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How to Read the Chicago Tribune Online
The Chicago Tribune offers a variety of ways to access its articles online. If you’re a subscriber, you can read the entire paper in digital form.
Reading the Digital Edition
The Chicago Tribune offers its entire paper in digital form to its subscribers. To access this version of the paper, just log into your account and click on the “eNewspapers” link in the menu. From there, you can choose whether you want to read the Chicago Tribune news or one of its affiliate newspapers. If you prefer reading the paper on your phone or tablet, you can also get the digital paper delivered to your device each day. To get access, subscribe to the paper. You can also purchase a subscription from Amazon.
If you’re interested in reading Chicago Tribune articles from the past, you can find plenty of articles and snippets online. For example, Newspapers.com has archives of the paper dating back as far as 1849 as part of a joint project with the University of Illinois. Clippings and sample articles are free, but you can purchase a plan for full access. Whether you need the information for research purposes or you’re a history buff, this is a great way to dive into history.
Accessing the Paper Through a Library
If you have a library card, that card might grant you access to the Chicago Tribune’s digital edition. For example, the Chicago Public Library offers access to the full newspaper and the full historical archive, and the New York Public Library grants readers access to the paper. Just sign into your library’s website and use its search function to find the paper.
Reading Free Articles Online
If you just want to read the odd Chicago Tribune news story once in a while, go to the paper’s homepage and read some free articles. Although most of the paper is accessible to subscribers only, it does offer some free stories on its website.
Downloading the App
If you don’t enjoy reading articles on your internet browser, you can read the online version of the Chicago Tribune on its app. Its publisher offers app access to both Android and iOS users, and you can download it for free from the Play Store or Apple App Store. If you want to access all articles or the digital version of the paper, you need to sign into a subscriber account when you open the app.
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Table of Contents
Chicago citations: notes-bibliography system 17th edition.
The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed. Ref. Z 253.U69 2017 or online ) is composed of two different documentation systems:
- Notes-Bibliography style : preferred by those in the humanities
- Author-Date system : preferred by those in the sciences
The examples on this page are in the Notes-Bibliography Style . Be sure to find out from your professor which Chicago documentation system they would like you to use.*
*Note: The Fairfield University History Department requires its students to use Notes-Bibliography style.
Choose a book type
More in-text Footnote Citation Information
Book with One Author
Chicago Manual 14.23
Book with Author and Editor/Translator
Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.104
Book with Two or Three Authors
Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.76
Book with Four or More Authors
Book with organization as author.
Chicago Manual 14.84
Governmental and Organizational Reports
Chicago Manual 14.291 and 14.84
Chicago Manual 14.79
Foreword, Preface, Introduction, and Afterwords
Chicago Manual 14.110
Chicago Manual 14.107
Collection of Essays
Chicago Manual 14.104, 14.106 , 14.107
Chicago Manual 14.106 , 14.107, 14.108
Chicago Manual 14.253 - 254 , 14.106 - 107
Edition other than First
Chicago Manual 14.113
Chicago Manual 14.104
Multivolume Work (Citing Only One Volume)
Chicago Manual 14.118 - 119 (see also 14.116 , 14.120 , 14.121 , 14.122 )
Multivolume Work (Citing All the Volumes)
Chicago Manual 14.117 (see also 14.116 , 14.120 , 14.121 , 14.122 )
Chicago Manual 14.232 , 14.233 , 14.234
Choose an ebook type
More Footnote Information with Examples
Chicago Manual 14.107 and 14.159 , 14.160 , 14.161 , 14.162 , 14.163
Ebook (Entire Book)
Chicago Manual 14.23, and 14.159 , 14.160 , 14.161 , 14.162 , 14.163
Choose a journal type
Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.
More in-text Citation Information
Journal Article from Library Database
Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.175
Online Journal Article
Print journal article.
Chicago Manual 14.23 and 14.168 , 14.169 , 14.170, 14.171, 14.172 , 14.173 , 14.174
Chicago Manual 14.201 , 14.202 , 14.203 , and 14.204
Choose a magazine type
Magazine Article from Library Database
Chicago Manual 14.188 - 14.189, 14.198 , and 15.49(AD)
Magazine Article from Online Website
Chicago Manual 14.188 - 14.189 , 14.198 , and 15.49 (AD)
Print Magazine Article
Chicago Manual 14.188 - 14.189, 14.198 and 15.49 (AD)
Choose a newspaper type
Newspaper Article From a Library Database
Chicago Manual 14.191
Article From Newspaper Website
Print newspaper article, newspaper article with an unknown author.
Chicago Manual 14.199
Letter to the Editor
Chicago Manual 14.196
Website, Blog, or Social Media
Choose a source type
Chicago Manual 14.207
Website, No Author
Chicago Manual 14.208
Chicago Manual 14.209
E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication
Chicago Manual 14.214
Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)
Chicago Manual 14.210
Audio/video, online video.
Chicago Manual 14.267
Chicago Manual 14.265
Chicago Manual 14.263
Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series , but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.
Image or Advertisement
Chicago Manual 14.235 and 8.198
Work of Art
Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.
Chicago Manual 14.260 , 14.291
A secondary source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget . Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material (e.g. Sontag's On Photography). The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources.
Footnote Information with Examples
Choose an example
Numbering Footnotes and Positioning Footnote Numbers
Chicago Manual 14.24, 14.25 , 14.26 , 14.27 , and 14.28
Chicago Manual 14.29, 14.30 , 14.31 , 14.32 , 14.33 , 14.34 , 14.35 , and 14.36
Several Sources Cited in One Note
Chicago Manual 14.28 and 14.57
Chicago Manual 14.34
Citations plus Commentary
Chicago Manual 14.37
The Bible and Other Classical Works
Chicago 14.238 , 14.239 , 14.240 , and 14.241
For more examples and information on how to format your paper: online resources.
