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The Effect of the “War on Terror” on Pakistan
A recent panel examined the human costs of the “war on terror” for Pakistanis and its implications for the rule of law, governance, and justice in Pakistan.
In the United States, Pakistan is seen from the outside looking in—as a strategic ally, a contentious partner, a nation of terrorism, and a war front. But citizens of the country see and experience the consequences of that war in a very different way. Panelists examined those consequences, which include large-scale loss of life and displacement; harm to the rights and protections offered to citizens by the Pakistani constitution and laws; and the undermining of confidence in legal structures, in the context of Islamabad’s evolving relationship with Washington and regional adversaries.
Listen to the discussion above.
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The pulse | security | south asia.
It is time for Pakistan’s political and military establishment to wake up and reconcile with the fact that they can’t negotiate their way to peace.
Police officials and others attend the funeral prayer of a police officer, a victim of Monday’s suicide bombing, in Peshawar, Pakistan, Feb. 2, 2023.
The grandstanding of Pakistani politicians and their inability to negotiate are consistent elements of the nation’s politics. But the elites’ penchant for prioritizing political gain over the welfare of the state threatens to impose more self-inflicted pain on Pakistan’s most significant asset: its provincial security infrastructure.
While Pakistan’s municipal and provincial security forces are resilient, no institution can be expected to heal, much less thrive, as it encounters one devastating trauma after another. As if biblical floods, cyclical debt, and an energy crisis weren’t enough, an old enemy has reared its head once more to threaten Pakistan’s precarious security situation: the Pakistani Taliban (TTP).
It is time for Pakistan’s political and military establishment to wake up and reconcile with the fact that they can’t negotiate their way to peace. The state must wage war against the Pakistani Taliban and their ideology before they inflict more violence on Pakistan.
On January 30, an estimated 100 people, primarily police officers, lost their lives at the hands of a TTP suicide bomber in the Pakistani city of Peshawar, with over 217 injured. On February 17, the TTP targeted the office of the Karachi police chief; four people were killed and 19 were injured. This new wave of bold terrorist activity follows a breakdown in talks between the Pakistani political and security establishment and the TTP last November.
The decision to negotiate rather than destroy the Pakistani Taliban was undertaken under the auspices of both the former Prime Minister Imran Khan , and, as new rumors indicate, former Army Chief Qamar Javed Bajwa. Khan and Bajwa’s rationale for engaging with the TTP is excruciatingly simple: They are Pakistani citizens and would like to come back to the country.
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In a recent address, Khan outlined that “when the Afghan war ended… some 30,000 to 40,000 Pakistani tribal fighters wanted to come back… The PTI government had two options: either kill all of them or reach an agreement with them and allow them to settle in the province.”
While this policy holds a veneer of practicality, it was doomed to fail. The TTP, emboldened by their peers’ victory in Afghanistan, would not accept anything less than their own Shariah haven. The group is both fundamentally opposed to and ideologically driven to eradicate the concept of a constitutional Pakistan. Yet the Pakistani military apparatus and the former PTI government under Khan believed that they could overlook this philosophy and attempted to engage the terrorist group in dialogue.
Predictably, talks between the government and the TTP broke down as the TTP refused to drop its extreme demands , calling for revoking the merger of Pakistan’s tribal areas (the former FATA) with Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, along with releasing jailed TTP members and enforcing Shariah law within their historical areas of influence along the Afghan border. The Pakistani state refused, and talks were placed on hold as Khan’s government was ousted from office. It is precisely this cycle of pointless negotiations that not only entertains the far-fetched demands of terrorist groups but emboldens and legitimizes them as valid political entities.
As the never-ending political power struggle took place in Islamabad, the TTP capitalized on the distraction and leveraged its clout to increase the size of its ranks and, subsequently, its lethality. The TTP found a willing partner in Pakistan’s separatist Baloch insurgency, raising the number of groups that have merged under its ever-growing umbrella to 22. As the old adage goes, “the enemy of my enemy is my friend.” Last year, the group and its affiliates were responsible for at least 150 attacks in Pakistan, primarily in the northwest of the country.
The current coalition government has taken a different approach to the TTP but is burdened with power politics and lacks an electoral mandate. During an interview last month, Pakistan’s Federal Human Rights Minister Riaz Pirzada claimed that the current government and military are divided on continuing negotiations with the TTP. The ruling coalition’s leadership is reluctant to continue to engage the militant group the same way as before, but has no power to command the generals in Rawalpindi to fight them. Islamabad is burdened with myriad challenges and, as of now, has only been capable of laying the blame on the former PTI government for allowing the TTP to resettle in Pakistan in the first place.
The TTP’s recent attacks on provincial police forces indicate a dangerous shift in their political strategy. The group has now realized that if it were to attack military institutions, it would face the full might of the Pakistani military as opposed to their preferred approach that prioritizes negotiations. But in an effort to gain leverage and force the government to restart negotiations with the state, the TTP has resolved to target police institutions instead. This not only damages local law enforcement infrastructure but erodes the morale of a desperately underfunded public good.
While the military has faced its fair share of terrorist violence, it is municipal and provincial police forces that are bearing the brunt of such attacks. Shortly after the deadly bombing in Peshawar, a rare protest was staged by the Peshawar police force requesting that the state do more to protect them and to fully investigate the lapse in security.
Islamabad and Rawalpindi must be united in both mission and resolve to eliminate the Pakistani Taliban. The two disparate entities must send a signal to the terrorists that their efforts are futile. But most importantly, the center must signal to municipal and provincial police forces that they are supported by the state and that those responsible for these attacks will be held accountable.
It is only the military that has the capacity to eliminate this threat. But the military will not willingly wage this war nor listen to the politicians in Islamabad unless the political elites unite in calling for eliminating the TTP. A united political front, backed by the will of the people, has the potential to compel the generals in Rawalpindi to act. Pakistan will only have a chance at pursuing prosperity when both the political and military elite realize that serving the interests of the state is in their personal interests.
February 16, 2023
The twin factors behind pakistan’s growing ttp problem, by hamael kashif and hamza basharat.
February 10, 2023
Frankenstein’s monster: the growing ttp threat in pakistan, by muhammad akbar notezai.
February 02, 2023
Militant who killed 101 at pakistan mosque wore uniform, by riaz khan.
December 01, 2022
Pakistan demands taliban prevent attacks after suicide bomb, by munir ahmed, top stories.
February 27, 2023
Russia’s war on ukraine: lessons for the indonesian armed forces, by muhammad fauzan malufti.
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Bangladesh calls for revision of power purchasing deal with adani, by shafi md mostofa.
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Essay On Terrorism In Pakistan
The systematic approach adopts here while writing Essay On Terrorism In Pakistan. We have the idea that it is the need of those students who want higher studies rooted in violence and perceived injustices. The lead goes with the psychological determinants of the terrorist act. The western media put light on terrorism and war specifically after 9/11. The violent radicalization is the result of such a mindset. Terror thinking finds a way to search Pakistan’s history, even the current geopolitical situation, and social scenario. It is the core issue reflected in the best way.
Every government has its own interpretation and struggle to define terrorism. There is no standard definition indeed. United Nations did not ponder to articulate a full-fledged definition that can make the standard for all countries. The event of 9/11 has impacted the Muslim community specifically.
