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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.
Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:
In a general way,
- Restate your topic and why it is important,
- Restate your thesis/claim,
- Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
- Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:
Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
Tell them (body).
Tell them what you told them (conclusion).
How to properly end a persuasive essay.
Just like any piece of writing, you can end your persuasive essay any way you want too. If you’re trying to get the best grades for all the work you put in, however, following a tried and tested structure might be in your best interest (apart from using a grammar cleanup software ).
Most persuasive essays can be effectively ended using a three-part conclusion structure. Any time you’re finishing up a piece of writing in this genre and aren’t sure how to close, you can employ this as you standard format.
- Restate the thesis. Don’t repeat the main topic verbatim. Instead, restate it in a new way as a way to remind the reader what the primary thrust of the essay is about.
- Summarize your main points. You don’t need to get into much detail here. Just run down all the major points you discussed in the paper as a way to keep it fresh in the reader’s mind.
- Insert a concluding comment or call to action. This is your closing statement so make it count. What you write will depend on what you’re hoping to persuade your readers to do. You can end with a prediction (something that will happen if something doesn’t change), a question (to get your readers to make their own predictions), a recommendation (actions that can be taken either by the reader or those responsible for the issues) or a related quotation.
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How to Write a Concluding Paragraph for a Persuasive Essay
Last Updated: November 24, 2022 References
This article was co-authored by Jake Adams . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. This article has been viewed 158,648 times.
Giving an Overview
- If it helps, print out a copy of the body of the paper and highlight the main points to be summarized.
- For instance, "Gun laws should be changed to reflect the evolving needs of today's generations.”
- You can, however, create a call to action or end with a creative and engaging hook statement.
- Using the first sentence to restate the hypothesis in your introduction, in different wording
- Writing the next 2-3 sentence to summarize the key arguments made in your paper
- Having the last 1-2 sentences be a grand statement of conclusion, saying what your final findings are
Using Convincing Wording
- For instance, "Regular exercise reduces stress, improves your sleep, and promotes weight loss."
- For instance, instead of writing, "The traditional American Dream is not dead and gone," write, "The American Dream is not dead.”
- However, keep in mind that in some cases, more elaborate wording may be necessary to drive home your point.
Establishing the Relevance of Your Conclusion
- For example,"What will happen to small businesses as different industries continue to go digital?"
- For example, "Being environmentally responsible is a necessary step for all people, in order to save the parts of nature that we have left."
- For example, "If this competitive nature of school work were replaced with a more community-based learning approach, we might see happier, healthier children."
You Might Also Like
- ↑ Jake Adams. Academic Tutor & Test Prep Specialist. Expert Interview. 20 May 2020.
- ↑ https://opentextbc.ca/writingforsuccess/chapter/chapter-10-persuasion/
- ↑ http://penandthepad.com/write-concluding-paragraph-persuasive-essay-college-1412.html
- ↑ http://examples.yourdictionary.com/parallel-structure-examples.html
- ↑ http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/argument_papers/conclusions.html
About This Article
To write a concluding paragraph for your persuasive essay, you’ll need to briefly summarize your main arguments. Use the first sentence to restate your hypothesis from your introduction in different words. Then, spend 2 or 3 sentences reminding the reader of the main arguments you made throughout the essay. Use strong, simple language to emphasize your conclusion. You can also add a call to action or tell the reader what you think should happen as a result of your conclusions. For example, "If this competitive nature of school work were replaced with a more community-based learning approach, we might see happier, healthier children." For more tips from our Teaching co-author, including how to position your arguments within the bigger picture, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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How to Write a Concluding Paragraph for a Persuasive Essay in College
A persuasive essay, also known as an argumentative essay, is one that requires a student to investigate a topic and argue a viewpoint. College-level persuasive essays generally have three sections that include an introduction in which a thesis or argument is presented, body paragraphs in which arguments and counterarguments are presented, and a conclusion in which the argument is reiterated. The conclusion is an important aspect of a persuasive essay as it is the last impression a writer makes on the reader.
What to Include
The conclusion should include a brief overview of what was argued and what evidence was presented without including too many specifics from the body paragraphs. The thesis statement from the first paragraph should be restated, but reworded, and reflect the significance or importance of what was argued. A conclusion in an academic essay typically only needs to be one well-developed paragraph of at least five sentences.
