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GIBBS reflection - Other bibliographies - in Harvard style

These are the sources and citations used to research GIBBS reflection. This bibliography was generated on Cite This For Me on Sunday, July 30, 2017

Bulman, C. and Schutz, S.

Reflective practice in nursing, 2013 - wiley blackwell - chiscester west sussex.

In-text: (Bulman and Schutz, 2013)

Your Bibliography: Bulman, C. and Schutz, S., 2013. Reflective Practice in Nursing . 5th ed. Chiscester West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell, p.5.

Learning by Doing: A Guide to a Teaching And Learning Methods

1988 - further educational unit - oxford,polytechnic.

In-text: (Gibbs, 1988)

Your Bibliography: Gibbs, G., 1988. Learning by Doing: A Guide to a Teaching And Learning Methods . Oxford,Polytechnic: Further Educational Unit.

Raynor, M. D., Marshall, J. E. and Sullivan, A.

Decison making in midwifery practice, 2005 - elsever,churchill livingstone - united kingdom.

In-text: (Raynor, Marshall and Sullivan, 2005)

Your Bibliography: Raynor, M., Marshall, J. and Sullivan, A., 2005. Decison making in Midwifery Practice . 1st ed. United Kingdom: Elsever,Churchill Livingstone, p.149.

Robotham, A. and Frost, M.

Health visiting ; specialist community public health nursing, 2005 - harcourt publisher limited - china.

In-text: (Robotham and Frost, 2005)

Your Bibliography: Robotham, A. and Frost, M., 2005. Health Visiting ; Specialist Community Public Health Nursing . 2nd ed. China: Harcourt Publisher Limited, p.277.

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Gibbs, G. (1998) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford Brooks University, Oxford.

has been cited by the following article:

TITLE: Relationship between Reflective Practice Skills and Volume of Writing in a Reflective Journal

KEYWORDS: Reflective Journal , Public Health Nursing Student , Reflective Skill

JOURNAL NAME: Health , Vol.10 No.3 , March 15, 2018

ABSTRACT: Background: According to the diversification of the health needs and the expansion of health disparities, public health nurses need to improve their practical capabilities, starting from basic education in graduate and undergraduate courses. And Reflective Practice with using reflective journal is one way of improving practical capabilities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the volume of reflective journal and the quality of progress in the reflective cycle. Methods: The participants in this study were 20 junior students majoring in public health nursing (hereinafter “PHN students”) at a university in the Chugoku area, Japan. We asked the participants to answer the questions on Reflective Practice Skills (RPS) composed of six criteria corresponding to the six questions of Gibbs on the reflective cycle before and after they started writing RJ. The volume of reflective writing was measured by the number of characters written by the PHN students in RJ of the reflective practice for three months. The study plan was approved by the Ethics Committee for Nursing Study, Okayama University. Results: Although the average total RPS score showed a change of about 3 points as a result of the 3-month RJ writing exercise, no correlation was observed between the RPS score and the RJ writing volume (r = 0.175). However, we did observe a moderately positive correlation between the RPS score and the RJ writing volume with regard to Items 5 and 6 (r = 0.475 and r = 0.444, respectively). Conclusion: This study indicated that detailed RJ writing helps to complete the reflective cycle all the way to theorization and action planning, and that the volume of writing may serve as a criterion for qualitative evaluation.

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Reflection Toolkit

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

One of the most famous cyclical models of reflection leading you through six stages exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.

Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences.  It offers a framework for examining experiences, and given its cyclic nature lends itself particularly well to repeated experiences, allowing you to learn and plan from things that either went well or didn’t go well. It covers 6 stages:

Below is further information on:

This is just one model of reflection. Test it out and see how it works for you. If you find that only a few of the questions are helpful for you, focus on those. However, by thinking about each stage you are more likely to engage critically with your learning experience.

A circular diagram showing the 6 stages of Gibbs' Reflective cycle

This model is a good way to work through an experience. This can be either a stand-alone experience or a situation you go through frequently, for example meetings with a team you have to collaborate with. Gibbs originally advocated its use in repeated situations, but the stages and principles apply equally well for single experiences too. If done with a stand-alone experience, the action plan may become more general and look at how you can apply your conclusions in the future.

For each of the stages of the model a number of helpful questions are outlined below. You don’t have to answer all of them but they can guide you about what sort of things make sense to include in that stage. You might have other prompts that work better for you.


Here you have a chance to describe the situation in detail. The main points to include here concern what happened. Your feelings and conclusions will come later.

Helpful questions:

Example of 'Description'

Here you can explore any feelings or thoughts that you had during the experience and how they may have impacted the experience.

