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Apa quick citation guide.
- In-text Citation
- Citing Web Pages and Social Media
- Citing Articles
- Citing Books
- Citing Business Reports
- Other Formats
- APA Style Quiz
Using In-text Citation
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers , use a paragraph number, for example: (Field, 2005, para. 1). More information on direct quotation of sources without pagination is given on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Example paragraph with in-text citation
A few researchers in the linguistics field have developed training programs designed to improve native speakers' ability to understand accented speech (Derwing et al., 2002; Thomas, 2004). Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. (2002) conducted their training with students preparing to be social workers, but note that other professionals who work with non-native speakers could benefit from a similar program.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., & Munro, M. J. (2002). Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development , 23 (4), 245-259.
Thomas, H. K. (2004). Training strategies for improving listeners' comprehension of foreign-accented speech (Doctoral dissertation). University of Colorado, Boulder.
Citing Web Pages In Text
Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known. Keep in mind that the author may be an organization rather than a person. For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author.
For sources with no date use n.d. (for no date) in place of the year: (Smith, n.d.). For more information on citations for sources with no date or other missing information see the page on missing reference information on the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines web page.
Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.
Web page with author:
Heavy social media use can be linked to depression and other mental disorders in teens (Asmelash, 2019).
Asmelash, L. (2019, August 14). Social media use may harm teens' mental health by disrupting positive activities, study says . CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/13/health/social-media-mental-health-trnd/index.html
Web page with organizational author:
More than 300 million people worldwide are affected by depression (World Health Organization, 2018).
World Health Organization. (2018, March 22). Depression . https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Web page with no date:
Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.).
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Recovering emotionally from disaste r. http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/recovering-disasters.aspx
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author: First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015) Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number and place quotation marks around the direct quote)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words , display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)
Works by Multiple Authors
APA style has specific rules for citing works by multiple authors. Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text. For more information on citing works by multiple authors see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines page on in-text citation .
Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and. For multiple authors' names within a parenthetic citation, use &.
One author: (Field, 2005)
Two authors: (Gass & Varonis, 1984)
Three or more authors: (Tremblay et al., 2010)
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APA 6 th Citation Help
This website provides assistance with APA 6 th edition. If you need the 7 th edition, please see the APA Style and Grammar Guidelines, 7 th edition .
Below are citation examples for the most commonly cited kinds of resources using APA rules. For MLA and Chicago (Turabian), please see our MLA Citation Help page or the Chicago (Turabian) Quick Guide.
ALWAYS : check with your instructor if you have questions about citation or other format issues.
- In-text Citation
Paper Format and Manual
Apa references, apa book , basic format..
Authors. (Year of publication). Title of book, sentence style capitalization. Place of publication: Name of publisher.
Rule 7.02 on page 202 (6th ed.)
APA Book , multiple authors
Gaines, L. K., & Miller, R. L. (2003). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
See Rule 7.02, Example 18 on page 203 (6th ed.)
APA Book (Reference) , article
Goode, E. (2002). Drug legalization. In D. Levinson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of crime and punishment (Vol. 2, pp. 559-65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
See Rule 7.02 on pages 202-203 (6th ed.)
Apa periodical article (newspaper, magazine, or journal) , basic format.
Authors. (Date of Publication). Title of article, sentence style capitalization. Title of Publication, Headline Style Capitalization, volume number (issue number if not continuously paginated), inclusive page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Note: Do not give the volume number of a newspaper even if it is listed.
Rule 7.01 on page 198 (6th ed.)
APA Journal article , journal paginated by issue
Fodor, J. (2006). How the mind works: What we still don't know. Daedalus, 135 (3), 86-94.
See Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199 (6th ed.)
APA Journal article , issues paginated continuously
Côté, S., & Bouchard, S. (2009). Cognitive mechanisms underlying virtual reality exposure. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12 , 121-129. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0008
See Rule 7.01, Example 1 on page 198 (6th ed.)
APA Journal article , retrieved from a database
Ishitani, T. T. (2006). Studying attrition and degree completion behavior among first-generation college students in the United States. The Journal of Higher Education, 77 , 861-865. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
APA style modification as preferred by most WTAMU faculty. For exact information, see Rule 7.01, Example 3 on page 199. Use doi if available.
APA Newspaper article , no byline/author
A counselor's resounding cry, even from her hospital bed: Go directly to college. (2005, December 28). The New York Times, p. B10.
See rule 7.01, Examples 9 and 10 on page 200 (6th ed.) If author is known, use the author, date, article title sequence.
APA Magazine article
Kalb, C. (2006, March 27). The therapist as scientist. Newsweek, 147 (13), 50-51.
See Rule 7.01, Example 7 on page 200 (6th ed.)
Bank, J., & Jackson, B. (2006, April 4). Can you prevent global warming? Retrieved from http://www.factcheck.org/society/can_you_prevent_global_warming.html
See Rule 7.03, Examples 32-34 on page 206 (6th ed.) Include as much information as possible.
APA Government Document : Report or Informative document
United Nations. (1991). Consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. New York, NY: Taylor.
See Rule 7.03, Example 31 on page 205 (6th ed.)
APA Government Hearing , etc
Hearings on the "Equal Rights" Amendment: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments of the Committee on the Judiciary , 91st Cong. 1 (1970).
See Appendix 7.1 Example 13 on page 221. Other governmental forms can vary widely. See the full appendix on pages 216-224 (6th ed.)
APA Case law, legal documents
Specific examples provides in Appendix 7.1, p. 216-221 (6th ed.) with reference to The bluebook for additional detail.
APA In-Text Citation
When you present someone else's ideas in your research papers, you should insert citations within your text so that others will be able to understand how you reached your conclusions.
Your citation will be inserted before the period at the end of a sentence in which you have presented information you gathered from one of your reference sources. For example, if you were using the APA style a citation may look like this: Sam was unable to convince his companion to eat green eggs and ham (Seuss, 1988).
The following outlines some of the more common variations of in-text citation, but it does not list every possible variation. If you have any questions about a particular citation please see the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association . This manual is kept at the Research & Access Desk in the Cornette Library.
A work written by one author
- Example: (Nguyen, 2001) See Rule 6.11 on page 174.
- Include page numbers in citations for direct quotations. See Rule 6.03 on page 170.
- For multiple sources with authors sharing the same last name. See Rule 6.14 on page 176.
A work written by multiple authors
- Example: (Marx & Lennon, 1966 )
- Examples: (Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1994) for the first citation, followed by (Bradley et al., 1994) for later citations.
- Example: (Littletree et al., 2002)
- See Rule 6.12 on page 175-177
- Include page numbers in citations for direct quotations. See Rule 6.03 on page 170
A work with no author listed
- Example: (Manual on the Use of Thermocouples in Temperature Measurement, 1974.)
- See Rule 6.15 on page 176
For More Information
Our Recommended Web Sites: Citing Sources page links to web sites with more detailed citation information, as well as other citation styles.
GEOG 325: Conservation and Resource Management: APA Citation
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APA style is most commonly used in Psychology, Education & the Social Sciences .