No new evidence or arguments should be presented in the conclusion paragraph. However, a writer may choose to give his argument new meaning by showing how his ideas and research work together. He can do this by asking questions in the conclusion. For example, if he argued in support of nationalized health care he could ask questions that bring the premise and argument together, by reminding the readers of the evidence presented: Isn't it clear that healthcare is a problem in our country? Should we wait any longer to deal with the escalating costs and lack of access?
Challenge the Reader
College students write persuasive essays in many different types of classes, and their conclusion should reflect the subject matter. For example, if a student writes a political science paper trying to persuade his reader that tougher gun laws are important, he can ask the reader to sign a petition or join a support group. In a science or social science class, where further investigation is often warranted, the student can challenge his reader to study the topic further by suggesting additional reading or research materials.
Another way to end a persuasive research paper is by asking the reader to look to the future, either real or imagined. For example, a persuasive paper may argue that schools need to do more about bullying. The writer could create a mental picture of a school where all students are treated with respect and appreciated for their differences. This would leave the reader with a lasting impression of what a school without bullies could look like, persuading the reader to agree with the essay's main arguments.
- Purdue Online Writing Lab: Argumentative Essays
- St. Cloud State University: Strategies for Writing a Conclusion
- Hamilton College Writing Center: Persuasive Essays, the Basics
- University of Toronto: Introductions and Conclusions
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Writing a Conclusion for Persuasive Essays!
Table of contents.
Conclusions bring everything you have been discussing in your paper to a close.
In the introduction and body paragraphs, you transitioned from general to specific information. In your conclusion, you should start to transition back to more general information that restates the key points of your argument.
Conclusions may also suggest the following steps or summarize potential future research. In conclusion, you should reiterate your topic, the reasons it is significant, and your thesis or claim. They then discuss opposing points of view and justify why readers should support your position.
Finally, they make recommendations for future research or make a call to action. In today’s guide, we’ll look how to write a conclusion for a persuasive essay . Feels exciting? Well then, keep reading until the end!
What Is a Persuasive Essay?
An argumentative essay, also referred to as a persuasive essay, calls for the student to research a subject and support their position.
The three sections of a college-level persuasive essay are typically an introduction with a thesis or argument, body paragraphs with supporting evidence and counterarguments, and a conclusion with a restatement of the thesis or argument. The conclusion of a persuasive essay is crucial because it leaves the reader with one final impression of the author.
In order to persuade readers to adopt a particular point of view, a persuasive essay combines logical justification with emotional appeal. You can use both academic writing and creative writing in persuasive essays.
They frequently start with a query, to which the author devotes the entire essay to make a case for or against. A strong claim will be made in a personal essay and supported by evidence from data, research, and personal experience. The author will frequently examine competing viewpoints and counterarguments in an effort to refute them.
How to Write a Conclusion for a Persuasive Essay?
Without going into too much detail in the body paragraphs, the conclusion should provide a summary of the points made and the supporting evidence used. You should rephrase the first paragraph’s thesis statement to reflect the significance or importance of the points made in the body of the paragraph. The standard length for a conclusion in an academic essay is one well-developed paragraph with at least five sentences.
The conclusion paragraph shouldn’t include any new arguments or supporting data. However, a writer may decide to demonstrate the interrelationships between his theories and research to give his argument new life. By posing inquiries at the end, he can achieve this. For instance, if he made an argument in favor of gun control, he could use questions to connect the premise and argument by reminding the audience of the supporting evidence: It should be evident that gun violence is a problem in our nation. Is it appropriate to put off dealing with the increasing death toll any longer?
In a variety of course formats, college students write persuasive essays, and their conclusion should be relevant to the topic. For instance, a student writing a political science paper might ask the reader to sign a petition or join a support group in order to convince them that stricter gun laws are necessary. The student can inspire his audience to learn more by suggesting additional reading or research materials in a science or social science course where further research is frequently required.
More Tips to Conclude
The main goal of your paper’s concluding paragraph is to restate both the paper’s argument and the ways in which you presented its supporting evidence in the paper’s body. Contrary to popular belief, your conclusion shouldn’t be a carbon copy of your introduction. The conclusion connects the dots in your paper’s argument and demonstrates the direction it has taken. A compelling conclusion persuades the reader to continue reading your essay. The introduction of new information is one of this paragraph’s most crucial functions.