Essay On Corruption
Event of 9/11:
The incident directly creates the feeling In Muslims that terrorism has a direct impact on the so-called Muslim extremist groups. In simple words, it can say that terrorism is what these groups are doing. The same mindset makes the wrong interpretation of Islamic Jihad as well. Social, economic, and human costs due to terrorism heavily affect the Pakistani stand at an international level. The purpose of the narrative is to show the same in this Essay On Terrorism In Pakistan. Pakistan is the first country made with the name of Islam on the world map and obviously, it faces the same mindset on the frontline.
Soviet-Afghan War 1979:
The western media never missed a chance to mention the first step of Pakistan toward terrorism in the region. A fundamental change was witnessed that altered the very character of the existing Pakistani society. The withdrawal of the Soviets revealed a Pakistani society that had been forced into havoc. There are many direct and indirect events in terrorism linked to the Essay On Terrorism In Pakistan. It assures that how every event including the event of 9/11 and the first step of the Soviet-Afghan War in 1979 are some facets of the Essay On War Against Terrorism.
Pakistan Stock Exchange attack
In 2020, some terrorists attacked the Pakistan Stock exchange which is located in Karachi. When work hours started then some of the people who are completely loaded with the latest guns and bombs attacked the main branch then some of the Pakistan arm forces soldiers were taken action against them and shot all the terrorists.
Now, you can get the essay on terrorism in Pakistan in English because some people do not understand Urdu literature so all information about terrorism is mentioned on this page. Students can read the essay on Terrorism in Pakistan with Quotes.
I am Professional Writer on the Career Consultancy and trying to facilitate the students for delivering the educational services along with the fastest growing educational website of the Pakistan
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its not what i wanted….:(
very helpful essay on terrorism on pakistan
it helps me in my intermediate exams 2013
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Very go0d c0llecti0n 0f p0ints ….. 🙂
I HAVE TO WRITE AN ESSAY UPONE “WAR AGAINST TERRORISOM” AND I FOUND IT “THANKS”……..
yah essay bilkul thek hai pakostan ke lihayas se vveeeeerrrrrryyyyyyyy goooooooooood
really good essay..!!!
it’s very good eassy on terrorim in pakistan
niceee nd good eassy i think the date of incident of lal masid on may be 2005 in musharafs period
really a gooood essay.,,.,!!
Lal masjid incident happened in July-2007 while the suicide attacks start from Airstricke on a Madrassa at Bajaur Agency, the tribal area of Pakistan. It results 82 Madrassa students.
this is really nice essay
i dont think the incident of lal masjid brings terrorism in pakistan
i wanna say that incident of lal masjid was not in late 1999s
hey plz if u know than reply me the actual date of this incident………
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- War on Terror
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Pakistan Role in War on Terror
The events of September 11 impacted international polices and the regional situation within Pakistan necessitated change to its internal policies. Pakistan found that it had no risk-free options: all polices were full of danger and risk of varying degrees. The test was to adopt such a policy and course of action that could minimize the risk and offered the best possible option in the given circumstances. Geo-strategic location of Pakistan and links with Taliban administration absolved Pakistan to remain unaffected immediately after the attack.
Moreover Pakistan was among the three countries, which recognized the Taliban government. Any effort of US and World coalition against Taliban could not have been succeeded without active cooperation of Pakistan. After declaring Al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden as a prime suspect U. S. President George W. Bush said, :”Every nation in every region now has a decision to make. Either you are with us or with the terrorists. ” The Taliban were asked to hand over Osama and close down bases of his Al-Qaeda network or face the consequences.
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The rest of the world was told that there could not be any neutral party in the war against terrorism. Pakistan, due to its strategic importance and close relation with the Taliban regime, was asked to cooperate. Military President Pervez Musharraf, was told to either abandon the support of Taliban or be prepared to be treated like the Taliban. The military government, due to Pakistan’s compulsions or concerns, Pakistan security and stability from external threat, the revival of economy, its nuclear and missile assets and Kashmir cause decided to join US led coalition on war against terrorism.
So once again, under another military ruler, Pakistan became front line state. Introduction Pakistan’s geographical location played a vital role in the Global War on Terror (GWoT). Its proximity with the Afghanistan brought Pakistan on the limelight. Unites States had chosen Pakistan for logistics, intelligence support, bases for operations in Afghanistan. Pakistan provided its all out support to the coalition forces against the Taliban regime. Pakistan proved to be pivotal for the United States in war against terrorism.
In theory “Pivotal States are those countries which have potential influence significant or harmful effects on their regions. ” Pakistan has all the ingredients to influence its regional neighbors. It shares long borders with major players like India, Afghanistan, Iran and China. Its nuclear capability had brought Pakistan into attention and post 9/11 era again increased the importance of Pakistan. Ex-president Musharraf called upon a meeting after the 9/11 attacks, with his Generals and key civilian leaders in which he said “US will react like a wounded bear and it will attack Afghanistan”.
Musharraf had predicted the looming threat to the existence of Taliban regime and he decided to support United States of America without any hesitation. After the attacks US made several Demands to Pakistan, these were… “over flight rights, access to Pakistani air , naval, and lands bases, crush the domestic elements who are in support of terrorism against Americans and its allies, end every logistic and diplomatic support to Taliban. ” Pakistan accepted all these above demands without any vacillation. President George Bush howls then that “it looks like you got it all. Pakistan’s support was crucial for the United States in every manner. Pakistan provided logistics and its air bases to support the attack against Afghanistan. Despite local resentment ex-president Musharraf pursued his policy on American terms and conditions, which later proven to be disastrous for the Pakistan’s own security. Today US is suffering huge losses in Afghanistan. It is unable to counter insurgency in Afghanistan which has been spilled over to Pakistani tribal areas and now it has threatened the core existence of Pakistan.
Today its 2009 and there is no end to this war. Terrorism, extremism, violence and instability in Afghanistan and Pakistan have touched the record levels. United States and its allies have been miserably failed in the Afghanistan; they have suffered huge economic and military setbacks in this war. More than 500 US soldiers have lost their lives in Afghanistan, and on the other hand US has also spent billions of dollars in Afghan War. But still they are unable to achieve any considerable success in Afghanistan.
Use of force in Afghanistan and in Pakistani Tribal Areas has caused thousands of civilian casualties. Situation in most parts of Afghanistan is out of the US control. New Obama Administration should work with Pakistan government for the peaceful settlement of these issues, dialogue and reconciliation efforts can only bring peace and stability in the region. In coming paragraphs Pakistan’s role in War on Terror will be discussed briefly. Targeting and Capturing Al-Qaeda Insurgents Pakistan has played a crucial role in the War against Terrorism. It has been a key ally in this war.
It is a hard fact that US cannot win this war without the support of Pakistan. Pakistan’s geographical proximity with Afghanistan made it more important for the United States. Pakistan shares long border with Afghanistan which is mostly consists of rugged mountainous terrain, and it is difficult for surveillance. After the US attack, flux compelled people from Afghanistan to get refuge in Pakistan; they have centuries old linkages Pakistani tribal areas and moved freely. In this backdrop Taliban and some Al-Qaeda remnants also found refuge in these areas.