- Chicago Manual of Style (E-book)
- Chicago Manual of Style Quick Guide
- Purdue Owl Writing Lab
- Chicago NB Sample Paper Chicago NB Sample Paper from Purdue OWL
- The Chicago Manual of Style , 17th ed. (Ref. Z 253.U69 2017)
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The Chicago style, when referring to a source of information within the text of a document, in its simplest form, gives a short citation consisting of the name of the author (or authors) and the date of publication.
• The short references within the text are given wholly or partly in round brackets.
• Use only the surname of the author followed by the year of publication. Include page, chapter, section or paragraph numbers if you need to be specific. A comma is placed between the year of publication and the page, chapter, section or paragraph numbers.
• No distinction is made between books, journal articles, internet documents or other formats except for electronic documents that do not provide page numbers. In this instance, use the paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviation para.
• Citations in the text can either be placed at the end of a sentence in parentheses (brackets) or alternatively, the author's name may be included in the text, and just the date and additional information placed within the brackets.
• A citation for a book appearing in the text as:
There are many reasons for intestinal scarring (Ogilvie 1998, 26-28).
would be found in the reference list in the following form:
Ogilvie, Timothy H. 1998. Large Animal Internal Medicine . Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins.
• A citation for a journal article appearing in the text as either:
... gastrointestinal illness is also often misdiagnosed (Morgan and Thompson 1998, 243). OR Morgan and Thompson (1998, 243) argue that gastrointestinal illness is also often misdiagnosed.
would be referenced as:
Morgan, U. M., and R.C. A. Thompson. 1998. "PCR Detection of Cryptosporidium: The Way Forward." Parasitology Today 14, no. 6 (December): 241-245.
• An electronic document would be cited in the text in the same way as a print document.
For example, citation for an internet document appearing in the text as:
There are many useful materials available (Raidal and Dunsmore 1996, par. 13)
would be given in the reference list as:
Raidal, Shane R., and Jon Dunsmore. 1996. Parasites of Companion Birds: A Survey of Alimentary Tract Parasites in Caged Psittacine Birds with Specific Reference to the Prevalence of Trichomonas Gallinae. http://wwwvet.murdoch.edu.au/caf/parasit.htm.
Note: When referring to multiple authors within the text and within parentheses, precede the final name with the word and :
... as Kurtines and Szapocnik (2003) demonstrated. ... as has been demonstrated (Kurtines and Szapocnik, 2003).
See the All Examples page for examples of in-text and reference list entries for specific resources such as articles, books and web pages.
In text citation.
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Chicago Style Citation Guide | Templates & Citation Examples
Notes and bibliography is the most common type of Chicago style citation, and the main focus of this article. It is widely used in the humanities. Citations are placed in footnotes or endnotes , with a Chicago style bibliography listing your sources in full at the end.
Author-date style is mainly used in the sciences. It uses parenthetical in-text citations , always accompanied by a reference list at the end.
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Table of contents, citing sources with notes, chicago note citation examples, creating a chicago style bibliography, chicago author-date style, frequently asked questions about chicago style citation.
To cite sources in Chicago notes and bibliography style, place a superscript number at the end of a sentence or clause, after the punctuation mark, corresponding to a numbered footnote or endnote .
Footnotes appear at the bottom of each page, while endnotes appear at the end of the text. Choose one or the other and use it consistently.
Most word-processing programs can automatically link your superscript numbers and notes.
Full notes vs. short notes
Citations can take the form of full notes or short notes. Full notes provide complete source information, while short notes include only the author’s last name, the source title, and the page number(s) of the cited passage. The usual rule is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and a short note for subsequent citations of the same source.
Guidelines can vary across fields, though; sometimes you might be required to use full notes every time, or conversely to use short notes every time, as long as all your sources are listed in the bibliography. It’s best to check with your instructor if you’re unsure which rule to follow.
Multiple authors in Chicago notes
When a source has multiple authors, list up to three in your note citations. When there are four or more, use “ et al. ” (Latin for “and others”).
A Chicago footnote or endnote citation always contains the author’s name and the title of the source. The other elements vary by the type of source you’re citing.
Page number(s) should be included if you are referring to a specific part of the text. The elements of the citation are separated by commas , and the note always ends with a period. The page range is separated by an en dash .
Navigate through the Chicago citation examples using the tabs below.
- Book chapter
- Journal article
When citing a book , if an edition is specified, include it in abbreviated form (e.g., 2nd ed.). If the book was accessed online, add a URL.
When citing a chapter from a multi-authored book, start with details of the chapter, followed by details of the book.
To cite a journal article , you need to specify the volume and issue as well as the date. It’s best to use a DOI instead of a URL.
Web pages often have no author or date specified. If the author is unknown, start with the title in a full note, and use the website name as author in a short note. If the publication date is unknown, include the date you accessed the information (e.g., accessed on March 12, 2022).
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The bibliography lists full references for all your sources. It appears at the end of your paper (before any appendices ).
Author names are inverted in the bibliography, and sources are alphabetized by author last name. Each source is listed on a new line, with a hanging indent applied to sources that run over onto multiple lines.
If a source has multiple authors, list up to 10 in the bibliography. If there are 11 or more, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
When to include a bibliography
It is not mandatory to include a bibliography if you have cited your sources with full notes. However, it is recommended to include one in most cases, with the exception of very short texts with few sources.
Check with your instructor if you’re not sure whether to include one.
Chicago style bibliography examples
Bibliography entries vary in format according to source type. Formats and examples for some common source types are shown below.
In the (social) sciences, you may be told to use author-date style instead. In this style, citations appear in parentheses in the text.
Unlike note citations, author-date citations look the same for all source types .
Author-date citations are always accompanied by a reference list. The reference list is similar to a bibliography: It appears at the end of your text and lists all your sources in full.
The only difference is that the publication year comes straight after the author name, to match with the in-text citations. For example, the book reference from above looks like this in author-date style.
