Consistency in the order, structure, and format of a paper allows readers to focus on a paper’s content rather than its presentation.
To format a paper in APA Style, writers can typically use the default settings and automatic formatting tools of their word-processing program or make only minor adjustments.
The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create another kind of work (e.g., a website, conference poster, or PowerPoint presentation), you may need to format your work differently in order to optimize its presentation, for example, by using different line spacing and font sizes. Follow the guidelines of your institution or publisher to adapt APA Style formatting guidelines as needed.
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Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition)
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In this section
A step-by-step guide for creating and formatting APA Style student papers
The start of the semester is the perfect time to learn how to create and format APA Style student papers. This article walks through the formatting steps needed to create an APA Style student paper, starting with a basic setup that applies to the entire paper (margins, font, line spacing, paragraph alignment and indentation, and page headers). It then covers formatting for the major sections of a student paper: the title page, the text, tables and figures, and the reference list. Finally, it concludes by describing how to organize student papers and ways to improve their quality and presentation.
The guidelines for student paper setup are described and shown using annotated diagrams in the Student Paper Setup Guide (PDF, 3.40MB) and the A Step-by-Step Guide to APA Style Student Papers webinar . Chapter 1 of the Concise Guide to APA Style and Chapter 2 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association describe the elements, format, and organization for student papers. Tables and figures are covered in Chapter 7 of both books. Information on paper format and tables and figures and a full sample student paper are also available on the APA Style website.
The guidelines for basic setup apply to the entire paper. Perform these steps when you first open your document, and then you do not have to worry about them again while writing your paper. Because these are general aspects of paper formatting, they apply to all APA Style papers, student or professional. Students should always check with their assigning instructor or institution for specific guidelines for their papers, which may be different than or in addition to APA Style guidelines.
Seventh edition APA Style was designed with modern word-processing programs in mind. Most default settings in programs such as Academic Writer, Microsoft Word, and Google Docs already comply with APA Style. This means that, for most paper elements, you do not have to make any changes to the default settings of your word-processing program. However, you may need to make a few adjustments before you begin writing.
Use 1-in. margins on all sides of the page (top, bottom, left, and right). This is usually how papers are automatically set.
Use a legible font. The default font of your word-processing program is acceptable. Many sans serif and serif fonts can be used in APA Style, including 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 12-point Times New Roman, and 11-point Georgia. You can also use other fonts described on the font page of the website.
Double-space the entire paper including the title page, block quotations, and the reference list. This is something you usually must set using the paragraph function of your word-processing program. But once you do, you will not have to change the spacing for the entirety of your paper–just double-space everything. Do not add blank lines before or after headings. Do not add extra spacing between paragraphs. For paper sections with different line spacing, see the line spacing page.
Paragraph alignment and indentation
Align all paragraphs of text in the body of your paper to the left margin. Leave the right margin ragged. Do not use full justification. Indent the first line of every paragraph of text 0.5-in. using the tab key or the paragraph-formatting function of your word-processing program. For paper sections with different alignment and indentation, see the paragraph alignment and indentation page.
Put a page number in the top right of every page header , including the title page, starting with page number 1. Use the automatic page-numbering function of your word-processing program to insert the page number in the top right corner; do not type the page numbers manually. The page number is the same font and font size as the text of your paper. Student papers do not require a running head on any page, unless specifically requested by the instructor.
Title page setup
Title page elements.
APA Style has two title page formats: student and professional (for details, see title page setup ). Unless instructed otherwise, students should use the student title page format and include the following elements, in the order listed, on the title page:
- Paper title.
- Name of each author (also known as the byline).
- Affiliation for each author.
- Course number and name.
- Instructor name.
- Assignment due date.
- Page number 1 in the top right corner of the page header.
The format for the byline depends on whether the paper has one author, two authors, or three or more authors.
- When the paper has one author, write the name on its own line (e.g., Jasmine C. Hernandez).
- When the paper has two authors, write the names on the same line and separate them with the word “and” (e.g., Upton J. Wang and Natalia Dominguez).