After intense pressure from United States in 2002 Musharraf ordered the Military Operation in the Tribal Areas. This was the starting point of dark ages for Pakistan. After this operation we have seen hundreds of civilian and security forces casualties. Moreover In 2003 Pakistan achieved significant gains in tribal areas; it had captured more than 400 Al Qaeda and Taliban suspects and killed many. Moreover In 2004 Pakistan under pressure from United States started its operation in North Waziristan in which Pakistan security forces had killed more than 300 foreign fighters and Al Qaeda suspects.
These operations played havoc with the safety and security of Pakistan and brought great resentment from the masses of Pakistan. Local tribesmen stood against the government operation and Pakistan forces faced huge losses in terms of man and material. Eventually in 2005 Pakistan army declared that out of 6000 foreign militants it has captured 600 and 150 have been killed. The loss of Pakistan army was around 200 men. This shows the continuous efforts of Pakistan against this war on terror.
No other American ally has done this much labor so far, but despite all these efforts Americans are still not satisfied with the Pakistani pains in GWOT. Time an again they allege that Pakistan is supporting covertly anti American groups in tribal areas and Afghanistan. In reality weakness is on the other side of the border, where US led alliance with meager force is unable to curb the insurgency from Afghanistan. United States of America should acknowledge Pakistan’s efforts in the GWOT and come up with all out support to help Pakistan in combating miscreants in the tribal areas.
United States should trust Pakistan Army and its Intelligence Agencies. Only then we can move to the amicable solution of the problem in Afghanistan and Pakistan’s turbulent tribal areas. Logistic Support for Coalition Forces: United States of America was successful to gather the support of the world community. On October 2001 US announced that twenty seven countries had granted over flight and landing rights to US forces. Despite getting the support from many other countries Pakistan was a key player for the US policy makers.
Pakistan provided United States all out support in this war. In coming paragraphs study will focus on the Pakistan’s support to the United States. Air bases given to United States Pakistan had offered its air bases at Pasni and Jacobabad to US operations in the Afghanistan. Other air base which is being used by Americans is at Dalbandin. All these three air fields are used for the logistics and support to the coalition forces in Afghanistan. Dalbandin used as a forward refueling base for US Special Operations helicopters operating in Afghanistan.
These bases have been very crucial for the Americans because of their proximity to Afghanistan. It is alleged by some dissents that CIA drone attacks fly from Pakistan to target Taliban or militants in Pakistani tribal areas, although at government level these accusations have been rejected by the several government officials. The reasons behind not accepting these allegations are may be to avoid severe resentment from the Pakistani masses. Daily times a Pakistani English news paper quotes Rand Corporation a US think tank’s report of 2004 that Pakistan provided the US access to numerous military bases and helped establish facilities including Intermediate Staging Bases at Jacobabad, Pasni, Dalbandin and Shamsi; Predator basing at Jacobabad and Shamsi, and access to other bases used by over 50 aircraft and 2,000 coalition military personnel at these locales. ” Pakistan government should pass a resolution in the parliament with the consent of the all the political parties to close any cooperation with Americans which undermines the sovereignty of Pakistan. No country in the world has the right to trespass other country’s boundary.
America has crossed all the limits and now they are challenging the sovereignty of Pakistan, now this is the responsibility of our democratically elected government that they should take some stern action against these malpractices Supply of logistics by Road: Pakistan has also signed an agreement with the United States after 9/11 in which Pakistan have pledged to give America all out support in logistics. More than 75% US and NATO supplies pass through Pakistan which includes gas, food, military equipment etc. Pakistan has been key player in logistic support.
But growing uncertainties in Pakistani tribal areas and in Afghanistan these supply lines have been severely damaged by the miscreants. Billions of dollars worth of machinery and food items were torched in the recent past, which compelled US to change its supply routes, possibly from Russia or Central Asian States. Deployment of troop on Pak-Afghan Border: Pakistan shares 2400 km border with Afghanistan which is mostly rocky and precipitous terrain. Despite such conditions Pakistan have deployed more than 90,000 of its army at border with Afghanistan to put hold on the insurgency.
Furthermore it has also established more than 1000 check posts and it has conducted more than 100 operations in FATA in which more than 2,000 Al Qaeda and Taliban militants were killed. But despite all such efforts it has been blamed for supporting insurgency which is really illogical. If we compare Pakistan’s efforts with allied forces in Afghanistan then it would be easy to understand that Pakistan is doing more than enough. There are not more than 200 check posts across the border. Total force under the ISAF/NATO is not more than 70,000.
So it would be imperative for United States and its allies in Afghanistan that they should do more now instead of pressurizing Pakistan and its intelligence agencies. United States should acknowledge that Pakistan’s efforts in this war are undeniable. Intelligence Support: Pakistan has provided United States with proficient intelligence for their operations against the Taliban, although Pakistan’s intelligence cooperation was not on limelight but with their support US would have been unable to target the Al-Qaeda and Taliban members. US National security Advisor J.
Hadley in an interview with CNN refused to comment on ISI-CIA relationship. He said “the relationship we have very sensitive, they are a matter of domestic politics to these countries and it would not help our effort against terror to be talking publicly about these relationships” This highlights that covert support Pakistan has been given to the United States for its operations against Taliban and Al Qaeda. In addition in 2002 Pakistani intelligence agencies arrested Khalid Al –Attash a Yemeni wanted for the bombing of USS Cole. Other important achievement was the arrest of Ramzi Bin Al Shibh, who was allegedly involved in 9/11 attacks.
Major suspect of 9/11 Khalid sheikh had been arrested by the Inter Services Intelligence agents in 2003. In 2002 bush administration declared that more than 2700 militants allegedly linked to Al Qaeda were arrested in 60 countries, Pakistan have arrested 500 Al Qaeda linked militants more than any other country. Amjad Hussein Farooqi who was involved in the assassination attempt of Ex-President Musharraf and he had also close links with the Mullah Umer and Osama bin Laden was gunned down by the Pakistan police in 2004. Pakistan handed over 369 of the 689 captured militants to the United States.
Regardless of Pakistan’s endless efforts Pakistani intelligence agency ISI is still being scrutinized by the US. It would have been difficult for United States to carry out operations against militants without intelligence support of the Pakistan. It is responsibility of the United States now to admire the role of ISI instead of maligning it. Pakistan government should also take some firm action diplomatically against such allegations on ISI and it must defend its national intelligence agency, only then we can succeed in the war against terrorism. Efforts for Peace by Pakistan:
Use of force can never be the only option to bring peace and stability, reconciliation, dialogue; peace efforts are also important in this regard. Pakistan government did its best to resolve the problems and issues in tribal areas in an amicable way and bring some long term solution to the lingering issues. Few important peace agreements which Pakistan government have signed in the past with tribal elders are discussed briefly in the following: Shakai agreement- 2004: First accord in 2004 was signed with Nek Muhammad at Shakai with Waziri fighter.
He reneged and was killed by American missile strike. It shows Pakistan’s genuine efforts for peace but Americans were susceptible for agreement with any Taliban leaders. It was unfortunate that peace agreement with Nek Muhammad could not materialize. Pakistan realizing the fact that use of force can never bring peace gone such agreement, but unfortunately it was sabotaged by the US air strike, there must have been constant dialogue with Nek Mohammad but in the end we have seen start of another gloomy era after this.