A copy of the APA style manual is available in the Ready Reference area at the Research Help Desk on the first floor of the Academic Commons:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association . Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Call Number: Ref. BF76.7 .P83 2010 c.2
APA Research Paper Templates
- Purdue OWL Sample Paper
- APA Style Manual Sample Paper
APA In-Text Citation Examples
- Purdue OWL in Text Citations
- Cornell University in Text Citations
APA Citation Examples
Book by a single author.
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the book . Place of Publication: Publisher name. Example: Staff, F.E. (1969). The Valentine & Its Origins . New York: Frederick A. Praeger.
Article from a journal
With a DOI (Online or Hardcopy) (See below for an explanation of DOI) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. DOI number. Example: Ke, F., & Hoadley, C. (2009). Evaluating online learning communities. Educational Technology Research & Development , 57 (4), 487-510. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9120-2 Without a DOI (Hardcopy) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. Example: Carter, K. (1995). Teaching stories and local understandings. Journal of Educational Research , 88(6), 326-330. Without a DOI (Database or Website) Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title , volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved from website Example: Goral, T. (2009). The Sustainable Learning Community. University Business , 12 (7), 18. Retrieved from http://www.universitybusiness.com/
Article from a magazine
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title , volume number(issue), pages. Example: Zimmer, C. (2009, July/August). The Brain. Discover , 30(7), 24-25.
Article from a newspaper
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title , pages. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas Example: Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.
Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of the website/article. Retrieved date of web retrieval, from URL. Example: Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. Retrieved August 2, 2007, from http://www.csun.edu/~hceng028/m-hist.txt.
DOI: Digital Object Identifier
The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.
You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy
The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page
When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address
When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's homepage. You may have to search for this website online.
Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)
Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one
Online APA Resources
Some useful online resources include:
APA Exposed (Harvard University Graduate School of Education)
American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Purdue OWL)
Research and Documenting Sources: APA Style: The Social Sciences The Diana Hacker site on the basics of APA style
What's New in the Sixth Edition - APA - APA Website Tutorial
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
In-Text Citations: The Basics
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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing).
Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until 2021, but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here .
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: On pages 65-66, the Publication Manual suggests that authors of research papers should use the past tense or present perfect tense for signal phrases that occur in the literature review and procedure descriptions (for example, Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found ...). Contexts other than traditionally-structured research writing may permit the simple present tense (for example, Jones (1998) finds ).
APA citation basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining
- Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
( Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media .)
- When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs .
- Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo ."
- Italicize the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind ; The Wizard of Oz ; Friends .
- Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)
Summary or paraphrase
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required).
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
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- How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples
Published on February 26, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on August 23, 2022.
To cite a book, you need a brief in-text citation and a corresponding reference listing the author’s name, the title, the year of publication, and the publisher. The order and format of information depends on the citation style you’re using. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago style .
Use the interactive example generator to explore the format of book citations in MLA and APA.
Table of contents
Citing a book in mla style, citing a book in apa style, citing a book in chicago style, where to find source information in a book, frequently asked questions about citations.
An MLA book citation includes the author’s name , the book title (in italics, capitalized headline-style), the edition (if specified), the publisher, and the year of publication. If it’s an e-book , write “e-book” (or a more specific description, e.g. “Kindle ed.”) before the publisher name.
The corresponding in-text citation lists the author’s last name and the page number of the passage cited.
You can also use our free MLA Citation Generator to create your book citations.
Generate accurate MLA citations with Scribbr
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless MLA citation
Citing a book chapter in MLA
To cite a book chapter , first give the author and title (in quotation marks) of the chapter cited, then information about the book as a whole and the page range of the specific chapter.
The in-text citation lists the author of the chapter and the page number of the relevant passage.
An APA Style book citation lists the author’s last name and initials, the year of publication, the title and any subtitle (in italics, capitalizing only the first word), the edition (if specified), and the publisher. Add a DOI or URL to the end of the entry if available (e.g. for e-books or books accessed online ).
In an in-text citation, state the author’s last name and the publication year, and a page number if you need to show the location of a specific quote or paraphrase .
You can also use our free APA Citation Generator to automatically generate your book citations. Search for a title, DOI, or ISBN to retrieve the details.
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
Citing a book chapter in APA
To cite a book chapter , list information about the chapter first, followed by information about the book, including the book’s editor(s) and the chapter’s page range within the book.
The author of the chapter, not the editor of the book, is listed in the in-text citation.
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Chicago notes and bibliography style uses footnotes to cite sources instead of parenthetical citations. These notes refer to a bibliography at the end giving full source details.
A Chicago bibliography entry for a book includes the author’s name, the book title and subtitle, the edition (if stated), the location and name of the publisher, and the year of publication. For an e-book , add the e-book format (e.g. “Kindle”) at the end.
Chicago also has an alternative style, Chicago author-date . You can see examples of book citations in this style here .
Citing a book chapter in Chicago
To cite a book chapter , start with the author and the title of the chapter (in quotation marks), then give the title (in italics) and editor of the book, the page range of the chapter, the location and name of the publisher, and the year of publication.
All the information you need for a book citation can usually be found on the book’s title page and copyright page. The main things you’re looking for are:
- the title (and subtitle if present)
- name(s) of the author(s)
- year of publication
- place of publication
You should also check if the book specifies an edition (e.g. 2nd edition, revised edition) and if any other contributors are named (e.g. editor, translator).
The image below shows where to find the relevant information on the title and copyright pages of a typical book.
The main elements included in all book citations across APA , MLA , and Chicago style are the author, the title, the year of publication, and the name of the publisher. A page number is also included in in-text citations to highlight the specific passage cited.
In Chicago style and in the 6th edition of APA Style , the location of the publisher is also included, e.g. London: Penguin.
When a book’s chapters are written by different authors, you should cite the specific chapter you are referring to.
When all the chapters are written by the same author (or group of authors), you should usually cite the entire book, but some styles include exceptions to this.
- In APA Style , single-author books should always be cited as a whole, even if you only quote or paraphrase from one chapter.
- In MLA Style , if a single-author book is a collection of stand-alone works (e.g. short stories ), you should cite the individual work.
- In Chicago Style , you may choose to cite a single chapter of a single-author book if you feel it is more appropriate than citing the whole book.
Check if your university or course guidelines specify which citation style to use. If the choice is left up to you, consider which style is most commonly used in your field.
- APA Style is the most popular citation style, widely used in the social and behavioral sciences.
- MLA style is the second most popular, used mainly in the humanities.
- Chicago notes and bibliography style is also popular in the humanities, especially history.
- Chicago author-date style tends to be used in the sciences.
Other more specialized styles exist for certain fields, such as Bluebook and OSCOLA for law.
The most important thing is to choose one style and use it consistently throughout your text.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”) is used to shorten citations of sources with multiple authors.
“Et al.” is used in APA in-text citations of sources with 3+ authors, e.g. (Smith et al., 2019). It is not used in APA reference entries .
Use “et al.” for 3+ authors in MLA in-text citations and Works Cited entries.
Use “et al.” for 4+ authors in a Chicago in-text citation , and for 10+ authors in a Chicago bibliography entry.
When you want to cite a specific passage in a source without page numbers (e.g. an e-book or website ), all the main citation styles recommend using an alternate locator in your in-text citation . You might use a heading or chapter number, e.g. (Smith, 2016, ch. 1)
In APA Style , you can count the paragraph numbers in a text to identify a location by paragraph number. MLA and Chicago recommend that you only use paragraph numbers if they’re explicitly marked in the text.