Chicago Author-Date Quick Guide
In a Chicago style footnote , list up to three authors. If there are more than three, name only the first author, followed by “ et al. “
In the bibliography , list up to 10 authors. If there are more than 10, list the first seven followed by “et al.”
The same rules apply in Chicago author-date style .
To automatically generate accurate Chicago references, you can use Scribbr’s free Chicago reference generator .
In a Chicago footnote citation , when the author of a source is unknown (as is often the case with websites ), start the citation with the title in a full note. In short notes and bibliography entries, list the organization that published it as the author.
In Chicago author-date style , treat the organization as author in your in-text citations and reference list.
When an online source does not list a publication date, replace it with an access date in your Chicago footnotes and your bibliography :
If you are using author-date in-text citations , or if the source was not accessed online, replace the date with “n.d.”
Page numbers should be included in your Chicago in-text citations when:
- You’re quoting from the text.
- You’re paraphrasing a particular passage.
- You’re referring to information from a specific section.
When you’re referring to the overall argument or general content of a source, it’s unnecessary to include page numbers.
In Chicago notes and bibliography style , the usual standard is to use a full note for the first citation of each source, and short notes for any subsequent citations of the same source.
However, your institution’s guidelines may differ from the standard rule. In some fields, you’re required to use a full note every time, whereas in some other fields you can use short notes every time, as long as all sources are listed in your bibliography . If you’re not sure, check with your instructor.
In Chicago author-date style , your text must include a reference list . It appears at the end of your paper and gives full details of every source you cited.
In notes and bibliography style, you use Chicago style footnotes to cite sources; a bibliography is optional but recommended. If you don’t include one, be sure to use a full note for the first citation of each source.
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The website of the Library of Congress connects users to content areas created by the Library’s many experts. In some cases, content can be posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.237)
- Author last name, first name, middle initial, if given. If no author, use the site owner.
- Title of Site (italicized); a subsection of a larger work is in quotes.
- Editor of site, if given.
- Publication information, including latest update if available.
- Name of sponsoring institution or organization.
- Electronic address or URL.
- Date of access, in parenthesis.
Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Site . City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Sponsoring source. http://...(accessed date).
Example: Library of Congress . //www.loc.gov (accessed January 5, 2006).
Cartoons and illustrations included in newspapers, magazines or other periodicals often represent the historical perspectives and opinions of the time of publication. This illustration, Join or Die from the May 9, 1754 Pennsylvania Gazette, was published by Benjamin Franklin and expresses his views about the need for the colonies to join forces to confront their mutual concerns with England. This is often referred to as the first political cartoon.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.207)
- Author’s or creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
- Title of document (in italics); a subsection of a larger work is in quotes and primary document in italics).
- Format (cartoon or illustration).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date.
- Source (From Library of Congress in normal font), Collection name with dates (in italics).
- Medium (software requirement needed to access source, ).
- URL (use bibliographic record URL or shorter digital id if available at bottom of bib record).
- Accessed date (in parenthesis).
Last name, First name Middle initial. Title of Work . Format. City: Publishing Company, copyright date. Source, Collection. Medium, http://...(accessed date).
Example: Franklin, Benjamin. “Join or Die.” Illustration. The Pennsylvania Gazette , May 9, 1754. From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. http://loc.gov/pictures/item/2002695523/ (accessed January 10, 2006).
Black-and-white actuality film collections from the turn of the century are included in the Library of Congress online collections.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.272)
- Creator’s last name, first name, middle initial (or filmographer’s name if no director is specified, but indicate role).
- Title of film (in italics).
- Format (film, filmstrip, 35mm film).
- Medium (software requirement needed to access source).
Example: Armitage, Frederick S., photographer. Bargain Day, Fourteenth Street , New York. 35 mm film. United States: American Mutoscope and Biograph Co, 1905. From Library of Congress, Early Motion Pictures, 1897-1920 . RealMedia, MPEG, Quick Time, //www.loc.gov/item/00694373 (accessed January 9, 2006).
Many government publications originate through executive departments, federal agencies, and the United States Congress. Many of the documents are chronicled records of government proceedings, which become part of the Congressional Record. These documents are often posted without a clear indication of author, title, publisher or copyright date. Look for available clues and give as much information as possible, including the URL and date accessed.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.295)
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given).
- Title of document (subsection is placed in quotes, followed by title in italics).
- Format (omit if it is a printed page).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include as much information as possible such as page numbers).
Example: “Proceedings December 17, 1792”. Annals of Congress . House of Representatives, 2nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington: Gales and Seaton, 1849, pg. 747-748. From Library of Congress, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875 . //memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ ampage?collId=llac&fileName=llac003.db&recNum=370 (accessed January 9, 2006).
The Library of Congress online collections include letters, diaries, recollections, and other written material. One example is this letter from Helen Keller to Mr. John Hitz. Helen describes her trip to Chicago to visit the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.222-33)
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial.
- Title of document (in italics).
- Format (letter, manuscript, pamphlet…).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date. (if given).
Example: Keller, Helen. Helen Keller to John Hitz, August 29, 1893 . Letter. From Library of Congress, The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers, 1862-1939 . //www.loc.gov/item/magbellbib004020 (accessed January 11, 2006).
Maps and Charts
Maps are far more than just maps of cities and towns. They document historical places, events, and populations, as well as growth and changes over time. This map is from the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.141)
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given, or person responsible for content).
- Title of document (in italics) [shorten to meaningful limits, ].
- Format (map, chart).
Example: Ashmun, Jehudi. Map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas, including the Colony of Liberia . Map. Philadelphia: A. Finley, 1830. From Library of Congress, Map Collections . https://www.loc.gov/item/96680499 (accessed January 9, 2006).