There have been constant attacks on military convoys and installation. Next agreement was Baitullah Mehsud. Peace Agreement with Baitullah Mehsud at Sararogha- 2005: Pakistan army after fierce clashes with Tribes in Waziristan came to conclusion that military operations would never resolve the issue, it would further exacerbate the situation, high number of civilian and armed force casualties compelled the government to bring these warring groups to peaceful negotiations. Second such peace agreement after 2004 held at Sararogha in February 2005.
Major purpose of the agreement was to settle the issue without any further bloodshed. The agreement included the pledge by the Baitullah Mehsud and his tribe that they will not attack government installations and army check points; furthermore they will also not give shelter to the foreign militants. Despite all these efforts by the government peace was hard to achieve in the tribal areas. Peace deal with Baitullah Mehsud was also jeopardized after its violation by the Mehsud tribe.
In short this agreement with Baitullah Mehsud turned out be a disaster for the peace in the tribal areas, today they are in constant clash with Pakistan army and Frontier Core. There is need of a comprehensive strategy which aims at the long term solution of the problem. Pakistan government should work for the peaceful settlement through engaging these tribes through Jirga/ negotiations, because use of force alone can never be the long term solution, we also need political backing in this process only then we can bring long term peace and stability in these areas.
Miramshah Agreement-2006: Governments in 2006 signed an agreement with the North Waziristan tribal elders and members of Taliban to bring peace in this region. As part of the agreement government withdrew troops from that area and also released 165 miscreants, furthermore it was pledged that Tribal who suffered in the military operations will be compensated economically by the government. Moreover they were allowed to carry small weapons; in return tribal elders pledged that they will not allow any insurgent to infiltrate into Pakistani territory from Afghanistan.
But in 2007 malefactor elements relinquish the peace agreement and cross border activities again had taken place more frequently. The failure of the government in this agreement was obvious because of many reasons, first government’s pledge to withdraw from the area had given them chance to regroup and organize themselves, secondly many miscreants were released by the government without any charge, and it had given confidence to these people against the government.
This was the reason that after gaining economic compensation they regrouped and became more organized against the government. Bajaur accord – 2007: In 2007 Pakistan government tried to bring peace in the volatile tribal region, in that process Bajaur accord was singed with local elders of Mohmand tribe and the government, but due to the judicial crisis after the sacking of Chief Justice of Pakistan the focus of government trend from this peace accord. Eventually this peace agreement also met the same fate as other accords and peace agreements faced in the past.
Government of Pakistan should take some concrete steps and bring peace, harmony and solidity to these areas, military force should be selectively used with accurate information and human intelligence. But peace efforts should also be carried out with military operations only then we can bring long term peace and stability in these areas. Several issues Affecting Pakistan’s efforts in GWoT: There are few issues which are impinging the Pakistan’s efforts to fight Extremism and Terrorism. That include: Lack of Resources/Funds/Aid:
First and foremost requirement is the resource capacity or adequate funds to fight terrorism and extremism, which Pakistan lacks, due to global economic crunch, high oil prices all over the world, high food prices, and burden of foreign debt have seriously hampered Pakistan’s efforts to fight against terrorism and extremism. Now the need of hour is that our allies including America, China, and other developed countries should come up with huge Non-Conditional aid. Only then Pakistan can effectively fight menace of terrorism and extremism. Lack of Training to fight Guerilla Warfare:
Pakistan Army is trained to fight the conventional war, they are not trained in Guerilla warfare tactics, this is the reason that they are suffering huge casualties in fighting militancy in FATA, secondly our FC and police is also not trained enough to eliminate the nuisance of terrorism and extremism. We need to train our armed force, FC and police in counter asymmetric warfare. Only then they can be more effective against these miscreants. It is really very difficult to fight guerrilla warfare in a mountainous terrain, which provide lot of help in this kind of asymmetric warfare and give edge to the militants.
To avoid further loss of men and equipment we have to train our security forces, in this regard we can take help from developed countries. Trust deficit with US: United States and Western world should acknowledge this fact that Pakistan Army and ISI have done a lot in this war. Now putting allegations on these two institutions will seriously jeopardize the overall counter terrorism and counter insurgency efforts. So the fact of the matter is that trust deficit should be filled up and blame game should end.
Americans know very well that situation in Pakistan is seriously getting worse day by day, United States should support Pakistan diplomatically, and it should not pressurize Pakistan with old dictum of “do more”. Now we need collective effort against terrorism. Pakistan has already lost more soldiers and paramilitary troops than Americans or NATO forces, which shows its sincerity in this war. So it is imperative for the US to fill this gap of trust deficit and come up with more extensive support to Pakistan at every level, only then we can achieve our common objectives to win against terrorism and extremism.
Drone attacks/Civilian casualties/resentment: Drone attacks by the Americans are seriously hampering the war against terrorism, because these attacks have killed more civilians than the real target, civilian casualties will fuel more insurgency and militancy. Now with changing tactics by Al Qaeda and Taliban they are using civilians as shield, they are dispersed in the tribal areas and mixed in the population, in case of any drone attack probability of the collateral damage has increased.
In response what we are getting is more extremism, terrorism and more suicide attacks on our security forces, police and FC. This is the time for Americans to think wisely about these attacks, they are just fueling more militancy and terrorism and situation is getting worse with the passage of time. They should adopt another approach in which effective human intelligence is involved and which has less threat of civilian or innocent casualties, there must be selected use of force to save the precious innocent lives. Lack of Latest Technologies/Weapons/Equipment:
Pakistan lacks latest weapons and equipments to fight guerilla warfare in rugged and mountainous terrain, what we need is more helicopters to carry out air assault on militants, it would give us an edge and also it would save lives of our soldiers, furthermore Night Vision Devices, Night Goggles, more Bullet Proof Jackets, Bullet Proof Vehicles, Jammers, latest surveillance Radars and equipments, and long range latest Snipers etc would definitely enhance the capacity and credibility of our security forces to carry out more accurate and decisive operation against militants and miscreants.
Pakistan seriously lack in these latest technologies instated of criticism Pakistan should be given these latest weapons and equipments. Lack of Human Intelligence in FATA: “Knowledge of the spirit world is to be obtained by divination; information in natural science may be sought by inductive reasoning; the laws of the universe can be verified by mathematical calculation: but the dispositions of an enemy are ascertainable through spies and spies alone. ” Sun Tzu (Art of War) (500. B. C) One of the major reasons of the failures in the Global War on Terrorism is the human intelligence failure in the Afghanistan and Pakistan. Without credible information we cannot win this war. Lack of intelligence has proven to be a major hurdle in the tribal areas of Pakistan where Pakistan army is engage in bringing peace and stability. Keeping in mind the importance of human intelligence we have to formulate our further policies to accomplish our long term aims and objectives.
Today we are facing an enemy with better human intelligence in tribal areas, if anyone found spying for Pakistan army or the US is being mercilessly executed in public which deter the new recruitment for the human intelligence. Despite technological advancement there are few things which cannot be measured or analyzed without active presence of ground spies. So it is imperative for our Intelligence agencies and Armed forces to improve their presence of human intelligence in these areas.
Conclusion. Pakistan a country of 170 million population and seventh largest army in the world is the frontline state in the war against terrorism. It has suffered huge setbacks in this war but despite all such setbacks and tribulations it has faced menace of terrorism and extremism with full vigor and zeal. Its armed forces, intelligence agencies, Frontier Core all have done mammoth work with less resources and training in such an asymmetric warfare. After 8 year of war still Pakistan is in the quagmire of terrorism and extremism.