Example of 'Feelings'

Here you have a chance to evaluate what worked and what didn’t work in the situation. Try to be as objective and honest as possible. To get the most out of your reflection focus on both the positive and the negative aspects of the situation, even if it was primarily one or the other.

Example of 'Evaluation'

The analysis step is where you have a chance to make sense of what happened. Up until now you have focused on details around what happened in the situation. Now you have a chance to extract meaning from it. You want to target the different aspects that went well or poorly and ask yourself why. If you are looking to include academic literature, this is the natural place to include it.

Example of 'Analysis'


In this section you can make conclusions about what happened. This is where you summarise your learning and highlight what changes to your actions could improve the outcome in the future. It should be a natural response to the previous sections.

Example of a 'Conclusion'

Action plan.

At this step you plan for what you would do differently in a similar or related situation in the future. It can also be extremely helpful to think about how you will help yourself to act differently – such that you don’t only plan what you will do differently, but also how you will make sure it happens. Sometimes just the realisation is enough, but other times reminders might be helpful.

Example of 'Action Plan'

Different depths of reflection.

Depending on the context you are doing the reflection in, you might want use different levels of details. Here is the same scenario, which was used in the example above, however it is presented much more briefly.

Adapted from

Gibbs G (1988). Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

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Gibbs Reflective Cycle

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Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences. It offers a framework for examining experiences, and given its cyclic nature lends itself particularly well to repeated experiences, allowing you to learn and plan from things that either went well or didn’t go well. It covers 6 stages.

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Reference list

Leaf (symbolising references).

A complete list of references cited in this RLO is below. You'll need to scroll down the page to see them all. You can also download the reference list as a PDF file for easy printing and portability.

Action Learning Associates website: http://www.actionlearningassociates.co.uk/ [accessed 4/11/08].

Allin & Turnock 2007 pdf extract pp8-9/19 from http://www.practicebasedlearning.org/resources/materials/docs/Reflection%20Work%20Based%20Supervisors.doc

Ammerman M, The Root Cause Analysis Handbook A Simplified Approach to Identifying,Correcting and Reporting Workplace Errors (Quality Resources, New York, 1998)

Aubeeluck, A. (2006) 'Capturing the Huntingdon's Disease Spousal Carer Experience' in Dementia Buchanan, H. p.107, vol 5 (1) 95-116

Baulcomb JS. (2003) Journal of Nursing Management . 11(4):275-80. Management of change through force field analysis.

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF (1986): Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press.

Bond M, Holland S (1998) Skills of Clinical Supervision for Nurses. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Borton, T. (1970) Reach, Touch and Teach. London:Hutchinson.

Boud, D., Cressey, P. and Docherty, P. (Eds.)(2006). Productive Reflection at Work: Learning for Changing Organisations. London: Routledge.

British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy (BACP): http://www.bacp.co.uk/ [accessed 4/11/08].

Businessballs.com SWOT tool: http://www.businessballs.com/swotanalysisfreetemplate.htm   [accessed 4/11/08].

Burns S and Bulman C (2000): Reflective practice in nursing. Oxford: Blackwell Science

Buzan, T. (2002) How to Mind Map. London: Thorsons.

Buzan T. World “Mind Maps” http://www.buzanworld.com/Mind_Maps.htm [accessed 19/11/08].

Carper, B. (1978) Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing, in Advances in Nursing Science 1(1): 13-23

Clark, A (2001). Untitled. Unpublished. At the time of writing, Alison Clark is a registered nurse and lecturer at the University of Nottingham.

Colquhoun, G "Playing God: Poems about Medicine": Playing God by Glenn Colquhoun (2002) Paperback 94pp Steele Roberts, New Zealand.

Conway J. (1994) Reflection, the art and science of Nursing and the theory practice gap. British Journal of Nursing 3(1) 77-80.

Driscoll, J. (2007) Practising Clinical Supervision: A Reflective Approach for Healthcare Professionals. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Bailliere Tindall Elsevier

Evans, G (2007) Counselling Skills for Dummies. John Wiley and Sons, London.

Fowler et al 1998: Fowler, J; Chevannes, M. (1998) Evaluating the Efficacy of Reflective Practice within the Context of Clinical Supervision. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 27 (2) 379 - 382.