For audiovisual sources (e.g. videos ), all styles recommend using a timestamp to show a specific point in the video when relevant.
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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, August 23). How to Cite a Book | APA, MLA, & Chicago Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved February 27, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/citing-sources/cite-a-book/
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Use the same formats for both print books and ebooks. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g., Kindle) is not included in the reference.
This page contains reference examples for books, including the following:
- Whole authored book
- Whole edited book
- Republished book, with editor
- Book published with new foreword by another author
- Several volumes of a multivolume work
1. Whole authored book
Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000168-000
Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst . Penguin Books.
Svendsen, S., & Løber, L. (2020). The big picture/Academic writing: The one-hour guide (3rd digital ed.). Hans Reitzel Forlag. https://thebigpicture-academicwriting.digi.hansreitzel.dk/
- Parenthetical citations : (Jackson, 2019; Sapolsky, 2017; Svendsen & Løber, 2020)
- Narrative citations : Jackson (2019), Sapolsky (2017), and Svendsen and Løber (2020)
- Provide the author, year of publication, title, and publisher of the book. Use the same format for both print books and ebooks.
- Use the copyright date shown on the book’s copyright page as the year of publication in the reference, even if the copyright date is different than the release date.
- Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
- If the book includes a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the publisher name.
- Do not include the publisher location.
- If the ebook without a DOI has a stable URL that will resolve for readers, include the URL of the book in the reference (as in the Svendsen and Løber example, which is from the iBog database, where ebooks are referred to as “internetbooks”). Do not include the name of the database in the reference.
- If the ebook is from an academic research database and has no DOI or stable URL, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include the name of the database in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book.
2. Whole edited book
Hygum, E., & Pedersen, P. M. (Eds.). (2010). Early childhood education: Values and practices in Denmark . Hans Reitzels Forlag. https://earlychildhoodeducation.digi.hansreitzel.dk/
Kesharwani, P. (Ed.). (2020). Nanotechnology based approaches for tuberculosis treatment . Academic Press.
Torino, G. C., Rivera, D. P., Capodilupo, C. M., Nadal, K. L., & Sue, D. W. (Eds.). (2019). Microaggression theory: Influence and implications . John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119466642
- Parenthetical citations : (Hygum & Pedersen, 2010; Kesharwani, 2020; Torino et al., 2019)
- Narrative citations : Hygum and Pedersen (2010), Kesharwani (2020), and Torino et al. (2019)
- Use the abbreviation “(Ed.)” for one editor and the abbreviation “(Eds.)” for multiple editors after the editor names, followed by a period. In the case of multiple editors, include the role once, after all the names.
- If the ebook without a DOI has a stable URL that will resolve for readers, include the URL of the book in the reference (as in the Hygum and Pedersen example, which is from the iBog database). Do not include the name of the database in the reference.
3. Republished book, with editor
Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2013). Conditioned emotional reactions: The case of Little Albert (D. Webb, Ed.). CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. http://a.co/06Se6Na (Original work published 1920)
- Parenthetical citation : (Watson & Rayner, 1920/2013)
- Narrative citation : Watson and Rayner (1920/2013)
- The book by Watson and Rayner was originally published in 1920. It was edited by Webb and republished in 2013.
- Sometimes an authored book also credits an editor on the cover. In this case, include the editor in parentheses without italics after the book title.
- Provide the year of the republication in the main date element of the reference. Provide the year of original publication at the end of the reference in parentheses after the words “Original work published.”
- Both publication years appear in the in-text citation, separated with a slash, with the earlier year first.
4. Book published with new foreword by another author
Kübler-Ross, E. (with Byock, I.). (2014). On death & dying: What the dying have to teach doctors, nurses, clergy & their own families (50th anniversary ed.). Scribner. (Original work published 1969)
- Parenthetical citation : (Kübler-Ross, 1969/2014)
- Narrative citation : Kübler-Ross (1969/2014)
- Use this format when a person other than the original author has added a new part to the work, such as a foreword or introduction.
- Provide the author of the whole book in the main author element of the reference. Then provide the name of the person who wrote the foreword, introduction, or other new part, in parentheses, after the word “with.” In the example, Byock wrote a new foreword to the book by Kübler-Ross.
- When citing the main book, include only the name of the book author in the in-text citation.
- Parenthetical citation of foreword : Workers in the medical community should “listen to the people who need our help and respond with all the knowledge and skill we can bring to bear” (Kübler-Ross, 1969/2014, foreword by Byock, p. xv).
- Narrative citation of foreword : Byock stated that Kübler-Ross’s (1969/2014) work “challenged the authoritarian decorum and puritanism of the day” (p. xii).
5. Several volumes of a multivolume work
Harris, K. R., Graham, S., & Urdan T. (Eds.). (2012). APA educational psychology handbook (Vols. 1–3). American Psychological Association.
- Parenthetical citation : (Harris et al., 2012)
- Narrative citation : Harris et al. (2012)
- Provide the name(s) of the editor(s)-in-chief as the editors of the work, even if the volume editors are different.
This guidance has been revised from the 6th edition.
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite an eBook in APA
How to Cite an eBook in APA
In this guide, you will go through the basic steps of citing an e-book according to the 7th edition of the official Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a) , Chapter 10.2. The association is not affiliated with this guide. This guide will also point out changes to e-book referencing guidelines between the 6th and 7th edition of the Publication Manual .
6th edition vs. 7th edition, basic e-book citation structures, citing an authored e-book with a doi or url, citing an e-book without a doi or url, citing a republished e-book, citing a translated e-book, citing an e-book: reference overview, what you need.
Before we begin, it might be helpful to explain the key changes in e-book citation structure that happened with the publication of the APA’s 7th edition.
In the new edition, an e-book citation looks more similar to a print book citation in the ways that they are referenced. The biggest difference now is that an e-book reference includes the URL or DOI if available.
Here are the two specific changes:
- The platform, device, or format no longer needs to be included. (e.g., [Kindle version])
- The publisher name is included as it would be in a printed book citation.
Reference Page Structure:
Author Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of e-book in sentence case. Publisher Name. DOI or URL
The example above is not only appropriate for e-books, but is also the basic structure used for any authored print book that has a DOI.
In-text citation structure:
- Parenthetical citation : (Author Last Name, Year Published)
- Narrative citation : Author Last Name (Year Published)
E-Book Citation Examples
Clark, M. & Phelan, J. (2020). Debating rhetorical narratology: On the synthetic, mimetic, and thematic aspects of narrative. The Ohio University Press. https://doi.org/10.26818/9780814214282
In-text citation examples:
- Parenthetical citation : (Clark & Phelan, 2020)
- Narrative citation : Clark & Phelan (2020)
If you are trying to reference an electronic book that does not have a known DOI or URL, then you may end the reference after the publisher name. This is also the case for e-books that are sourced from academic research databases.
Author Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of e-book in sentence case. Publisher Name.
Cialdini, R. B. (2009). Influence: The psychology of persuasion. Harper Collins E-books.