Historic newspapers provide a glimpse of historic time periods. The articles, as well as the advertising, are an appealing way to get a look at the regions of the country or the world and the issues of the day.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.188)
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given; if no author is given, use title of Newspaper here instead in italics).
- Title of article (in quotes); Title of newspaper (if not used above) in italics.
- Format (leave blank if printed document).
- Medium (software requirement needed to access source ).
Example: The Stars and Stripes, “Services Plan to Aid Returned Men in Securing Jobs.” Dec. 13, 1918. From Library of Congress. www.loc.gov/resource/20001931/1918-12-13/ed-1 (accessed Feb. 10, 2012).
Oral History Interviews
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 17.207)
- Title of Interview in quotes
- Interviewer's first name, last name (if available).
- Title of publication or website
- Date of publication
- Accessed date (in parenthesis)
"Title of interview" by First Name Last name of interviewer, Title of publication or website . Month, Day, Year of publication, URL (accessed date).
Example: "Gwendolyn M. Patton oral history interview conducted by Joseph Mosnier in Montgomery, Alabama, 2011-06-01." From the Library of Congress, Civil Rights Oral History Project . Film. http://www.loc.gov/item/afc2010039_crhp0020/ (accessed Jan. 15, 2016).
Photographs and drawings appear in many of the Library of Congress digitized historical collections. This photograph from the Library's online collections shows casualties of war on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.206)
- Photographer’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given). [Include role after name, i.e. photographer.]
- “Photo Title.” (Title of a song, a poem or a single photograph is in quotes, not italics.) [Include brackets if given in bibliographic record.]
- Format (photograph).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (include c [circa] if given; if no date, use n.d.).
Example: O’Sullivan, Timothy, photographer. “[Incidents of the war. A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, July 1863.]” Photograph. Washington, D.C.: Philip & Solomons, c1865. From Library of Congress: Selected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865 . https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/cwp2003001110/PP (accessed January 9, 2006).
This recording of Thomas Mann performing Haste to the Wedding is an example of Anglo-American dance music on the dulcimer recorded in July, 1937.
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270, 8.205)
- Author’s last name, first name, middle initial (if given) [include performer, composer, etc.].
- Title of album (in italics) (Title of a song, a poem or a single photograph is in quotes, not italics).
- Format (sound recording).
- Medium (software requirement needed to access source, i.e. MP3, RealAudio, WAV).
- URL (use bibliographic record URL).
Example: Mann, Thomas, performer. “Haste to the Wedding.” Sound recording. Ortonville, Iowa: Sidney Robertson Cowell, July, 1937. From Library of Congress, California Gold: Northern California Folk Music from the Thirties . Real Audio, MP3, Wave. www.loc.gov/item/2017700868/ (accessed August 14, 2020).
Special Presentations or Features
Special presentations, articles, and essays include examples that illustrate collection themes. Many collections include specific items, such as timelines, family trees or scholarly essays, which are not primary source documents. Such content has been created to enhance understanding of the collection.
This timeline of the Wright Brothers can be found in The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers at the Library of Congress .
Chicago Citation Format ( Chicago Manual of Style , 15th ed., sections 17.270)
- Format (special presentation).
- Publisher city: publishing company, copyright date (if given).
Example: The Wilbur and Orville Wright Timeline, 1867-1948 . Special presentation. From the Library of Congress, The Wilbur and Orville Wright Papers . //memory.loc.gov/ammem/wrighthtml/wrighttime.html (accessed January 10, 2006).
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Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide
Chicago-style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on.
Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?
The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.
The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.
Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems.
Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here .
For a more comprehensive look at Chicago’s two systems of source citation and many more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.
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This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow The Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), which was issued in 2017.
Since The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than class papers, these guidelines will be supplemented with information from, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations.
To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.
A Note on Citations
Unlike many citation styles, CMOS gives writers two different methods for documenting sources: the Author-Date System and the Notes-Bibliography (NB) System. As its name suggests, Author-Date uses parenthetical citations in the text to reference the source's author's last name and the year of publication. Each parenthetical citation corresponds to an entry on a References page that concludes the document. In these regards, Author-Date is very similar to, for instance, APA style.
By contrast, NB uses numbered footnotes in the text to direct the reader to a shortened citation at the bottom of the page. This corresponds to a fuller citation on a Bibliography page that concludes the document. Though the general principles of citation are the same here, the citations themselves are formatted differently from the way they appear in Author-Date.
If you are using CMOS for school or work, don't forget to ensure that you're using your organization's preferred citation method. For examples of these two different styles in action, see our CMOS sample papers:
Author-Date Sample Paper
NB Sample Paper
General CMOS Guidelines
- Text should be consistently double-spaced, except for block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions.
- A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked.
- CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
- A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.
- A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
- Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool.
- Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1.
- For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below.
Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines
- Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
- Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
- Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.).
Major Paper Sections
- The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
- Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later.
- For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
- Double-space each line of the title page.
CMOS Title Page
- Different practices apply for theses and dissertations (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8 th ed.].
- Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized.
- Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized.
- Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
- The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
- Titles of plays should be italicized.
- For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
- A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To offset the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to offset the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.
- Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date style).
- Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry.
- Leave one blank line between remaining entries.
- List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry, be that the author's name or the title of the piece..
- For two to three authors, write out all names.
- For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations.
- When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text.
- Write out publishers’ names in full.
- Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable.
- If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
- Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible.
- If no DOI is available, provide a URL.
- If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).
CMOS Bibliography Page
- Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper.
- Note numbers are superscripted.
- Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash.
- Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).
- In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
- Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range.
For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper .
While The Chicago Manual of Style does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, it makes several recommendations.
- Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
- Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
- Subheadings should begin on a new line.
- Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
- Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
- Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
- Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
- Avoid ending subheadings with periods.
Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.
Turabian Subheading Plan
Here is an example of the five-level heading system:
Tables and Figures
- Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
- For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
- Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
- Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by...).
- If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period.