Gibbs, Graham. (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development. Available online at http://www2.glos.ac.uk/gdn/gibbs/index.htm [Accessed 8 April 2008]

Hogston, R. and Simpson, P.M. (1999) Foundations of Nursing Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan

Jarvis P. (1992) Reflective practice and nursing, in Nurse Education Today, Vol. 12, No 3, pp 174-181

Johns, C. (2006) Engaging Reflection in Practice- a narrative approach Oxford Blackwell Publishing.pp.42

Jones, T; Cawthorn, S (2007) What is Clinical Audit? What is Series Vol 4 (1) [online] Available at: http://www.evidence-based-medicine.co.uk/ebmfiles/WhatisClinAudit.pdf Accessed: 7/04/08

Kolb, David A. (1984) Experiential learning: experience as a source of learning and development.New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

McClure 2005 (from helping others slide): McClure P (2005) Reflection on Practice. http://www.practicebasedlearning.org/resources/materials/docs/reflectiononpractice.pdf also have pdf called mcclure 2005

Mindtools.com SWOT tool: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_05.htm [accesssed 4/11/08].

Mindtools.com Forcefield Analysis tool: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_06.htm [accessed 4/11/08].

Morrell, C. (1999) The clinical audit handbook : improving the quality of health care / Clare Morrell, Gill Harvey ; foreword by Alison Kitson. London : Baillière Tindall

National Patient Safety Agency (NSPA) website: http://www.npsa.nhs.uk/patientsafety/improvingpatientsafety/patient-safety-tools-andguidance/rootcauseanalysis [accessed 4/11/08].

NMC (2008) The Code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives.London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Available online at http://www.nmc-uk.org [accessed November 2008].

Patient Voices Programme. Emma Allen’s Story. Copyright 2008 Pilgrim Projects Limited. Available at: http://www.patientvoices.org.uk . All material used under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5 ) [accessed 19/11/08].

Pfund, R. (2005) Our Little Baby Brother. Unpublished. At the time of writing, Rita Pfund is a paediatric nurse lecturer at the University of Nottingham.

Piercy, Nigel and Giles, William (1989) Making swot analysis work (photocopy resource held by University of Nottingham Medical library)

Proctor, B (2001) Training for the Supervision Alliance; attitude, skills and intention. In: Cutcliffe,J; Butterworth, T; Proctor, B (eds) (2001) Fundamental Themes in Clinical Supervision. Pp25 – 46 London Routledge.

Rolfe, G., Freshwater, D., Jasper, M. (2001) Critical Reflection for Nursing and the Helping Professions: a User’s Guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave

Schön, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London:Temple Smith

Skills for Health is the Sector Skills Council (SSC) for the UK health sector: www.skillsforhealth.org.uk [accessed 4/11/08]

Southampton Solent University (2008) Fact Sheet: Mind Maps. Updated August 2008. http://portal-live.solent.ac.uk/library/leaflets/resources/US29.pdf . Accessed November 2008.   Taylor, B.J. (2000) Reflective Practice: A Guide for Nurses and Midwives. Buckingham : Open University Press

University of Nottingham Counselling service: http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/counselling [accessed 4/11/08]

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  1. GIBBS reflection

    Your Bibliography: Gibbs, G., 1988. Learning by Doing: A Guide to a Teaching And Learning Methods. Oxford,Polytechnic: Further Educational Unit.

  2. I need to harvard reference the gibbs reflective cycle and

    Your Bibliography: Gibbs, G., 1988. Learning By Doing: A Guide To A Teaching And Learning Methods. Oxford, Polytechnic: Further Educational Unit

  3. Referencing Guides: HARVARD (Bangor)

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle, (adapted from Gibbs, 1988).

  4. Gibbs, G. (1998) Learning by Doing A Guide to Teaching and

    Article citationsMore>>. Gibbs, G. (1998) Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford Brooks University, Oxford.

  5. Gibbs' Reflective Cycle

    Gibbs' Reflective Cycle was developed by Graham Gibbs in 1988 to give structure to learning from experiences. It offers a framework for

  6. Gibbs Reflective Cycle

    Cite This Work. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: APA; MLA; MLA-7; Harvard; Vancouver

  7. Applying the Gibbs' Reflective Model

    Applying the Gibbs' Reflective Model. 'It is not sufficient simply to have an experience in order to learn. Without reflecting.

  8. Reference list

    Conway J. (1994) Reflection, the art and science of Nursing and the theory practice gap. British Journal of Nursing 3(1) 77-80.

  9. Gibbs reflective cycle

    Share: Facebook Twitter Reddit Links Cycle of Gibbs Reflection in 1988 by Graham Gibbs to ensure the structure

  10. gibbs reflective cycle

    gibbs reflective cycle - Literature bibliographies - in Harvard style.

  11. Gibbs' reflective cycle The 6 stages

    One of the key things about Gibbs is the acknowledgement of the importance of Feelings in reflection. He also separates out. Evaluation - what went well as well