- Parenthetical citation : (Cialdini, 2009)
- Narrative citation : Cialdini (2009)
Author Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of e-book in sentence case. Publisher Name. DOI or URL (Original work Published Year)
Wells, H.G. (1992). The war of the worlds. Project Gutenberg. https://www.gutenberg.org/files/36/36-h/36-h.htm (Original work published 1898)
Notice how the in-text citations include both the original publication date and the e-book publication date, separated by a slash with no spaces.
- Parenthetical citation : (Wells, 1898/1992)
- Narrative citation : Wells (1898/1992)
If the e-book has been translated from its original version, provide the name of the translator(s) in parenthesis after the work’s title.
Author Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of e-book in sentence case (First Initial Last Name of Translator, Trans.) . Publisher Name. DOI or URL
Yoshimoto, B. (2015). Kitchen (M. Backus, Trans.). Grove Atlantic. https://www.kobo.com/us/en/ebook/kitchen-15
- Parenthetical citation : (Yoshimoto, 2015)
- Narrative citation : Yoshimoto (2015)
For more citation examples for different types of books (e.g., 2 authors, found on a database, multi-work volumes, etc.), visit the EasyBib guide on creating an APA book citation .
To create an e-book citation, you will need the following information on your source:
- First Name Initial and Last Name of the author(s)
- Year Published
- Title of the e-book
- Translator name (if applicable)
- Publisher name
- DOI or URL (if applicable)
- For republished books ONLY: Year the original work was published
American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative
Published July 29, 2014. Updated March 24, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
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To cite an ebook in APA style, you need to have basic information including the book’s author or editor, publication year, title, publisher, and URL. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an ebook along with examples are given below for one author:
In-text citation template and example:
Author Surname (Publication Year).
(Author Surname, Publication Year)
Reference list entry template and example:
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year) . Book title. Publisher. URL
Freeman, B. (2021). Infinite . Thomas & Mercer. https://www.amazon.com/Infinite-Brian-Freeman-ebook/dp/B081Z5VNJH/ref=reads_cwrtbar_5/146-1368705-3384623?pd_rd_w=3QM8k&pf_rd_p=0285128d-50e0-4388-acba-48a4a1f64720&pf_rd_r=V8G7YR82TF8VXMHVT4KX&pd_rd_r=7090822f-473a-4259-99e1-914b53cfd458&pd_rd_wg=tNYqu&pd_rd_i=B081Z5VNJH&psc=1&asin=B081Z5VNJH&revisionId=e9fb30e6&format=1&depth=1
The book title should be in sentence case and italics. It is not necessary to mention the format, platform, or device of the ebook in the reference.
To cite a book chapter with an editor and/or a translator in APA style, you need to have basic information including the authors, publication year, chapter title, editors and/or translators, book title, publisher, and page numbers. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of a book chapter with an editor and/or a translator along with examples are given below:
Author Surname (Original Publication Year/Republished Year)
(Author Surname, Original Publication Year/Republished Year)
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Chapter title: Subtitle. (F. Translator, Trans.). In F. Editor (Ed.), Book title (pp. #–#). Publisher. (Original work published year).
Badiou, A. (2013). The writing of the generic. (B. Bosteels, Trans.). In N. Power& A. Toscano (Eds.), On Beckett (pp. 1–36). Clinamen. (Original work published 2003).
The chapter title is in sentence case. The translator’s name is set in parenthesis along with the word “Trans.” Follow initial followed by the surname for the translator. The word “In” is used before the editor’s name. Note that the style for setting the editor’s name is the initial of the first name followed by the surname. Use “(Ed.)” after the editor’s name. The book title is set in italics. Include page numbers in parenthesis after the book title with “pp.” before the page range. Include the publication year of the original work in parenthesis.
To cite sources that have authors with the same last name (surname) but different first initials, you need to follow the guidelines below.
Sources with one author
Include the first author’s first initial in all in-text citations, even if the sources have different publication years.
J. Chen (2011), T. Chen (2012), and X. Chen (2007)
(J. Chen, 2011; T. Chen, 2012; X. Chen, 2007)
Note that in parenthetical citations, in-text citations are arranged alphabetically according to the initial.
Sources with two authors
Include the first initials only for the first authors with the same surnames in all in-text citations. Even if the second authors are different people with different initials, do not include the initials of the second author.
J. Chen and Lung (2012), T. Chen and Lung (2011), and X. Chen and Lung (2007)
(J. Chen & Lung, 2012; T. Chen & Lung, 2011; X. Chen & Lung, 2007)
Note that in parenthetical citations, in-text citations are arranged according to the initials of the first author.
Sources with multiple authors
Use only the first author’s name followed by et al. If two or more sources have the same last name for the first author, differentiate them by including the first initials for the first authors.
J. Chen et al. (2012), T. Chen et al. (2011), and X. Chen et al. (2007)
(J. Chen et al., 2012; T. Chen et al., 2011; X. Chen et al., 2007)
Reference list entry example for alphabetization:
Arrange works by first authors with the same surname and different initials alphabetically by first initial(s), without considering the number of authors.
Chen, J. (2011).
Chen, J., & Lung, M. (2011).
Chen, J., Lung, M., & Xia, L. (2011).
Chen, T. (2012).
Chen, T., & Lung, N. (2012).
Chen, T., Lung, N., & Xia, P. (2012).
Chen, X. (2007).
Chen, X., & Lung, O. (2007).
Chen, X., Lung, O., & Xia, A. (2007).
APA Citation Examples
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APA 7th Edition Citation Examples: Citing a Source Within a Source
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Citing a Source within a Source
Scenario: You read a 2007 article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Klein. You want to cite Klein's article, but you have not read Klein's article itself.
Reference list citation
Linhares, A., & Brum, P. (2007). Understanding our understanding of strategic scenarios: What role do chunks play? Cognitive Science , 31 (6), 989-1007. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/03640210701703725
Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Klein's article.
Klein's study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that...
Your in-text citation gives credit to Klein and shows the source in which you found Klein's ideas.
See Publication Manual , p. 258.
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A comprehensive guide to apa citations and format, overview of this guide:.
This page provides you with an overview of APA format, 7th edition. Included is information about referencing, various citation formats with examples for each source type, and other helpful information.
If you’re looking for MLA format , check out the Citation Machine MLA Guide. Also, visit the Citation Machine homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, and to see more styles .
Being responsible while researching
When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own assignment. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project (i.e., citing), which is one way to prevent plagiarism.
Plagiarism? What is it?
The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word, plagiare , which means “to kidnap.” The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author (American Psychological Association, 2020 p. 21). Plagiarism can be illegal and there can be serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including citations and references in your research project. Want to make them quickly and easily? Try the Citation Machine citation generator, which is found on our homepage.
All about citations & references
Citations and references should be included anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation and a reference. This guide explains how to make them.
APA style citations are added in the body of a research paper or project and references are added to the last page.
Citations , which are called in-text citations, are included when you’re adding information from another individual’s work into your own project. When you add text word-for-word from another source into your project, or take information from another source and place it in your own words and writing style (known as paraphrasing), you create an in-text citation. These citations are short in length and are placed in the main part of your project, directly after the borrowed information.
References are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page is the full information for any in-text citations found in the body of the project. These references are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name.
An APA in-text citation includes only three items: the last name(s) of the author(s), the year the source was published, and sometimes the page or location of the information. References include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the full title of the source, and the URL or page range.