Major hurdle in fighting such guerrilla warfare is the lack of adequate resources and training to Pakistan army, FC, and Police. Guerrilla warfare is totally different war as compare to regular war. To win such war we need to train our security forces with modern weapons and equipments for example long range surveillance equipment, night vision war fighting capabilities, and other latest equipments and technologies, which can be utilized in such warfare. At this moment due to economic crunch Pakistan is unable to get these latest weapons and equipments to fight these people.
This is the responsibility of the US and its allies that they should provide us all these latest weaponry equipment and technologies so we can fight these militants more effectively. But US instead of supporting Pakistan and its intelligence agency is busy in criticizing its efforts. They want to put their failures on us. US have to stop blame game against Pakistan army and its intelligence agencies if it is really sincere in bringing peace in Afghanistan and volatile tribal areas of Pakistan.
US should let the Pakistan tackle militancy in its own way, Pakistan army and intelligence agencies are quite efficient in tackling such situation, but what they need is adequate financial aid and diplomatic support from other countries. America should acknowledge the efforts and sacrifices made by the Pakistan. Americans should trust Pakistan’s labors and they should also try to build the gap in trust deficit. it would not only disturb the relations between both countries but also it would sabotage the efforts in the war against terrorism.
Currently Pakistan is engage in tribal areas and on Afghan border. It is fighting against terrorists, extremists and foreign insurgents who are trying to destabilize Pakistan. Furthermore US unilateral strikes in Pakistani tribal areas, in which many civilians have also lost their lives has provoked more militancy and terrorism and it has also fueled the anti American sentiments in the Pakistan. Attacks on the NATO/US supplies have been on peak in the recent times, which compelled US to look for alternative routes to meet its logistics demand.
Pakistan is trying hard to safeguard US/NATO supplies but rising resentment against the Americans prompted the local population to support the militants in these types of malpractices. In short it can be argued that US have to change its policy in dealing with Pakistan, it must respect and honor the sovereignty and independent stature of Pakistan. Allegations on Pakistan’s intelligence agency and Army should end because it won’t help in the war against terrorism. America should trust Pakistan’s efforts and provide Pakistan with unconditional aid to combat terrorism and extremism in a more effective, constructive and a proficient way.
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Pakistan Role in War on Terror. (2017, Feb 18). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/pakistan-role-in-war-on-terror/
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Essay on Terrorism in Pakistan Causes Effects and Solution
Terrorism is in the broadest sense the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in context of war against non-combatants. The terms “terrorist” and “terrorism” originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. In this page we discuss Terrorism in Pakistan its causes and salutation. Essay on Terrorism in Pakistan Causes Effects and Solution. Read complete article and improve your knowledge about terrorism in Pakistan.
Terrorism is one of the biggest problems in Pakistan due to which we are not saved. Terrorists always attack the schools, colleges, universities, hospital and many more and killing the students and small kids marble heartedly. We could observer that in this month, we have faced many attacks where we have lost precious lives.We face the war as a situation against terrorism. There are many dimensions in this situation due to many factors. These factors include social injustice, economic disadvantages, political instability, religious inconvenience, as well as foreign hands or international conspiracies.
Those people who had forced to meet the interests of their evil, they did not kill innumerable lives, but by the tyranny, the real image of Islam destroyed the face of the world on the face of the world. . Terrorist actions, such as suicide bombs, have become today’s laws. Due to these attacks, Pakistan has economically uncertainly damaged the citizens. People have become digital data, since time has increased. Terrorists have left no place like Market, mosques, educational institutions, offices, hotels, no safe place.
- Role Of Madrassahs.
- Religious Intolerance.
- Afghan War: 1979
- Iranian Revolution:
- War On Terrorism: 9/11
Factors Boosting Terrorism:
- Anti-Terrorism Campaign And Drone Strikes:
- Negligence Of Government:
- Persecution Of Innocent Muslims In Kashmir And Palestine:
Steps Taken By Pakistan:
- Ban On Terrorist Organisation
- Operation Rah-E-Nijat
- Operation Rah-E-Rast
Once a convicted “terrorist” Nelson Mandela wrote in his autobiography “the hard facts were that 50 years of nonviolence had brought my people nothing but more repressive legislation and fewer rights.
Causes of Terrorism in Pakistan.
The sectarian anti shite militant groups like Sipah I Sahaba Pakistan were preaching hatred against the Shiite Muslims and employing some terrorist activities. The extremist sectarian intolerance came to Pakistan only after 1979 revolution in Iran.
Terrorism in Pakistan originated with supporting the Soviet–Afghan War, and the subsequent civil war erupted in Afghanistan that continued for at least a decade. The conflict brought numerous fighters from all over the world to South Asia in the name of jihad. The mujahideen fighters were trained by Pakistan’s military, American CIA and other western intelligence agencies who carried out insurgent activities inside Afghanistan well after the war officially ended.
Pakistan has done its level best to rid terrorism and terrorists from its soil. In first step, many terrorist organisations were banned by the Musharraf government. After those successful military operations namely Rah-e-Nijat and Rah-e-Rast have been conducted. Pakistan army has fought bravely against terrorist and has destroyed their safe dens. It has broken the backbone of the terrorists and has forced them to flee. These operations still keep ongoing in some tribal areas. In this context, it is worth-mentioning that public support to military operations is very essential, and without people’s backing no army can win this ‘different war’ against terrorism.
For Pakistan the consequences of being the epicentre of the war on terror have been disastrous physically, psychologically and economically. Nobody understands terrorism better than us (Pakistanis). We have been victims of various manifestations of it since the Soviet Afghan war. Since 9/11, the wave of suicide bombing has so far killed scores of innocent Pakistani civilians and muffled the already slow pace of our economic growth. The financial cost of the ongoing global war on terror in the last two years alone has been $35 billion. This has badly affected in particular, the socio-economic development of Pakistan. Lest we forget, we even lost our prominent political leader Benazir Bhutto to an act of terror.
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CSS Essay | War on Terrorism is Contributing towards Growing Abuse of Human Rights (CSS 2015)
War on Terrorism is contributing towards Growing Abuse of Human Rights (CSS 2015)
Essay outline: war on terrorism is contributing towards growing abuse of human rights.
1. Introduction 2. War on Terrorism 3. What are Human Rights? 4. War on terrorism and abuses of human rights (i) Violation of Political and social rights (a) Loss of life (b) Arbitrary Detention (c) Extraordinary Rendition (d) Denial of right to Petition (e) Repressive laws (f) Suppression of Freedom of Expression (g) Discriminations (h) Invasion of Privacy (i) Sexual Assault (ii) Education Case of Iraq (iii) Demolition of social infrastructure 5. Violations of human rights in Pakistan 6. Is there an alternate to the WOT? 7. Role of Civil Society and Media 8. Recommendations 9. Conclusion
What have been the costs of war on terrorism in human and economic terms? How has the war changed the social and political landscape of the countries where the war has been waged? What is the long term economic effect of the war likely to be? What have been the public health consequences of the war? Were and are there alternative less costly and more effective ways to prevent further terror attacks? How has and to what extent the war contributed to the abuse of human rights? These are some of the frequently asked questions that the war in the course of its continuity has raised in minds of every conscious person. The war that began in 2001 proved tremendously painful for millions of people across the world, especially in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan, and the United States. Each additional month and year of war adds to that toll. Moreover, the human costs of these conflicts will reverberate for years to come in each of the affected country. The war on terror, in fact proved a great misfortune on the lives of its victims. Civilians have been killed unjustly and tortured without any concrete reason. It is continued on a great pace and bringing more and more societies under its enervating influence. Without mitigating acts of terror and strengthening security, war on terrorism, in fact, is espousing fear and creating a sense of repression among certain quarters of the world. Evidently, behind the facade of war on terrorism, International law is widely being disregarded, oppositions are being repressed, not to talk of the humiliation that values and rights have suffered at the hands of imperial regimes. It is safe to assume that the commencing of the war on terrorism virtually resulted in the end of the sanctity attached to human rights.