Despite the fact that an effective persuasive essay must follow the organization and structure outlined in this handout, remember that writing is a fluid process. You don’t have to follow any rigid guidelines when writing. It’s not necessary to report the introduction before any other paragraphs just because it’s the first one in your essay. Consider writing as the exploration of ideas, and let this spirit of inquiry direct you as you compose your essay.
The most important thing you need to work on in your conclusion is to make it brief. But it doesn’t mean it should not restate the important ideas in your writing again.
We hope you’ve enjoyed our guide on writing a conclusion for a persuasive essay . If you have any more questions on this topic, feel free to write to us!
Abir is a data analyst and researcher. Among her interests are artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing. As a humanitarian and educator, she actively supports women in tech and promotes diversity.
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How to Write the Conclusion for a Persuasive Essay
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Some high school and college students assume the body paragraphs are all that matter in an essay. However, an argument will fall flat if it does not end with a strong conclusion -- especially when your intent is to persuade. A good conclusion summarizes the points you made earlier and also makes the reader want to act in response to the paper.
Describe the Stakes
According to Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab, begin with a reminder. Let the reader know what will happen if nothing is done to resolve the issue in your argument. Reuse a particular statistic or an example you used earlier. If, to get the reader interested, you started your persuasive essay on drunk driving with the story of a mother and children who were killed by a drunk driver, begin the conclusion by referring back to that family.
Summarize Your Position
Briefly restate your position. Touch on the highlights of your argument, and show how your essay resolves or addresses the issue. Waterford Union High School advises students to restate the thesis and summarize all of the main points from the body paragraphs. For example, if you're writing a persuasive essay that argues that legal consequences for drunk driving are too lenient, emphasize key evidence you introduced in the body -- such as the percent of offenders that go on to drive under the influence again.
Clincher: Call to Action
End by arming your readers with specific actions they can take based on the information you have just provided. To encourage stronger penalties for drunk driving, for example, you might ask readers to put pressure on the legislature to create change. As a final note, consider using a quote related to the topic or show how your position relates to a broader issue, according to the Harvard College Writing Center. Ending with a prediction of how the situation will improve if people follow your advice in the paper is another commonly recommended practice.
Problems to Avoid
Avoid these common pitfalls to make your conclusion stand out. The Writing Center at Harvard recommends to not begin this section or paragraph with a phrase like “in conclusion” or “to conclude." Though transitions are important in persuasive writing in general, these tend to be overused.
Make sure your final paragraph does more than just summarize your position. Remember, if you only explain why you hold a certain belief, you are not writing an argument or persuasive essay. You must cause some change in the reader to be successful with this assignment.
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- Purdue University Online Writing Lab: Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper
- Harvard College Writing Center: Ending the Essay: Conclusions
Residing in Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., Buddy Shay has been in higher education since 2003 with experience in the classroom and in academic support. He holds a Master of Arts in English. Shay is also a certified practitioner of the MBTI personality instrument and has previous experience working with secondary students.
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- Ending the Essay: Conclusions
So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.
The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.
To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
- Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
- Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.
To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection, Dubliners , with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
- Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes .
- Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise of dehumanization "; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
- Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel Ambiguous Adventure , by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.
Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:
- Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
- Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
- Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."
Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
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Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs
How To Properly End A Persuasive Essay · Restate the thesis. Don't repeat the main topic verbatim. · Summarize your main points. You don't need to get into much
Persuasive essays introduce a hypothesis in the introduction and set out to prove it within the body of the text. ... A good concluding paragraph for a paper
The conclusion should include a brief overview of what was argued and what evidence was presented without including too many specifics from the body paragraphs.
Conclusions may also suggest the following steps or summarize potential future research. In conclusion, you should reiterate your topic, the reasons it is
How to Write the Conclusion for a Persuasive Essay · Describe the Stakes. According to Purdue University's Online Writing Lab, begin with a reminder. · Summarize
Draft a conclusion paragraph for an argumentative essayIn this lesson, you will learn how to draft a conclusion that will leave your reader
Learn how to write a persuasive conclusion!! Resources here!Differentiated for ages 6 to 12. Years 1-6. Includes Learning Intention, Success
... conclusions video:https://youtu.be/vjApOJabracThis is what you need to include in the CONCLUSION paragraph of your Persuasive Essay(Reco
Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an