How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS
On the new OWL site, contributors’ names and the last edited date are no longer listed at the top of every page. This means that most citations will now begin with the title of the resource, rather than the contributors' names.
Footnote or Endnote (N):
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):
“Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
“General Format.” The Purdue OWL. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.
Author Date In-text Citation:
("General Format" 2017).
Author Date References Page Citation:
Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name . http://Web address for OWL resource.
2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL . https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.
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The ultimate guide to citing anything in chicago style, everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the chicago manual of style, the basics of citing in chicago style.
The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1) Notes and Bibliography and 2) Author-Date.
This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing and is not associated with the official publishers of the style.
Need help with other styles? Our thorough MLA format and APA format guides are available for all of your writing and citing needs!
Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style
The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow this format:
- The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
- The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
- The second line of the source must be indented.
Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style
Generally, Chicago citations require:
- Title of book/article
- Title of newspaper/journal
- Publication year
- Publication month and date
- City of publication
- Date of access
- Page numbers
- URL or Name of Database
How to Create Footnotes and Endnotes for Chicago Style
If you’re wondering how to format Chicago in-text citations, Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work.
When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.
- Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
- Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
- A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information
- The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised
- It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes)
One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹
Chicago style footnotes are placed at the bottom of the page:
- Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0 .
If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:
- When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
- Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/
- Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/ .
- Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support"
If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines for shortened citation and ibid :
If you are citing the same source continually throughout your text, use a shortened version of the full citation in your footnotes.
Previous versions of the style used the abbreviation “ibid,” short for “ibidem.” Ibidem is a Latin word that means “in the same place.” It was used when referring to a source that was just cited within a document (without other sources in between). Writers would use ibid instead of writing out the source information again. This was meant to save space since it’s fewer characters than citing the source again.
In the current version of Chicago, the 17th version, ibid is accepted but not preferred. This is because ibid requires readers to go back and search for the previous source cited, an inconvenience which outweighs the benefits of shortening the citation. Also, shortened citations are compact, so using ibid doesn’t always save line space.
The first mention of a source should include all relevant information (e.g., full author name(s), full title, publisher, date published, etc.).
Subsequent mentions should be a shortened version using this formula:
Last Name, Title of the Work , page number(s).
Mentions after the shortened form can use the abbreviated formula:
Last Name, page number(s).
If there are two or three authors, list their full names in the order they appear in the source. If there are more than three authors, list the first author’s name followed by “et al.”
Examples of using shortened citations (preferred format in the 17th Edition):
- Philip R. Cateora et al., International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
- Cateora et al., International Marketing , 28-29.
- Cateora et al., 28-29.
- Cateora et al., 377.
Long titles that are more than four words are usually shortened. Focus on keeping key words from the title and omitting any beginning “a” or “the.” Examples:
- And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street = Mulberry Street
- Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe = Fried Green Tomatoes
If you are using the discontinued ibid notation, here are a few guidelines:
- When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information again, use the abbreviation “ibid.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
- If the same source AND same page number are used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.”
Same example above, but using ibid:
- Philip R. Cateora et al, International Marketing (New York: McGraw Hill, 2020), 292-294.
Another example with two sources that were mentioned earlier in the text:
- Anthony Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See (New York: Scribner, 2014), 82-84.
- Tatiana de Rosnay, Sarah's Key (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2007), 24-27.
- Ibid., 133-134.
- Doerr, All the Light We Cannot See , 397-401.
- Ibid., 405.
- Ibid., 411.
For further clarification on the Chicago in-text citation style of footnotes and endnotes, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website . This site is full of helpful pages, so if you’re tempted to head to Google to type in, “in-text citations Chicago,” take a peek at the official site first.
Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style
As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used in your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.
How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style
In the footnotes and endnotes:
First name Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.
In the bibliography:
Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year.
Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author
Sam Staggs, Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009), 84.
Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.
Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.
Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors
Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media (London: Routledge,1994) 24-28.
Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media . London: Routledge, 1994.
How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style
First name, Last name of Chapter Author, “Chapter or Article Title,” in Book Title , ed. First Name Last Name of Editor (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range.
Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title , edited by First Name Last Name, page range. Publication Place: Publisher, Year.
Looking for a simple and easy-to-use Chicago citation maker? Head to our homepage and start building your Chicago format references with ease!
Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book
Laura Aymerich-Franch and Maddalena Fedele, "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education," in Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, ed. Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan (Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014), 35-36.
Aymerich-Franch, Laura, and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education, edited by Vledlena Benson and Stephanie Morgan, 35-36. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2014.
How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style
When citing e-books, include the URL or the name of the database. The URL or database name should be the last part of the citation.
First name Last name, Title of e-book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, URL, Database Name.
Last name, First name. Title of Book. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. URL, Name of Database.
Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books
Michael J. Baker, The Marketing Book (Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002), 89, https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .
Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002. https://htbiblio.yolasite.com/resources/Marketing%20Book.pdf .
If you understand how to structure your references easily, thanks to this thorough guide, and are looking for help with the written portion of your paper, look no further! There are tons of Citation Machine grammar guides to help you write with ease. Here’s just one of our many useful pages: Positive & Negative Adjectives .
How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader
If there aren’t any clearly labeled page numbers, use chapter numbers or titles, section numbers or titles, or any other established numbering system in the text. It’s also acceptable to omit page information from Chicago style citations if there aren’t clearly labeled page numbers.
First name Last name, Title of the Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page range, Type of E-reader
Last name, First name. Title of book . Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Type of e-reader.
Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader
Corina Bomann, The Moonlight Garden (Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016), chap. 8, Kindle.
Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden . Washington: AmazonCrossing, 2016. Kindle.
How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.
Chicago style citation in the bibliography:
Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.
Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals
Damien O'Brien and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World," Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.
O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.
If you’re come this far and you’re still searching for in-text citation Chicago information, remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Scroll up to find out more!