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The War on Terrorism is not like any other kind of war. The enemy, Terrorism, is not a territorial state, nation, or government. There is no opposite number to negotiate with. There is no one on the other side to call with a truce or declare a ceasefire, no one among the enemy authorized to surrender The war is overseen by the United States and the United Kingdom and also receives much support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO. The “War on Terror” officially began on October 7, 2001 and was spurred by the attack on the World Trade Center of the United States on September 11, 2001. The initial phase of the “War On Terror” was the war in Afghanistan. This resulted in the fall of the Taliban government as well as the destruction of the Al ‘Qaeda camps. The Iraq War began in 2003 and has resulted in the overthrow of the Baath Party government as well as the execution of Saddam Hussein, the nation’s former leader. The phrase “War on Terror” was initially used by President George W. Bush on 20th September 2001.The Bush administration and the Western media have since used the term to signify a global military, political, and conceptual struggle targeting both organizations designated as terrorist and regimes accused of supporting them.
Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever their nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International human rights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms of individuals or groups. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. The 1993 Vienna World Conference on Human Rights All human rights are indivisible. Non-discrimination against sex, colour, race, and so on is a cross-cutting principle in international human rights law
The “War on Terror” has led, in its wake, to grave human rights violations and, in response, to a growing volume of human rights litigation. Certain quarters allege that the “War on Terror” has been exploited by western governments to reduce civil liberties and take away basic human right thus the term “war” is not appropriately used in this context since there is no single and clearly outlined enemy.
War on terrorism come up with extensive violations of civil and political rights that still continue to occur in the world, with such incidents as demonstrations, shootings, torture, hostage-takings, killings and so on. Political participation and decision-making in the affected countries especially Iraq and Afghanistan remain seriously impaired by sectarian and insurgent violence, widespread corruption, and the influence of foreign powers.
The cost of war in terms of human lives has been increasingly grave and painful. A research conducted by Brown University’s Watson Institute for International Studies indicates that over 350,000 people have died due to direct war violence, and many more indirectly. It is expected that indirect deaths from the war, including those related to malnutrition, damaged health infrastructure, and environmental degradation would, if tallied, outnumber deaths from combat. Moreover, at the hands of all parties to the conflict, 220,000 civilians have been killed, and more are expected to die in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan as the violence continues. But most observers acknowledge that the number of civilians killed has been undercounted. The true number of civilians dead may be much larger when an adequate assessment is made.
One of the most notorious issue and certainly the one giving rise to the most voluminous litigation is the arbitrary detention. Since September 2001, the war on terrorism has been directly responsible for a broad array of serious human rights violations, including torture, enforced disappearances, arbitrary detention, and unfair trials. In many instances, one country or another carried out abuses in collaboration with other governments. The United States government has detained hundreds of thousand of people in the ten years since 9/11, both in “theatres of war” and around the world. Practices of torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment have come to light in recent years with increasing regularity, as epitomized by the scandals such as of Abu Gharaib or Baghram. In Iraq, over 100,000 prisoners have passed through the American-run detention system, with prisoners not having any effective way to challenge their detention. Hidden facilities continue to be identified and do not comply with International Red Cross requests for site visits. In Afghanistan, in the first three years of the war, the U.S. detained 50,000 people, holding up to 11,000 at one time during the peak of the insurgency in March 2004. Many reports have emerged of additional “black jails” in Afghanistan, where detainees were secretly held without the International Red Cross oversight required by the Geneva Conventions. Afghani prisoners have reportedly had no access to lawyers and have been unable to challenge the basis for their imprisonment.
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Perhaps, the most insidious, is the move from illegality to extra-legality (extraordinary rendition), the practice of removing individuals from the protection of law altogether, epitomized by disappearance and rendition, that have been the subject of various litigation initiatives. To the contempt of a prisoner’s rights, the United States has secretly stolen away suspects to other CIA-run hidden “black site” prisons or passed them to foreign countries with more lax human rights standards to be interrogated via the seizure process known as “extraordinary rendition.” Published data suggests facilities have been located in more than 28 countries. The U.S. government has never released the numbers of persons subjected to extraordinary rendition. Along with US, many other countries are also involved in this heinous crime against civil liberties.
The prisoners of war on terrorism have largely been denied of the right to petition and fair trial. Significant numbers of detainees in Afghanistan and Iraq, later, have been found innocent. However, their unjust detention and mistreatment has helped to foment desperation towards the universal acknowledgement of human rights. Suspected terrorists who are captured by the US Army are being sent to exile where nobody knows their whereabouts be it the person’s family or the victim government. These civilians are tortured and detained on mere remorse coming from some secret organizations of the US. Sometimes, most of the civilians remain behind bars in the US prisons for the rest of their life without being trialed in any court of competent jurisdiction. Under the United State Act and Human Right Act, everyone has the right to be judged, trialed and have access to a lawyer, but unfortunately, that is not the case here.
Some governments adopted abusive practices in response to direct US pressure. Most notably, the US encouraged a number of countries to pass draconian counterterrorism laws, often laws that expand police powers, reduce due process guarantees, and set out vague and overbroad definitions of terrorism. Many governments latched onto the Bush administration’s “war on terror” arguments to justify their own abuses, particularly the notion that defeating terrorism trumps any countervailing human rights obligations.
Repressive governments, always seeking rhetorical cover for their violations, were quick to adopt the language of counterterrorism to help shield their abuses from critical scrutiny. In Egypt, for example, the Hosni Mubarak government specifically cited the “war on terrorism” and new security laws passed in the United States and elsewhere to justify the 2003 renewal of long-standing emergency powers.
The enjoyment of the rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly has long been partial, and often perilous, for war critics across the world. The war on terrorism has accelerated markedly the squeeze on the exercise of these rights. Independent NGOs, critical media outlets and public protesters across the globe have all borne the brunt of an assault on fundamental freedoms that has been fuelled and “justified” by an increasingly aggressive propaganda drive to depict curtailing of the rights as necessary steps to end terrorism. Several restrictions were imposed by many governments on the name of public security that substantially contributed to limit the rights to freedom of expression and association, the presumption of innocence, freedom of movement, the right to privacy, and the right to leave and return to one’s country. Police officers are given broad discretion without procedural safeguards to fine people who show a “lack of respect” towards them. Government authorities rather than courts have been empowered to impose fines for numerous public order offences (violation of the right to assemble), risking fair trial guarantees. The war on terrorism, hence, led to serious backward steps for freedom of expression and assembly.