Why is it important to include citations & references
Including APA citations and references in your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging the original authors and their work.
Common ways students and scholars accidentally plagiarize
Believe it or not, there are instances when you could attempt to include in-text and full references in the appropriate places, but still accidentally plagiarize. Here are some common mistakes to be aware of:
Mistake #1 - Misquoting sources: If you plan to use a direct quote, make sure you copy it exactly as is. Sure, you can use part of the full quote or sentence, but if you decide to put quotation marks around any words, those words should match exactly what was found in the original source. Here’s a line from The Little Prince , by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry:
“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves, and it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them.”
Here’s an acceptable option:
“Grown-ups never understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).
Here’s a misquote:
“Grown-ups barely ever understand anything by themselves,” stated de Saint-Exupéry (1943, p. 3).
Notice the slight change in the words. The incorrect phrasing is an instance of accidental plagiarism.
Mistake #2 - Problems with paraphrasing: When we paraphrase, we restate information using our own words and writing style. It’s not acceptable to substitute words from the original source with synonyms.
Let’s use the same sentence from The Little Prince .
A correct paraphrase could be:
de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything. It’s too bad adults are unable to comprehend anything on their own (p. 3).
An incorrect paraphrase would be:
de Saint-Exupéry (1943) shares that adults never understand anything by themselves, and it is exhausting for kids to be always and forever clarifying things to them (p.3).
Notice how close the incorrect paraphrase is from the original. This is an instance of accidental plagiarism.
Make sure you quote and paraphrase properly in order to prevent accidental plagiarism.
If you’re having a difficult time paraphrasing properly, it is acceptable to paraphrase part of the text AND use a direct quote. Here’s an example:
de Saint-Exupery (1943) shares various ways adults frustrate children. One of the biggest being that kids have to explain everything, and “it is tiresome for children to be always and forever explaining things to them” (p. 3).
Information About APA
Who created it.
The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 121,000 members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology-related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health.
The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation and reference style. Today, this format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information . This guide covers general information about the style, but is not affiliated with the American Psychological Association.
Why was this style created?
This format was first developed in 1929 to form a standardized way for researchers in science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information in random order. There wasn’t a set way to format citations and references. You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects!
Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation or APA reference and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source.
The evolution of this style
The guide below is based on APA style 7th edition, which was released in 2020. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the publisher location for books and the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Both are no longer required to be included.
Details on the differences between the 6th and 7th editions is addressed later in this guide.
Citations & References
The appearance of citations & references.
The format for references varies, but most use this general format:
%%Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . URL
Researchers and scholars must look up the proper format for the source that they’re attempting to cite. Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re citing or referencing.
If you would like help citing your sources, CitationMachine.com has a citation generator that will help make the APA citation process much easier for you. To start, simply click on the source type you're citing:
- Journal articles
An APA in-text citation is included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source.
Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an APA in-text citation directly following it.
In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, these citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.
When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include a citation directly following it.
Citations in the text are found near a direct quote, paraphrased information, or next to a mention of another source. To see examples of some narrative/ parenthetical citations in action, look at the image above, under “All About Citations & References.”
Note: *Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Page numbers have a p. before the number, pp. before the page range, and para. before the paragraph number. This information is included to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. It is unnecessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source.
Examples of APA in-text citations:
“Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Tóibín, 2009, p. 52).
Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent & Giles, 2017, p. 12).
If including the author’s name in the sentence, place the year in the parentheses directly next to his or her name. Add the page number at the end, unless it’s a source without any pages or paragraph numbers (See Section 8.10 of the Publication manual for more details).
In-text citation APA example:
According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.
The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, titled the “References.”
Here’s how to create in-text citations for specific amounts of authors:
APA citation with no author
When the source lacks an author’s name, place the title, year, and page number (if available) in the text. The title should be in italics if it sits alone (such as a movie, brochure, or report). If the source is part of a whole (as many web pages and articles are), place the title in quotation marks without italics (See Section 8.14 of the Publication manual ).
Structure of an APA format citation in the text narratively, with the author's name missing:
Title of Source (Year) or “Title of Source” (Year)
Structure of an APA style format citation, in parentheses at the end of the sentence, with the author’s name missing: (Title of Source, Year) or (“Title of Source,” Year)
Structure for one author
In the text, narratively: Last name of Author (Year)...(page number).
In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author, Year, page number).
Structure for two authors
Place the authors in the order they appear on the source. Only use the ampersand in the parenthetical citations (see Section 8.17 of the Publication manual ). Use ‘and’ to separate the author names if they’re in the text of the sentence.
In the text, narratively: Last name of Author 1 and Last name of Author 2 (Year)....(page number).
In parentheses, at the end of the sentence: (Last name of Author 1 & Last name of Author 2, Year, page number).
Structure for three or more authors
Only include the first listed author’s name in the first and any subsequent citations. Follow it with et al.
(Last name Author 1 et al., Year, page number)
(Agbayani et al., 2020, p. 99)
Last name of Author 1 et al. (Year)...(page).
Agbayani et al. (2020)...(p. 99)
One author, multiple works, same year
What do you do when you want to cite multiple works by an author, and the sources all written in the same year?
Include the letters ‘a’ ‘b’ ‘c’ and so on after the year in the citation.
Writers can even lump dates together.
Example: Jackson often studied mammals while in Africa (2013a, 2013b).
On the APA reference page, include the same letters in the full references.
Groups and organizations
Write out the full name of the group or organization in the first citation and place the abbreviation next to it in brackets. If the group or organization is cited again, only include the abbreviation. If it doesn’t have an abbreviation associated with it, write out the entire organization’s name each and every time (see Section 8.21 of the Publication manual ).
First APA citation for an organization with an abbreviation: (World Health Organization [WHO], Year)
World Health Organization (WHO, Year)
Notice in the example directly above, the name of the organization is written out in full in the text of the sentence, and the abbreviation is placed in parentheses next to it.
Subsequent APA citations in the text for an organization with an abbreviation: (WHO, Year) OR WHO (Year)
All citations in the text for an organization without an abbreviation: (Citation Machine, Year) or Citation Machine (Year)
One in-text citation, multiple works
Sometimes you’ll need to cite more than one work within an in-text citation. Follow the same format (author, year) format but place semicolons between works (p. 263).
(Obama, 2016; Monroe et al., 1820; Hoover & Coolidge, 1928)
Reminder: There are many citation tools available on CitationMachine.com. Head to our homepage to learn more, check out our APA citation website, and cite your sources easily! The most useful resource on our website? Our APA citation generator, which doesn’t just create full references, it’s also an APA in-text citation website! It’ll do both for you!
Click here to learn more about crediting work .
Reference list citation components
References display the full information for all the citations found in the body of a research project.
Some things to keep in mind when it comes to the references:
- All references sit together on their own page, which is usually the last page(s) of a paper.
- Title the page ‘References’
- Place ‘References’ in the center of the page and bold it. Keep the title in the same font and size as the references. Do not italicize, underline, place the title in quotation marks, or increase the font size.
- The entire page is double spaced.
- All references are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the reference, which is usually the author’s last name. If the source lacks an author, alphabetize the source by the title (ignore A, An, or The)
- All references have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples throughout this guide.