How to Cite Online or Database Journals in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No. (Year): Page range. URL or Name of Database.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online or Database Journals
Trine Schreiber, "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory," Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .
Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3 (2014): 346-363. https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002 .
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How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Article Title," Magazine Title, Full Date, page range.
Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title, Full Date.
Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines
George J. Church, "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan," _Time, July 18, 1983, 56-59.
Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer: Americans Take a Brighter View of Reagan" Time, July 18, 1983.
How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style
First name, Last name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Full Date, URL.
Chicago style bibliography structure:
Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title, Full Date, URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines
Bill Donahue. “King of the Mountains,” Backpacker, September/October 2019, 76-82, http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39
Donahue, Bill. “King of the Mountains.” Backpacker, September/October 2019. http://backpacker.eoncontent.ebscohost.com/2226647#&pageSet=39
How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style
Creating a footnote, endnote, or bibliographic information for web content isn’t always necessary. It’s acceptable to simply mention the source in the written portion of the paper. For example, “The Marco Polo page on History’s website, last updated on March 6, 2019, describes his travels along the Silk Road while....” Include formal Chicago citation style references if you or your professor prefers to do so.
A bit more:
- If the website page is missing a date of publication, include the date the source was last modified or accessed in the footnote and endnote.
- If the website page is missing the name of the author, begin the footnote with the “Title of the Article or Page.”
First name Last name of Author, "Title of Article or Page," Title of Website, Date published or last modified or accessed, URL.
Last name, First name or Organization Name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Date published or last modified or accessed. URL.
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Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page
Sujan Patel, "15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015," Entrepreneur, January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .
Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570 .
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How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style
Bible references are often displayed in the text of a paper (similar to web content) or in footnotes and endnotes. Formal bible references in bibliographies are not necessary.
Abbreviated Title of Book, Chapter:Verse (Edition).
Example of Chicago Citation for Bible
2 Cor. 11:7 (New Standard Version).
If you’re looking for other resources to help you with the written portion of your paper, we have quite a few handy grammar guides. Two of our favorites? Adjectives starting with X and List of verbs .
How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style
*According to the 17th edition of the manual, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are generally cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. Of course, if the writer or professor prefers a full bibliographic reference, one can be created.
Style notes and bibliographic references the same way as you would an online newspaper, but include (blog) in parentheses immediately following the title of the blog.
First name Last name, "Title of Blog Post," Title of Blog (blog), Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post, URL.
Last Name, First Name. "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site (blog). Title of Larger Blog, if part of a larger one, Month Day Year of post. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs
Shannon Miller, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet," The Library Voice (blog), January 20, 2016, http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .
Miller, Shannon. "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice, January 20, 2016. http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com/2016/01/valentine-ideas-using-digital-tools.html .
Chicago style bibliographies aren’t as complicated as they seem, especially when you have a generator to do the work for you. Head to our homepage and try ours out!
How to Cite TV Broadcasts in Chicago Style
Title of Series , episode number, “Title of Episode,” directed by First Name Last Name, written by First Name Last Name, featuring First Names Last Names of actors, aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name, URL.
Last Name, First Name, dir. Title of Series . Season Number, episode number, “Title of Episode.” Aired Month Day, Year, on Station Name. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts
Riverdale , episode 15, “American Dreams,” directed by Gabriel Correra, written by Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, featuring KJ Apa, Lili Reinhart, and Cole Sprouse, aired March 13, 2019, on CW.
Bibliography Chicago style:
Correra, Gabriel, dir. Riverdale . Season 3, episode 15, “American Dreams.” Aired March 13, 2019, on CW.
How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style
First name Last name. Title of Case Study. (Publication Place: Publisher, Year).
Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.
Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study
Peter Finn. Disulfiram.
Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.
How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style
First Name Last Name, “Title of Conference Paper” (format, Title of Conference, Location, Full Date).
Last name, First name. “Title of Conference Paper.” Format presented at Title of Conference, Location, Date. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Conference Paper
Craig Myerson, “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware” (Power-Point presentation, The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.
Myerson, Craig. “Historical Markings in New Castle, Delaware.” Power-point presentation presented at The University of Delaware, Newark, DE, June 18, 2019.
How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style
The 17th edition of The Chicago Manual of Style recommends referring to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation , or the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation to learn how to create court or legal references. Both guides are widely used by those in legal fields and have become the standard for referencing legal cases.
The examples below reflect the format found in The Bluebook .
Legal cases are rarely documented in bibliographies, usually only in notes.
Plaintiff v. Defendant, Court Case Number (Abbreviated Name of the Court. Year).
Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases
Michael Clum v. Jackson National Life Insurance Co., 10-000126-CL (Ingham Cty. 2011).
How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style
According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography.
The abbreviation "s.v." means sub verbo , which is Latin for "under the word."
Chicago style formatting in the footnotes and endnotes:
Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , Numbered ed. (Year), s.v. “term.”
If found online:
Name of dictionary or encyclopedia , s.v. "term," accessed Month Day Year, url.
Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia . Numbered ed. Location of Publisher: Publisher, Year.
Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries
Encyclopedia Britannica , s.v. “pressure,” accessed September 15, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/science/pressure .
Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds . 4th ed. New York: Chegg, 2016.
How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style
First name Last name, "Title of Dissertation" (type of paper, school, year), url.
Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Type of Paper, School, Year. URL or Database(Identification Number).
Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations
Michele Kirschenbaum, "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities" (master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009).
Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.
How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style
Title , directed by First Name Last name (Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer), Format.
Last Name, First Name, dir. Title . Year; City, State Abbrev: Producer, Year. Format.
Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos
_Home Lone , directed by Chris Columbus (1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox), DVD.
Columbus, Chris, dir. Home Alone . 1990; Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox. DVD.
Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.
How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style
Title of Facebook Page, “Text of Post,” Facebook, Month Day, Year, URL.