Consequent upon war on terrorism is the emergence of unprincipled discriminations between nationals and non-national, among people of different races, ethnicities and genderو as illustrated by the widespread alleged justification of arbitrary detention of the non-nationals in US. This Disparate treatment raises complex issues concerning the human right to non-discrimination. Differential treatment on the basis of nationality, national origin, ‘race’ or religion is only compatible with the right to non-discrimination if there are objective and reasonable grounds for it. However, in the context of the current ‘war on terror’, there are no sufficient justifications for applying powers of preventive detention or trial by special tribunal only to foreign nationals. It is evident through law enforcement methods or immigration policies that people are singled out for special scrutiny based on their national origin, or their ethnic or religious appearance. In the long term, these discriminatory anti-terrorism measures will have impacts beyond their original scope and fundamentally reshape ordinary legal regimes and law enforcement methods.
After the massive terrorist attacks against The World Trade Center, many Muslims and Arab Americans have been persecuted. Muslim men have been characterized as dangerous, violent and highly suspect within the popular imaginary and much of Western media, which has lead to sanctioning of civil human rights violations, largely through detainment, deportation, and surveillance. In fact, the Muslim/Arab communities in the West are feeling the retaliation for something they are not remotely responsible for just because they are of a certain ethnic group.
One of the most condemnable violations, ironically, justified by the war on terrorism, is the massive invasion of privacy by the intelligence agencies. The USA categorically back this violation as a necessary step to access personal details in order to build profiles of terror suspects by data mining. Governments across the world are already collecting and sharing much of information related to personal domain of an individual through bilateral and multilateral agreements covering passenger name records, visa applications and border surveillance systems, among others. Modern intelligence access often involves intrusive methods of surveillance and investigation that are certainly at the expense of some aspects of privacy rights.
Of all the untold mysteries, sexual assault on women and men forms the darkest secrets related to the war on terrorism. Despite not being a traditional armed conflict, sexual violence has been rampant in the global war on terror. Whether in Guantanamo Bay’s detention centre or in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, sexual violence was often used as a tool of torture in interrogation. In Guantanamo Bay’s detention centre, it was reported that female interrogators used sexual torture to break Muslim prisoners into “confessing”. There were several reports and testimonies of released prisoners which reveal that sexual violence and sexual humiliation were used as interrogatory tactics in the detention centres. A former US soldier, Saar, who served at Guantanamo Bay also confirmed the use of sexual torture to coerce and interrogate prisoners. The testimony of a detainee, Jumah Al Dossari to Amnesty International explains that he was “interrogated hundreds of times, beaten, tortured with broken glass, barbed wire, burning cigarettes, and sexual assaults.” A series of photographs that have been kept from public viewing for good reason speak volumes of the kind of violence that prevailed in the prison. Some of these photos reveal an American soldier raping a female prisoner, while some photos show instances of interrogators sexually assaulting prisoners with all kinds of objects including things like a truncheon, wire and a phosphorescent tube. Plenty of instances of rape of female inmates at the hands of soldiers transpired, admitted to having happened even by senior officials of the US.
There have been reports pointing out the cases when Women and girls were raped by soldiers or forced into prostitution. For a long time, the international community has failed to address the problem of sexual violence during armed conflict. However, sexual assaults, which often involve sexual mutilation, sexual humiliation, and forced pregnancy, are quite common. Trafficking of women increased markedly after the commencing o war. It is a form of sexual slavery in which women are transported across national borders and marketed for prostitution. These so-called “comfort women” are another example of institutionalized sexual violence against women during wartime. Sexual violence is also used to silence women who are politically active, or simply inflict terror upon the population at large.
The war on terrorism harmed the educational systems in different ways, resulting at one hand, in the complete degradation of the Iraqi and Syrian education system and, at other hand, substantial damages to the educational institutes in Pakistan. In Afghanistan, where, earlier too, there was no established educational infrastructure, however, war on terrorism also failed to facilitate learning process.
Prior to the war on terrorism, Iraq possessed at its disposal, an appreciable level of educational facilities. Currently, however, its educational system has nearly collapsed. Its universities have lost the prestige that they have been enjoying in the Middle East. In the early years of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the education system in Iraq was well resourced, globally connected, secular and open to women. University education was free and literacy levels rose from 52 percent in 1977 to 80 percent in 1987. However, soon, consequent upon Iraq War, arrived the near collapse of Iraq’s educational system that was the result of the culmination of a process of decline that war on terrorism set in pace. After the U.S. invaded Iraq, museums and university libraries were looted and many of their cultural artefacts and documents destroyed. Iraqi universities were stripped clean not only of cultural artefacts like books but also of the basic infrastructural items. Equally desperate is the fact that the war led to the removal of half the intellectual leadership in academia regardless of whether or not they truly believed in the Baath party (Saddam’s Hussein’s party). Many professors were kidnapped and assassinated during the violence that followed the US invasion. While the exact number of academics killed is difficult to determine, estimates by journalists range between 160 and 380 by 2006. Female students have meanwhile become targets of threats and intimidation by fundamentalist militia groups. In just a decade, Iraq’s universities, reputedly among the best in the Islamic world, were effectively destroyed.
Demolition of social infrastructure like schools, hospitals, electricity and more is also a major factor. Due to “War on Terror”, the victim countries social infrastructures are destroyed whereby it prevents their civilians from enjoying government benefit. According to a 2013 recent publication by Reuters, more than a fifth of Syria’s schools have been destroyed or made unusable in more than two years of conflict, jeopardizing the education of 2.5 million young people. Hitherto, due to demolition of social infrastructure like hospitals, civilians do not get access to shelter and healthcare which makes them become very sick and malnourished. Access to healthcare remains very limited, with 15% of the population without access to even the most basic healthcare services. In areas where fighting continues, militants lack respect for the neutrality of healthcare facilities, making attending these facilities dangerous. Additionally, the “War on Terror” forces citizens to move out of their country due to the dilapidated state of the countries building after the shootings and bombings. Since they have no place to stay and can’t get access to food and safety, the situation compiles them to migrate to other neighbouring countries hence becoming refugees in other to survive
Pakistan has been the front line ally of the US in war against terrorism. With the decision of Pakistan to eliminate terrorism of all forms and hues, there resulted a dramatic escalation of the conflict between militant insurgents and Pakistan’s government. It is difficult to know how many have died in Pakistan since 2001 due to the violence and how many of those are civilians. Most of the fighting is concentrated in the Northwest, near the border with Afghanistan, but the bloodshed not infrequently affects civilians throughout Pakistan. Sectarian conflict targeting the country’s minority Shiites population has been on the rise in recent years.
At least 52,000 Pakistanis (combatant and non-combatant) have been killed since 2004 and more than 50,000 have been injured during that period by the various parties to the conflict. This does not include the likely deaths of tens of thousands more combatants — both insurgents and Pakistani government forces. The US began its semi-covert campaign of drone strikes in 2004 to kill Al Qaeda and Taliban forces based in Northern Pakistan. These strikes have killed about 3,000 people, including many civilians, as of March 2014. The arguments about how many of the dead are civilians are nearly as intense as the disputes about the legality of the strikes. Many legal scholars regard them as clear violations of international law.
The burden of war is also evident in the number of Pakistanis who are both internally displaced and who have sought refuge in other countries. Although the exact numbers are difficult to determine, millions of Pakistanis have been pushed from their homes in the last several years.