- When the paper has three or more authors, separate the names with commas and include “and” before the final author’s name (e.g., Malia Mohamed, Jaylen T. Brown, and Nia L. Ball).
Students have an academic affiliation, which identities where they studied when the paper was written. Because students working together on a paper are usually in the same class, they will have one shared affiliation. The affiliation consists of the name of the department and the name of the college or university, separated by a comma (e.g., Department of Psychology, George Mason University). The department is that of the course to which the paper is being submitted, which may be different than the department of the student’s major. Do not include the location unless it is part of the institution’s name.
Write the course number and name and the instructor name as shown on institutional materials (e.g., the syllabus). The course number and name are often separated by a colon (e.g., PST-4510: History and Systems Psychology). Write the assignment due date in the month, date, and year format used in your country (e.g., Sept. 10, 2020).
Title page line spacing
Double-space the whole title page. Place the paper title three or four lines down from the top of the page. Add an extra double-spaced blank like between the paper title and the byline. Then, list the other title page elements on separate lines, without extra lines in between.
Title page alignment
Center all title page elements (except the right-aligned page number in the header).
Title page font
Write the title page using the same font and font size as the rest of your paper. Bold the paper title. Use standard font (i.e., no bold, no italics) for all other title page elements.
Repeat the paper title at the top of the first page of text. Begin the paper with an introduction to provide background on the topic, cite related studies, and contextualize the paper. Use descriptive headings to identify other sections as needed (e.g., Method, Results, Discussion for quantitative research papers). Sections and headings vary depending on the paper type and its complexity. Text can include tables and figures, block quotations, headings, and footnotes.
Text line spacing
Double-space all text, including headings and section labels, paragraphs of text, and block quotations.
Center the paper title on the first line of the text. Indent the first line of all paragraphs 0.5-in.
Left-align the text. Leave the right margin ragged.
Block quotation alignment
Indent the whole block quotation 0.5-in. from the left margin. Double-space the block quotation, the same as other body text. Find more information on the quotations page.
Use the same font throughout the entire paper. Write body text in standard (nonbold, nonitalic) font. Bold only headings and section labels. Use italics sparingly, for instance, to highlight a key term on first use (for more information, see the italics page).
For detailed guidance on formatting headings, including headings in the introduction of a paper, see the headings page and the headings in sample papers .
- Alignment: Center Level 1 headings. Left-align Level 2 and Level 3 headings. Indent Level 4 and Level 5 headings like a regular paragraph.
- Font: Boldface all headings. Also italicize Level 3 and Level 5 headings. Create heading styles using your word-processing program (built into AcademicWriter, available for Word via the sample papers on the APA Style website).
Tables and figures setup
Tables and figures are only included in student papers if needed for the assignment. Tables and figures share the same elements and layout. See the website for sample tables and sample figures .
Tables include the following four elements:
- Body (rows and columns)
- Note (optional if needed to explain elements in the table)
Figures include the following four elements:
- Image (chart, graph, etc.)
- Note (optional if needed to explain elements in the figure)
Table line spacing
Double-space the table number and title. Single-, 1.5-, or double-space the table body (adjust as needed for readability). Double-space the table note.
Figure line spacing
Double-space the figure number and title. The default settings for spacing in figure images is usually acceptable (but adjust the spacing as needed for readability). Double-space the figure note.
Left-align the table number and title. Center column headings. Left-align the table itself and left-align the leftmost (stub) column. Center data in the table body if it is short or left-align the data if it is long. Left-align the table note.
Left-align the figure number and title. Left-align the whole figure image. The default alignment of the program in which you created your figure is usually acceptable for axis titles and data labels. Left-align the figure note.
Bold the table number. Italicize the table title. Use the same font and font size in the table body as the text of your paper. Italicize the word “Note” at the start of the table note. Write the note in the same font and font size as the text of your paper.