Title of Facebook Page. “Text of Post.” Facebook, Month Day, Year. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post
Awakenings, “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH,” Facebook, September 12, 2019, https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .
Awakenings. “Maceo Plex gave us goosebumps during Awakenings Festival! We can't wait to hear what he has in store during Maceo Plex x Lone Romantic | Awakenings ADE Elementenstraat on October 19:awak.enin.gs/2KMxDCH.” Facebook, September 12, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/pg/awakenings/posts/?ref=page_internal .
How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style
Title of Publication , prepared by Organization (City, State Abbrev, Year).
Firm/Department. Title of Publication . City, State Abbrev, Year.
Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication
Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 , prepared by The Department of Justice (Washington, DC, 2014).
Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014 . Washington, DC, 2014.
How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style
Published Interviews are treated in Chicago format style like an article in a magazine or a newspaper. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.
How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style
According to The Chicago Manual of Style , 17th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes or explained in the text of the paper. They are rarely listed in the Chicago style bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner.
Individual's First name Last name, type of communication, Month Day Year of correspondence.
Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail
Michele Kirschenbaum, e-mail message to author, January 18, 2016.
How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style
"Title of Song," Year of recording date, Platform, track number on Artist’s Name, Album Title, Producer, Year.
Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album. Recorded Year. Producer.
Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings
"Sucker,” Spotify, track 1, on Jonas Brothers, Happiness Begins , Republic Records, 2019.
Jonas Brothers. Happiness Begins . 2019. Republic Records.
Still wondering how to style a Chicago in-text citation? Remember, this style uses footnotes and endnotes! Head to the top of this page to learn more!
How to Cite Online Videos in Chicago Style
First name Last name of individual who posted the video, “Title of Video,” Producer, published on Month Day, Year, Site video, Length, URL.
Last name, First name. "Title of Video." Producer. Published on Month Day, Year. Site video, Length. URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Online Videos
“Habitats Work in Texas After Hurricane Harvey,” Habitat for Habitat for Humanity, published on September 11, 2019, YouTube video, 01:35, https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .
“Habitats Works in Texas After Hurricane Harvey.” Habitat for Humanity. Published on September 11, 2019. YouTube video, 01:35. https://youtu.be/EPPALfWYGRo .
How to Cite Images in Chicago Style
First name Last name, Title of Image , Year, format, Location, State, URL.
Last Name, First Name. Title of Image . Date. Format. Location, State, URL.
Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs and Images
Jerome Liebling, May Day , New York, 1948, photograph, The Jewish Museum, New York.
Liebling, Chris. May Day , New York. 1948. Photograph. The Jewish Museum, New York.
How to Cite Live Performances in Chicago Style
Since most live performances are not retrievable by the reader, simply refer to them in the text of the paper or in the notes, and omit it from the bibliography. If it’s a recorded performance, follow the Chicago style format for musical recordings.
Title of Play , music and lyrics by First Name Last Name, dir. First Name Last name, chor. Name of Theatre, City, State Abbrev, Date of Live Performance.
Example of Chicago Citation for Live Performances
The Lion King , Julie Taymor, dir. Garth Fagan, chor. Minskoff Theatre, New York, NY, August 8, 2019.
How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style
When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.
How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style
When citing poems in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.
How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style
Follow the same guidelines as in the “Conference Papers” section above.
How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style
According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.
Once you’ve styled each and every reference, take a minute to run your paper through our plagiarism checker . It’s the perfect go-to resource when you’re in need of another set of eyes to scan your paper!
Updated January 8, 2020
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Wendy Ikemoto. Michele Kirschenbaum has been an awesome school librarian since 2006 and is an expert in citing sources. Wendy Ikemoto has a master’s degree in library and information science and has been working for Citation Machine since 2012.
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- Citing a Book
Basic Chapter Citation
Example chapter of a book, example chapter of an ebook, example foreword/preface of a book.
- Citing an Article
- Citing a Webpage
- Additional Resources
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Author First M. Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title," in Book Title , ed. First M. Last Name (Place of Publication: Publisher, date), page cited.
Short version: Author Last Name, "Chapter or Essay Title (shortened if necessary)," page cited.
Author Last Name, First M. "Chapter or Essay Title." In Book Title , edited by First M. Last Name, page range. Place of Publication: Publisher, date.
Eric Charry, "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa," in The History of Islam in Africa , eds. Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000), 550.
Short version: Charry, "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa," 550.
Charry, Eric. "Music and Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa." In The History of Islam in Africa , edited by Nehwmia Levtzion and Randall L. Pouwels, 545-573. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2000.
Alan Liu, "Where is Cultural Criticism in the Digital Humanities?," in Debates in the Digital Humanities , ed. Matthew K. Gold (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013), accessed January 23, 2014, http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/20.
Short version: Liu, "Where is Cultural Criticism."
Liu, Alan. "Where is Cultural Criticism in the Digital Humanities?." In Debates in the Digital Humanities , edited by Matthew K. Gold. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2013. A ccessed January 23, 2014. http://dhdebates.gc.cuny.edu/debates/text/20.
Strobe Talbott, foreword to Beyond Tianamen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000 , by Robert L. Suettinger (Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2003), x.
Short version: Talbott, foreword, x.
Talbott, Strobe. Foreword to Beyond Tianamen: The Politics of U.S.-China Relations 1989-2000 , by Robert L. Suettinger, ix-x. Washington, D. C.: Brookings Institute Press, 2003.
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How to Cite Chicago in Your Paper: a Complete Guide from Flowcite
Throughout the humanities, Chicago Style is the preference for citation purposes. As you likely suspect, it was developed by the University of Chicago to create conformity among different disciplines.
Unlike MLA or APA, it uses footnotes and is more flexible than other kinds of citation—which also means it can be more difficult to master. Like many forms of citations, it’s tedious and time-consuming. If you’re using it for the first time, then you’re in the right place.