While acknowledging all the grave consequences of war on terrorism, question emerges, ‘Is there then an alternate to war on terrorism?’ In fact, War both as a response and as a strategy to eliminate terrorism is by no means flawless. While confronting an enemy that transcends borders and does not recognize any define grounds, war at all is not an option. A research conducted by Rand Corporation made systematic examination and comparison of 268 groups using terror tactics in the period from 1968 to 2006. It showed that several approaches have been much more effective than military responses at eliminating future attacks. They include criminal justice responses and attempts to address the well-being concerns of both combatants and the broader populace that might support them. The study found that 40 percent of the 268 groups were eliminated through ‘intelligence and policing’ methods; 43 percent ended their violence as a result of ‘peaceful political accommodation’; 10 percent ceased their violent activity because they had achieved their objectives (“victory”) by ‘violence’; and only 7 percent were defeated ‘militarily’.
Military responses have often created more extensive violent response and terrorism against the civilian population caught between two opposing forces. The wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan have served as an effective recruiting device for new terrorists. For example, contrary to the US government’s rationale that invading Iraq would prevent the country from becoming a safe haven for terrorists, the country has instead become a laboratory in which militant groups have been able to hone their techniques of propaganda, recruitment, and violence against the most highly trained military in the world. The number of terrorist attacks in Iraq rose precipitously following the 2003 invasion and has not returned to its pre-war level.
In addition, wars often create the conditions for additional violent conflicts over the new resources and new political alignments created by an initial invasion or occupation. The civil wars and criminal violence that erupted in both Iraq and Afghanistan are examples of this phenomenon.
Civil societies and media must work for the rights of victims of terrorism and other violence by armed groups, supporting them in their struggle for truth, justice and reparation. They should expose and oppose unlawful detentions carried out in the name of national security or countering terrorism. Moreover, as thousands of people are still going ‘disappeared therefore, media and civil society in this regard have an obligation to run campaign to probe and recover the disappeared persons and for an end to enforced disappearances. Civil societies must continue to demand respect for the absolute prohibition of torture and other ill-treatment. During their struggle to liberate civil rights they should, however, know, that the global legacy of the past years may not be quick to disappear and the example of abuses committed by states through the world, especially by U. S, will not be easily forgotten. Therefore, the struggle against human rights violation must continue, at one hand, at a consistent and steady pace and at other hand, should cover all consequent aspects of the war.
All states must respect human rights in any action they take in the name of national security or countering terrorism. By closing all arbitrary detention centres, shutting down agencies run-prisons, and condemning rather than justifying torture, the government administrations can make enormous strides. Not only should the governments reform their own practices, they should also remedy their impacts on the affected peoples. Constitutional amendments and ordinances that led towards the tightening of the law should be repealed and brought in conformity with the constitution and ensure that these do not violate fundamental rights. Instead of proclaiming repressive laws in the entire country, the governments should invoke emergency powers (nearly in all countries, constitution enshrine emergency powers to the governments) at a limited scale to suspend fundamental rights in selected areas troubled with the conflicts. While countering terrorism, respect should be paid to the universally acknowledged principle that all people are equal before the law. Every person has the right to either be charged and fairly tried, or be released, and not tortured or abused.
All directly-involved governments especially US have a duty to take a fresh look at creating truth commissions in their respective countries that could provide a comprehensive view of the policies and practices behind abuses and the connections across institutions, as well as the human and political consequences of policies and actions. In addition to investigating and determining the facts and holding the architects of these abuses to account, the victims of such serious rights violations should be provided redress.
Since US declaration to wage a war against terrorism, it has substantially been contributing towards the loss of civil liberties. From the rugged mountains of Afghanistan to the fluvial plains of Syria, and from the settled areas of Pakistan to the volatile regions of Iraq, the war in its wake has led countless humans dead. It is continued on a great pace and bringing more and more societies under its enervating influence. Without mitigating acts of terror and strengthening security, war on terrorism, in fact, is espousing fear and creating a sense of repression among certain quarters of the world. Evidently, behind the facade of war on terrorism, International law is widely being disregarded; oppositions are being repressed, not to talk of the humiliation that values and rights have suffered at the hands of imperial regimes. Now, when the war has reached this dark end, it is now or never for all the stake holders to stop and pour over the utility of the war. Evidently, it is nothing short of flaws. It has wreaked so great a havoc that its effects may not disappear quickly. There is a need to protect and promote human rights and every one’s right related to social, civic and political spectrum must be protected.
“We must remember that any oppression, any injustice, any hatred is a wedge designed to attack our civilization” (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
“Injustice any where is a threat to justice everywhere” (Martin Luther King Jr.)
“Only the dead has seen the end of war” (Plato)
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[…] Read Also: CSS Essay | War on Terrorism is Contributing towards Growing Abuse of Human Rights […]
Wonderful writting style and good vocab also the information
Pakistan’s relationship to the “War on Terror” has been highly ambivalent. On the one hand, Pakistan played a key role in facilitating the U.S.-led intervention in Afghanistan from shortly after 9/11 up to the present. It has permitted the transit of matériel across Pakistani territory to U.S. forces in Afghanistan.
In the United States, Pakistan is seen from the outside looking in—as a strategic ally, a contentious partner, a nation of terrorism, and a war front. But citizens of the country see and experience the consequences of that war in a very different way.
“The battle of Iraq is one victory in a war on terror that began on September the 11th, 2001 and still goes on,” he says. • Aug. 19, 2003: Twenty-three people, including a top United Nations...
Pakistan 's role in the War on Terror is a widely discussed topic among policy-makers of various countries, political analysts and international delegates around the world. Pakistan has simultaneously received allegations of harbouring and aiding terrorists      and commendation for its anti-terror efforts.
The latest wave of terrorism in Pakistan represents decades of policy choices coming home to roost. February 02, 2023 Militant Who Killed 101 at Pakistan Mosque Wore Uniform
There are many direct and indirect events in terrorism linked to the Essay On Terrorism In Pakistan. It assures that how every event including the event of 9/11 and the first step of the Soviet-Afghan War in 1979 are some facets of the Essay On War Against Terrorism. Pakistan Stock Exchange attack
In coming paragraphs Pakistan’s role in War on Terror will be discussed briefly. Targeting and Capturing Al-Qaeda Insurgents Pakistan has played a crucial role in the War against Terrorism. It has been a key ally in this war. It is a hard fact that US cannot win this war without the support of Pakistan.
Terrorism In Pakistan: Its Causes, Impacts And Remedies Outline: • Introduction • What Is Terrorism • Islam’s Response To Terrorism: • Causes Of Terrorism: 1. Internal Causes a) Socio-Economic Causes i) Injustice: ii) Illiteracy: iii) Poverty And Unemployment: iv) Food Insecurity: v) Dissatisfaction: b) Political Causes: i) Non-Democratic Set-Up:
Terrorism in Pakistan originated with supporting the Soviet–Afghan War, and the subsequent civil war erupted in Afghanistan that continued for at least a decade. The conflict brought numerous fighters from all over the world to South Asia in the name of jihad.
The “War on Terror” officially began on October 7, 2001 and was spurred by the attack on the World Trade Center of the United States on September 11, 2001. The initial phase of the “War On Terror” was the war in Afghanistan. This resulted in the fall of the Taliban government as well as the destruction of the Al ‘Qaeda camps.