- Remember, each and every citation in the text of the paper MUST have a full reference displayed in the reference list. The citations in the text provide the reader with a quick glimpse about the sources used, but the references in the reference list provide the reader with all the information needed to seek out the source themselves.
Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. See an APA sample paper reference list at the end of this entire section.
The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period (see Section 9.8 of the Publication manual ).
Format: Last name, F. M.
- Angelou, M.
- Doyle, A. C.
Two or more authors
When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source. You can name up to 20 authors in the reference. For sources with 2 to 20 authors, place an ampersand (&) before the final author. Use this format:
Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.
Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M.
Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M., Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J., & He, Y.
If there are 21 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 19 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name.
Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , ...Lopez, G. S.
If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, like the one at CitationMachine.com, the names of the authors will format properly for you.
If the source lacks an author, place the title in the first position in the reference (Section 9.12 of the Publication manual ). When the source’s title begins with a number (Such as 101 Dalmatians ), place the reference alphabetically as if the number was spelled out. 101 Dalmatians would be placed in the spot where ‘One hundred’ would go, but keep the numbers in their place.
Additionally, if the title begins with the words ‘A’, ‘An,’ or ‘The,’ ignore these words and place the title alphabetically according to the next word.
See the “Titles” section below for more information on formatting the title of sources.
On an APA reference page, corporate authors are always written out in full. In the text of your paper, you may have some abbreviations (such as UN for United Nations), but in the full references, always include the full names of the corporation or organization (following Section 9.11 of the official Publication manual ).
%%United Nations. (2019). Libya: $202 million needed to bring life-saving aid to half a million people hit by humanitarian crisis. https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/02/1031981
Publication date & retrieval date
Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers and magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.”
%% Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . http://www.philly.com/
If using our APA Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically.
Giving a retrieval date is not needed unless the online content is likely to be frequently updated and changed (e.g., encyclopedia article, dictionary entry, Twitter profile, etc.).
%%Citation Machine [@CiteMachine]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from https://twitter.com/CiteMachine
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other non-periodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in the APA citation.
Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family.
For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title.
Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse.
For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.
The Seattle Times.
A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks in the reference list. Here’s a good general rule: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics.
Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
The Citation Machine citation generator will format the title in your citations automatically.
Additional information about the title
If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include a descriptive noun or two in brackets immediately following the title. Capitalize the first letter.
%%Kennedy, K., & Molen, G. R. (Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Film]. USA: Universal.
Besides [Film], other common notations include:
- [Audio podcast]
- [Letter to the editor]
- [Television series episode]
- [Facebook page]
- [Blog post]
- [Lecture notes]
- [PowerPoint presentation]
- [Video file]
If you are using Citation Machine citing tools, additional information about the title is automatically added for you.
For books and reports, include the publisher name but not the location (see Section 9.29 of the Publication manual ). Older editions of the style required the city, state and/or country, but this hasn't been the case since the 7th edition was released.
It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the reference. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. There is no space after the closing parenthesis and before the volume number.
%%Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., & Georgas, T. (2016). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 (9), 907-923. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688
After including the publisher information, end this section with a period.
Electronic source information:
For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of an APA citation.
DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL (see Section 9.34 in the Publication manual ).
For DOIs, include the number in this format:
For URLs, type them in this format:
http:// or https://
Other information about electronic sources:
- If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark.
- Do not place a period at the end of the citation/URL.
- It is unnecessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time (like in a Wikipedia article).
- It is not necessary to include the names of databases
If using the Citation Machine APA citation website autocite features, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI. The Citation Machine APA template will properly cite your online sources for you.
Make sure you run your completed paper through the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader, which scans for grammar, spelling, and plagiarism. Whether it’s an adjective , verb , or pronoun out-of-place, our technology helps edits your paper for you!
An APA annotated bibliography is a full bibliography that includes a small note for each reference citation. Each note should be short (1-2 paragraphs) and contain a summary or your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations on CitationMachine.net, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.
Follow the publication manual guidelines on paper format and writing style. Let your instructor guide other details about your annotations. Still confused? Read our guide on annotated bibliographies .
These types of projects look different depending on the style you’re using. Use the link at the top of the page to access resources related to the Modern Language Association’s style. Here’s information related to Chicago citation style .
Need help with the design and formatting of your paper? Look no further! This section provides the ins and outs of properly displaying the information in your APA essay.
- Times New Roman, 12-point size.
- Calibri, Arial, or Georgia, 11-point size
- Lucida, Sans Unicode, or Computer Modern, 10-point size
- Indents = Every paragraph should start with an indent.
- Margins = 1 inch around the entire document
- Spacing = Double space everything!
Arrange your pages in this order:
- Page 1 - APA Title Page (see below for information on the title page)
- Page 2 - Abstract (If your professor requests one)
- Page 3 - First page of text
- References begin on their own page. Include the list of references on the page after the text.
- Tables and figures
Keep in mind that the order above is the recommendation for papers being submitted for peer review. If you’re writing an APA style paper for a class, your professor may be more lenient about the requirements. Also, if you’re submitting your paper for a specific journal, check the requirements on the journal’s website. Each journal has different rules and procedures.
Just a little nudge to remind you about the Citation Machine Plus smart proofreader. Whether it’s a conjunction or interjection out of place, a misspelled word, or an out of place citation, we’ll offer suggestions for improvement! Don’t forget to check out our APA citation maker while you’re at it!
In older editions of APA, running heads were required for all papers. Since the 7th edition, that’s changed.
- Student paper: No running head
- Professional paper: Include a running head
The running head displays the title of the paper and the page number on all pages of the paper. This header is found on every page of a professional paper (not a student paper), even on the title page (sometimes called an APA cover page) and reference list (taken from Section 2.8 of the Publication manual ).
It's displayed all in capital letters at the top of the page. Across from the running head, along the right margin, is the page number.
- Use the header feature in your word processor. Both Google Docs and Word have these features available.
- Use one for the recommended fonts mentioned under "Page formatting."
A title page, sometimes called an APA cover page, graces the cover of an essay or paper. An APA title page should follow rules from Section 2.3 of the official Publication manual and include:
- Page number, which is page 1
- Use title case and bold font
- The title should be under 12 words in length
- The title should be a direct explanation of the focus of the paper. Do not include any unnecessary descriptors such as “An Analysis of…” or “A Study of…”
- Exclude any labels such as Mr., Ms., Dr, PhD...
- Name of the school or institution
- Course number and/or class name
- Name of your instructor, including their preferred honorifics (e.g., PhD, Dr., etc.)
- Paper’s due date
- If this is a professional paper, also include a running head. If this is a student paper, do not include one.
Follow the directions for the running head and page number in the section above. Below the running head, a few lines beneath, and centered in the middle of the page, should be the title. The next line below is the author’s name(s), followed by the name of the school or institution, the class or course name, your instructor’s name, and the paper’s due date.
All components on this page should be written in the same font and size as the rest of your paper. Double space the title, names, name of school or institution, and all other information on the page (except for the running head and page number).
Example - Student Title Page APA:
Example - Professional Title Page APA:
If you’re submitting your paper to a journal for publication, check the journal’s website for exact requirements. Each journal is different and some may request a different type of APA format cover page.
Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to CitationMachine.com’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen.