We’ve written this guide to help you cite in Chicago Style and know everything there is to the proper Chicago citation format. We also suggest bookmarking this page for quick reference when you need to cite in this specific format.
Before anything else, let’s define what Chicago Style is and how it came to be.
What is Chicago Citation ?
Also sometimes referred toas the Turabian Style, the Chicago citation has been around since 1891 and is largely based on the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS). Now, there are some nuanced differences between Turabian Style and Chicago style, but most people do use the terms interchangeably.
Currently in its 17th edition, this form of citation is one of the most widely used in the US. It’s also been especially popularized by authors, editors, proofreaders, indexers, and copywriters alike.
Chicago Style is generally used by the following disciplines:
- Historical research
Within Chicago citation are two referencing styles:
- Notes and Bibliography (NB): Citations are through numbered footnotes and endnotes, with a corresponding bibliography at the end of the paper.
- Author-Date: Citations are done through in-text parenthetical references within the text itself, along with a full reference list at the end of your paper.
Both the bibliography and reference list should be listed in alphabetical order.
As you write your research paper, you only need to stick to one of the two referencing systems throughout your paper. Avoid switching between the two, since they’re both part of the Chicago Style .
How to Cite Sources in Chicago Style
In using Chicago citation , you should know the following information for each of your sources:
- Title of book/article
- Title of newspaper/journal
- Publication year
- Publication month and date
- City of publication
- Date of access
- Page numbers
- URL or name of the database
Once you have these details, you’ll need to choose between the two referencing styles: Notes and Bibliography (NB) or Author-date. In the next section, give you specific instructions on how to apply each one.
Notes and Bibliography Referencing Style
The NB system is commonly used by those in the humanities field, including any topics related to literature, history, or arts. As mentioned earlier, the system presents source information through numbered footnotes and endnotes, with a corresponding bibliography at the end.
Here’s how to cite Chicago style using the notes and bibliography system.
Putting In-text Citations
When citing within a text, assign a number at the end of the sentence or clause that corresponds to the full source in the footnote or endnote.
The number should be written as an in-text superscript, always come after the punctuation mark, and follow a sequential order (e.g., your first citation starts with 1, your second is 2, and so on).
See this example of citing in notes Chicago style :
When citing a source with two or three authors, list their names in the order they appear in the original publication. Additionally, when you are citing a source with four or more authors, use the term “et al.” after the first author’s name.
Here are some examples of citing authors in footnotes Chicago Style :
Another thing to keep in mind is that when you cite the same source twice in one sentence, you must cite it in full and short notes. We’ll explain what full and short notes are in the following section.
Full notes vs. Short notes
In the NB system, citations can either be a full note or a short note:
- A full note provides the complete source information.
- A short note includes the author’s last name, the source title (shortened, if the title is longer than four words), and the page number(s) of the cited information.
Keep in mind that you need to use a full note for the first citation of each reference. Only after that can the subsequent citations of the same source be written in short notes.
This is an example of citing the same source in one sentence:
Writing Footnote Citations
Footnotes are source details you put at the bottom of the page they refer to. They have specific formatting rules for full notes and short notes citation depending on their material type, which we’ve listed below:
Citing a Book
Citing a book chapter, citing a journal article, author-date referencing style.
When comparing the two referencing styles, many researchers in the physical, natural, and social sciences prefer to use the author-date style. Source citations are written within the text—often with the author’s last name and date of publication in parentheses, and a page number or page range if applicable. The citation is later expanded in the reference list, where readers can see the complete bibliographic information.
With author-date style, you have more flexibility with in-text citations. For example, you can cite your sources at the end of the relevant sentence before the period, but you can also integrate it within the sentence, should you prefer to do so. If you include the author’s name in the sentence, you can only have the date and page number in the parentheses.
Here are some examples:
Note: Include a page number only when referring to a specific part of the text. If you want to cite the text as a whole, you can leave out the page number.
Like in the NB system, the author-date system also cites a source with two or three authors by listing the names in the order they appear in the original publication. Similarly, for sources with four or more authors, use the term “et al.” after the first author’s name.
Here are examples of how the author-date style applies to citing multiple authors:
Writing the Reference List
The reference list appears at the end of your research paper, providing more detailed information about the sources you cited. Each entry in the reference list starts with the author’s last name and the publication date. They are all also listed in alphabetical order.
These are the different Chicago citation formats for each material type:
Citing Sources With Missing Information
As you go through your research process, you might come across instances where the required information for proper citation is not available. Should you encounter such moments, here is a list of common problems and how to get around citing them in both NB and Author-date systems:
Flowcite: Cite Chicago Style With Ease
The two different formatting choices used in Chicago citation fcan be intimidating and confusing, not to mention time-consuming. Because of this, we highly recommend that you optimise your process with tools designed to help you with Chicago citation format—such as Flowcite.
Flowcite is an all-in-one platform with various features to help students, researchers, and academics simplify their research process.
For example, Flowcite gives you more time to do actual research instead of painstakingly checking the citation format of your paper. Our automated citation and reference generator can cite on your behalf and meet any citation standards required of your submission.
On top of all that, Flowcite offers various innovative solutions to help your overall research process, such as:
- A PDF Viewer and online reader for any research article, allowing you to work with up to 10 collaborators on the same research paper.
- Over 7,000 citation styles to help with bibliographies and to easily insert citations in your paper.
- Premium Author and Publication Services , powered by Enago, to ensure that your paper is ready for submission.
No matter your level of experience with citing Chicago style in a research paper, Flowcite helps you with the whole process professionally and with ease.
Sign up with Flowcite today!
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The Chicago style, when referring to a source of information within the text of a document, in its simplest form, gives a short citation consisting of the name
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Label the first page of your back matter, your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author-Date
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In the footnotes and endnotes: First name Last name, Title of Book (Publication Place: Publisher, Year), page range. In the bibliography:.
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