little to no effect, while others, leave collateral damage affecting one’s life forever and those around them. Many ordinary decisions can end in regret; on the other hand, constructing a right decision can also leave great memories. The book I Am A Seal Team Six Warrior by Stephen Templin clearly interprets Howard E. Wasdin’s extraordinary life of becoming a soldier who protects the country he loves. Every single resolution causes different outcomes, and this book shows that sometimes ordinary decisions can lead to an extraordinary life.
The Choice Explosion By David Brooks Analysis
In “The Choice Explosion” by David Brooks, the author describes the state of decision-making skills and how they have affected life in recent years, specifically in America. Brooks begins with a description of a social psychology experiment on Japanese and American college students and the decisions they wanted to make for themselves. The results showed that the American students wanted to decide in four times more areas than the Japanese students. Brooks then makes the conclusion that this is the result of American individualism; this individualism has provided more choice and control over everyday life. However, the author also points out that arriving at good outcomes is no easy task, even for qualified decision makers. Brooks demonstrates this through
How Does Walter Lee Younger Change
“Part of growing up is just taking what you learn from that and moving on and not taking it to heart.” ~ Beverley Mitchell. Walter Lee Younger changes drastically throughout the play “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry. Walter starts out as a person who whines and throws a fit when he does not get his way and turns into a responsible man who can care for himself and make important decisions. Three examples of this in the play is when Walter goes into a depression because Mama will not give him the money to open his shop. This changes him because he realizes that not everything has to go his way. The second example of Walter changing is when he loses the rest of the money. This changes him because he realizes how irresponsible and childish he was acting. The final example of
Romeo And Juliet Bad Decisions
In the world that we live in today, there are many things that we face daily. Whether it be illness, love or just bad decisions, everybody encounters them and many more. Rash decisions are made on a very common basis among people. A lot of stuff affect the decisions you make. May it be, being too young and not having enough experience to make good decisions, or just the lack of care of the outcome. William Shakespeare's “Romeo and Juliet” is about, two young people falling in love two different rivaling households. Having faced the utmost odds, Romeo and Juliet fall in love upon first sight, and pursue each other. However, while trying to be together, they make some unfortunate decisions that ultimately lead to the tragic end. In the story
The Bass And Sheila Mant Analysis
People make decisions everyday and each decision they make has an effect on them whether it's good or bad. In the short story, “The Bass, The River, and Sheila Mant” by W.D. Wetherell the narrator is a 14 year old boy who has a big crush. He has a crush on a older girl named Sheila Mant. The narrator’s crush over Sheila is almost like an obsession because he makes a lot of decisions based on Sheila, and the way he feels about her. The theme of decision making is clearly developed in the beginning, middle, and end of this story.
Hrm/531 Week 2 Assignment
Since graduate school I have identified that I have trouble writing papers on subjects that are not of interest to me. I struggle to remain focus, and I get writer’s block often. It has been established that when and individual has selective attention they are generally working at the basic levels of perceptual identification (Weber & Johnson, 2009).
Analysis Of Man Vs. Self In Shakespeare's Hamlet
A decision is the thought process of choosing between two or more outcomes that may or may not have a great impact. When thoroughly pondered, living life is fundamentally based on making the best decisions. Whether or not they are great or small decision making is critical. Often times, it is the smallest decisions one can make that impact the even bigger decisions later to come. Starting from the time people wake up in the morning, the will be surrounded by the most basic decisions until they go to sleep that night. Decisions such as whether or not they will wake up and go to work or choose to stay in bed all day. They also must make the decision to brush their teeth and decide what they are going to eat for breakfast. Of course not every
Decision Making In John Updike's 'A & P'
Stereotypically, decision-making is an essential practice for the young people. However, many times young adults make decisions using the wrong criteria. John Updike, the author of A&P short story brings out the clear nature of the intolerant behavior of young adults through an educative literary piece. Updike’s story captures the mind and numerous teachings concerning decision-making especially to the young adults. Decisions shape the life of people who make and implement them overtime. Whereas the right decisions channel someone’s life into the right ways, wrong decisions are bound to misdirect . Updike’s short story “A&P” concentrates on the choices that the young people make including the criteria that they use in making their decisions through four major characters, Sammy, and the three young women.
Memoir Bound & Western Dress
Over the course of a person’s life they will grow, learn, and change. In Natasha Chang’s Memoir Bound & Western Dress, there is a character whose life story emanates this. The book is based on the interviews the author has with her great aunt – Chang Yu-i. Natasha explains how Yu-I went through many trials and tribulations throughout her life but through it all became a better person. One of Yu-I’s earliest struggles was growing up in a very traditional household. Although she believed firmly in the rules she was taught Yu-i always longed for something more. As as Yu-I got older she learned that the only way to become who she wanted, was to turn to a more modern lifestyle. This realization helps Yu-i to learn to support not only herself but
Themes In Eveline, Moons Of Jupiter, A Village After Dark?
Everyday, people are faced with the task of making decisions. Most people decide when to wake up, what to eat, what to wear, who to interact with, and countless other choices. In a world surrounded by choices, people are confronted with easy-to-make and, conversely, challenging decisions. A decision can be influenced by one’s own experience, logic, and feelings. Making a decision is synonymous with a result; whatever choice one accepts, results in a particular outcome. Eveline, Moons of Jupiter, and A Village After Dark are three short stories that reveal multiple themes including trust, family, and relationships; however, the theme most prominent and characteristic of the three short stories is the impact of decisions. These three stories delve into the complexity of one’s decision and how each character’s decision affects relationships.
Essay On Making Mistakes
Making mistakes is an important part of life. We learn from our mistakes. Mistakes are the best lessons of our life. They are something that happens unintentionally and without the knowledge of a human being. The only way mistakes can be avoided is to never do anything. Therefore, in my opinion it is necessary to make mistakes. But the question here is that what when these mistakes made by us, though unintentionally hurt the people around us? Is it the right thing to be done then? The reason as to why it is necessary to make mistakes is that mistakes are a learning experience for us. We learn about ourselves through our mistakes and even learn how to become a better citizen for the society.
Essay On Bad Decision
So making a bad decision is never fun. I’d like to think that most of us prefer not to make them but can’t help to sometimes because we think a bad decision isn’t that bad. It might even be a good one in the right mind set. The point of this paper being to reflect on a pass choice looking at it with the elements of critical thinking. My bad decision is one I think most are guilty of, waiting until the last minute on something important. In my case a paper due for a class that I didn’t start working on until the weekend before it was due. Now waiting until the last minute to start the paper itself wasn’t the bad decision but act of trying to get it done in time since I chose to procrastinate was.
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