An abstract briefly but thoroughly summarizes dissertation contents. It’s found in the beginning of a professional paper, right after the title page. Abstracts are meant to help readers determine whether to continue reading the entire document. With that in mind, try to craft the lead sentence to entice the reader to continue reading.
Here are a few tips:
- Be factual and keep your opinions out. An abstract should accurately reflect the paper or dissertation and should not involve information or commentary not in the thesis.
- Communicate your main thesis. What was the examined problem or hypothesis? A reader should know this from reading your abstract.
- Keep it brief. Stick to the main points and don’t add unnecessary words or facts. It should not exceed 250 words.
- Consider your paper’s purpose. It’s important to cater your abstract to your paper type and think about what information the target audience for that paper type would want. For example, an empirical article may mention methodology or participant description. A quantitative or qualitative meta-analysis would mention the different variables considered and how information was synthesized.
- Use verbs over noun equivalents, and active voice. Example: “There was research into…” becomes “We researched…”
- The abstract goes after the title page.
- It should have the same font (size and type) as the rest of the paper.
- It should stick to one page.
- Double-space all page text.
- Center and bold the word “Abstract” at the top of the paper.
- Don’t indent the first line of the abstract body. The body should also be in plain text.
- For the keywords, place it on the line after the abstract and indent the first line (but not subsequent lines). The word “Keywords:” is capitalized, italicized, and followed by a colon. The actual keywords are sentence case and in plan font.
- List each keyword one after the other, and separate them by a comma.
- After the last keyword, no ending punctuation is needed.
Tables & Figures
If your paper includes a lot of numerical information or data, you may want to consider placing it into a table or a figure, rather than typing it all out. A visual figure or simple, organized table filled with numerical data is often easier for readers to digest and comprehend than tons of paragraphs filled with numbers. Chapter 7 of the Publication manual outlines formatting for tables and figures. Let's cover the basics below.
If you’d like to include a table or figure in your paper, here are a few key pieces of information to keep in mind:
- At the end of the paper after the APA reference page
- In the text after it is first mentioned
- The table first mentioned in the text should be titled ‘Table 1.’ The next table mentioned in the text is ‘Table 2,’ and so on. For figures, it would be 'Figure 1,' 'Figure 2,' and so forth.
- Even though every table and figure is numbered, also create a title for each that describes the information it contains. Capitalize all important words in the title.
- For tables, do not use any vertical lines, only use horizontal to break up information and headings.
- Single spacing is acceptable to use in tables and figures. If you prefer double spacing your information, that is okay too.
- Do not include extra information or “fluff.” Keep it simple!
- Do not include the same exact information in the paper. Only include the complete information in one area—the table or the text.
- All tables and figures must be referenced in the text. It is unacceptable to throw a table or figure into the back of the paper without first providing a brief summary or explanation of its relevance.
Publication Manual 6th Edition vs 7th Edition
The 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association was released in 2009. The current 7th edition came out in the fall of 2019 and was designed to be more student focused, provide more guidance on accessibility, and address changes that have developed over the last 10 years.
Below, we’ve listed what we feel are the most relevant changes related to APA format.
Journals and DOIs
DOI stands for “digital object identifier.” Many journal articles use and have a unique DOI that should be included in a full citation.
When including a DOI in a citation, format it as a URL. Do not label it “DOI.” Articles without DOIs from databases are treated as print works. For example:
%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8
%%Gänsicke, B. T., Schreiber, M. R., Toloza, O., Fusillo, N. P. G., Koester, D., & Manser, C. J. (2019). Accretion of a giant planet onto a white dwarf star. Nature, 576 (7785), 61–64. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1789-8
There are few new guidelines when you are citing a book. First, the publisher location no longer needs to be indicated.
%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. Bloomington, IN: First Books Library.
%%Zack, P. O. (2001). The shoals of time. First Books Library.
Second, the format of an ebook (e.g., Kindle, etc.) no longer needs to be indicated.
%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic [Kindle].
%%Niven, J. (2012). Ada Blackjack: A true story of survival in the Arctic .
Lastly, books from research databases without DOIs are treated the same as print works.
When using a URL in a citation, you no longer need to include the term “Retrieved from” before URLs (except with retrieval dates). The font should be blue and underlined, or black and not underlined.
%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show
%%Flood, A. (2019, December 6). Britain has closed almost 800 libraries since 2010, figures show. The Guardian . https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/dec/06/britain-has-closed-almost-800-libraries-since-2010-figures-show
Within a full APA citation, you may spell out up to 20 author names. For two to 20 authors, include an ampersand (&) before the name of the last author. For sources with 21 or more authors, structure it as follows:
Structure: First 19 authors’ names, . . . Last author’s name.
7th edition example: Washington, G., Adams, J., Jefferson, T., Madison, J., Monroe, J., Adams, J. Q., Jackson, A., Van Buren, M., Harrison, W. H., Tyler, J., Polk, J. K., Taylor, Z., Filmore, M., Pierce, F., Buchanan, J., Lincoln, A., Johnson, A., Grant, U. S., Hayes, R. B., Garfield, . . . Trump, D.
When creating an in-text citation for a source with 3 or more authors, use “et al.” after the first author’s name. This helps abbreviate the mention.
6th Edition: (Honda, Johnson, Prosser, Rossi, 2019)
7th Edition: (Honda et al., 2019)
Tables and Figures
Instead of having different formats for tables and figures, both use one standardized format. Now both tables and figures have a number, a title, name of the table/figure, and a note at the bottom.
If you’re still typing into Google “how to cite a website APA” among other related questions and keywords, click here for further reading on the style .
When you’re through with your writing, toss your entire paper into the Citation Machine Plus plagiarism checker , which will scan your paper for grammar edits and give you up to 5 suggestions cards for free! Worry less about a determiner , preposition , or adverb out of place and focus on your research!
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) (2020). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
Updated March 3, 2020
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.
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Should in text citations be italicized?
Last Update: Jan 03, 2023
This is a question our experts keep getting from time to time. Now, we have got the complete detailed explanation and answer for everyone, who is interested!
Should APA citations be in italics?
In APA, use italics for titles of books, scholarly journals, periodicals, films, videos, television shows, and microfilm publications. ... Think of it this way: if the source is a collection of smaller sources or could be cited on its own , it should be in italics.
What is APA Format example?
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication , for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
The Basics of APA In-text Citations (6th Edition) | Scribbr 🎓
How do you cite in apa format.
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation . This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
How do you cite 4 authors?
General Use of Et Al. Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three, four, or five authors include all names in the first in- text citation but are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al.
What is in-text citation example?
Using In-text Citation APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication , for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.
How do you in-text cite two authors?
Citing an Author or Authors. A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in parentheses.
What is MLA citation example?
Article Author's Last Name , First name. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, vol. number, issue no., date published, page range. Title of Website, DOI or URL.
How do you cite in MLA format?
MLA citing format often includes the following pieces of information, in this order: Author's Last name, First name. "Title of Source. " Title of Container, Other contributors, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication Date, Location.
Do you italicize a book title in MLA?
Titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, databases, and websites are italicized . Place titles in quotation marks if the source is part of a larger work. Articles, essays, chapters, poems, webpages, songs, and speeches are placed in quotation marks. Sometimes titles will contain other titles.
How do you cite two pages in one sentence?
- A single page number citation might look like (Smith, 2010, p. 40) or (p. 40).
- A citation for multiple, sequential pages might look like (Smith, 2010, pp. 40-45) or (pp. 40-45).
How do I cite 2 authors in APA?
- 2 Authors: Always cite both authors' names in-text everytime you reference them. Example: Johnson and Smith (2009) found...
- 6 or More Authors: If a document has six or more authors, simply provide the last name of the first author with "et al." from the first citation to the last. Example: Thomas et al.
How do you cite three authors?
Citing Works With Three or More Authors Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and the year published in all narrative and parenthetical citations APA. Note: The reference entry should list the names of up to 20 authors.
What are the three types of citations?
- Modern Language Association (MLA)
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Chicago, which supports two styles: Notes and Bibliography. Author-Date.
What does it mean to cite the text?
What does it mean to “cite” a source? In writing a paper or report, it means: You show, in the body of your paper , where the words or information came from, using an appropriate formatting style. AND. You provide complete information about the source (author, title, name of publication, date, etc.)
Is in-text citation and referencing the same?
An in-text citation (sometimes called a parenthetical reference) is a brief reference (often just an author's last name and a date or page number) made within the body of your essay that helps identify an idea's original source. ... A reference should provide complete information about a source and where it can be found.
How do you in text cite 3 authors in APA?
NOTE: The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is shortened to the first author's name followed by et al. and the year . References: Author Surname, First Initial.
How many authors do you put before et al?
Writers sometimes use the surname of the first author followed by et al. at the first mention of a work that has three, four, or five authors. Only when a work has six or more authors should the first in-text citation consist of the first author followed by et al.
How do you in text cite et al?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors . Here's how it works: Only include the first author's last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
How do you make a citation?
- Put your cursor at the end of the text you want to cite.
- Go to References > Style, and choose a citation style.
- Select Insert Citation.
- Choose Add New Source and fill out the information about your source.
How do you cite an online article in APA format?
- Author name(s)
- Date of publication.
- Title of article.
- Title of source (e.g. journal, etc.) plus volume number and issue number.
- Inclusive page numbers of article.
- DOI (if included)
How do you cite page numbers in an essay?
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
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Department of first appears in apa.
Apa In Text Citation Government Report
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APA Citation Basics When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One complete reference for each source should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
APA in-text citations consist of the author's last name and publication year. When citing a specific part of a source, also include a page number or range, for example (Parker, 2020, p. 67) or (Johnson, 2017, pp. 39-41). Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article Cite
The in-text citation for a book includes the author's last name, the year, and (if relevant) a page number. In the reference list, start with the author's last name and initials, followed by the year. The book title is written in sentence case (only capitalize the first word and any proper nouns ).
For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14).
APA in-text citations include the author's last name, publication date, and, if relevant, a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example, (Smith, 2021, p. 170). See it as a shorter version of the entry in the reference list. You should include in-text citations every time you're quoting or paraphrasing someone else's ideas or words.
We also provide specific guidance for in-text citation, including formats for interviews, classroom and intranet sources, and personal communications; in-text citations in general; and paraphrases and direct quotations. In-text citations are covered in Chapter 8 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition Date created: September 2019 Cite this
Cite a book automatically in APA Cite book Using citation machines responsibly Powered by Note: If available, APA 7 requires a DOI for all works that have one — whether print or digital. If a print work does not have a DOI do not include it in the reference citation. Basic Format for Books Author, A. A. (Year of publication).
Below are citation examples for the most commonly cited kinds of resources using APA rules. For MLA and Chicago (Turabian), please see our MLA Citation Help page or the Chicago (Turabian) Quick Guide. ALWAYS: check with your instructor if you have questions about citation or other format issues. References; In-text Citation; Paper Format and Manual
Book by a single author. Format: Author's last name, Initial(s).(Date of publication). Title of the book.Place of Publication: Publisher name. Example: Staff, F.E ...
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In-text citations most commonly take the form of short parenthetical statements indicating the author and publication year of the source, as well as the page number if relevant. Example: APA Style in-text citation (Jackson, 2005, p. 16) We also offer a free citation generator and in-depth guides to the main citation styles.
Narrative citation of a paraphrase from an authored book chapter: Kearney and Simpson (2020, Chapter 2) When you have directly quoted from a chapter, use a standard in-text citation for a quotation, which includes the author, year, and page number. (The format for quotations is the same for both authored and edited book chapters.)
An APA Style book citation lists the author's last name and initials, the year of publication, the title and any subtitle (in italics, capitalizing only the first word), the edition (if specified), and the publisher. Add a DOI or URL to the end of the entry if available (e.g. for e-books or books accessed online ).
Citing an E-book in APA (online or digital book) An e-book is considered a written work or composition that has been digitized and is readable through computers or e-readers (Kindles, iPads,nooks etc.). As of the APA 7th edition, a special notation does not need to be made for e-reader versions.
When citing the main book, include only the name of the book author in the in-text citation. When citing the foreword or introduction, include the name of the author of that part in the in-text citation: ... APA educational psychology handbook (Vols. 1-3). American Psychological Association.
To cite your ebooks automatically, use the "Book" form at CitationMachine.com, click "Manual entry mode," and click the "E-book" tab. Everything will be properly formatted following APA bibliography guidelines.
This means that in-text citations usually include information on the author, then the date published. For example, if Harold King wrote a book in 2021, his in-text citations would look like this: (King, 2021) King (2021) There are two kinds of in-text citations are available in APA style: narrative citations and parenthetical citations.
In-text citation structure: Parenthetical citation: (Author Last Name, Year Published) Narrative citation: Author Last Name (Year Published) E-Book Citation Examples Citing an Authored E-book With a DOI or URL Reference Page Structure: Author Last Name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year Published). Title of e-book in sentence case.
Your Reference list will contain the article you read, by Linhares and Brum. Your Reference list will NOT contain a citation for Klein's article. In-text citation. Klein's study (as cited in Linhares & Brum, 2007) found that... Your in-text citation gives credit to Klein and shows the source in which you found Klein's ideas.
In-text citation APA example: According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, titled the "References."
Tutorial APA In-text Citations (6th Edition) Citing Books in APA 6th Edition How to Cite a Book \u0026 Chapter in APA Style Referencing books and book chapters in both the APA 7th and the APA 6th style How to Cite Using APA Style (6th ed.): ebooksAPA Format 7th Edition: Reference Page Tutorial (Websites, Journals, Magazines, Newspaper Articles ...
Expert Answers: Titles of books and reports are italicized in in-text citations, and titles of articles and other documents are put in quotation marks. Should in text citations be italicized? Last Update: Jan 03, 2023. ... APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct ...
Apa Citation Book Chapter Example When somebody should go to the book stores, search start by shop, shelf by shelf, it is really problematic. ... encrypt PDFs ‧ Send email responses and text notifications ‧ Fill out online forms Step-by-step instructions walk you through each program, and updated practice projects at the end of each chapter ...
Provide a government document from apa in text citation government report a category that will need not. Canadian wheat board act, government agency is actually seen. He writes and each reference list must include author may be placed in forecasting their stage in brackets followed by a citation.