Bold the figure number. Italicize the figure title. Use a sans serif font (e.g., Calibri, Arial) in the figure image in a size between 8 to 14 points. Italicize the word “Note” at the start of the figure note. Write the note in the same font and font size as the text of your paper.
Placement of tables and figures
There are two options for the placement of tables and figures in an APA Style paper. The first option is to place all tables and figures on separate pages after the reference list. The second option is to embed each table and figure within the text after its first callout. This guide describes options for the placement of tables and figures embedded in the text. If your instructor requires tables and figures to be placed at the end of the paper, see the table and figure guidelines and the sample professional paper .
Call out (mention) the table or figure in the text before embedding it (e.g., write “see Figure 1” or “Table 1 presents”). You can place the table or figure after the callout either at the bottom of the page, at the top of the next page, or by itself on the next page. Avoid placing tables and figures in the middle of the page.
Embedding at the bottom of the page
Include a callout to the table or figure in the text before that table or figure. Add a blank double-spaced line between the text and the table or figure at the bottom of the page.
Embedding at the top of the page
Include a callout to the table in the text on the previous page before that table or figure. The table or figure then appears at the top of the next page. Add a blank double-spaced line between the end of the table or figure and the text that follows.
Embedding on its own page
Embed long tables or large figures on their own page if needed. The text continues on the next page.
Reference list setup
Reference list elements.
The reference list consists of the “References” section label and the alphabetical list of references. View reference examples on the APA Style website. Consult Chapter 10 in both the Concise Guide and Publication Manual for even more examples.
Reference list line spacing
Start the reference list at the top of a new page after the text. Double-space the entire reference list (both within and between entries).
Reference list alignment
Center the “References” label. Apply a hanging indent of 0.5-in. to all reference list entries. Create the hanging indent using your word-processing program; do not manually hit the enter and tab keys.
Reference list font
Bold the “References” label at the top of the first page of references. Use italics within reference list entries on either the title (e.g., webpages, books, reports) or on the source (e.g., journal articles, edited book chapters).
Check page order.
- Start each section on a new page.
- Arrange pages in the following order:
- Title page (page 1).
- Text (starts on page 2).
- Reference list (starts on a new page after the text).
- Check that headings accurately reflect the content in each section.
- Start each main section with a Level 1 heading.
- Use Level 2 headings for subsections of the introduction.
- Use the same level of heading for sections of equal importance.
- Avoid having only one subsection within a section (have two or more, or none).
Check assignment instructions
- Remember that instructors’ guidelines supersede APA Style.
- Students should check their assignment guidelines or rubric for specific content to include in their papers and to make sure they are meeting assignment requirements.
Tips for better writing
- Ask for feedback on your paper from a classmate, writing center tutor, or instructor.
- Budget time to implement suggestions.
- Use spell-check and grammar-check to identify potential errors, and then manually check those flagged.
- Proofread the paper by reading it slowly and carefully aloud to yourself.
- Consult your university writing center if you need extra help.
About the author
APA 7: Introduction to APA Format (7th ed.)
- Introduction to APA Format (7th ed.)
- Formatting a Paper
- In-Text Citations
- References List
- Getting Research Help
What is APA?
APA style is a citation style usually used in Psychology, Library and Information Science, and other fields. APA stands for the American Psychological Association. The 7th edition was published in 2019 and has significant changes from the 6th edition (2009).
APA 7th Ed. Manual
The APA Publication Manual is the official guide to APA format.
Merced College Library APA 7 Handout
- APA 7th ed. Handout From the Merced College Library.
Introduction to Citation Styles: APA 7th ed.
" This video introduces the purpose and basic conventions of citing sources in-text and in a reference list using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style, 7th edition, 2019... " ( CSUDH Library , 3:00).
Why, When, & How to Cite Information
- To give credit to others for their ideas
- To provide support for your argument
- To help your reader find and read the sources you used
When to Cite
- Paraphrasing, summarizing, or directly quoting from any source
- Acknowledging another person for an idea
- Using your own previous work
How to Cite
APA citation requires two parts:
- In-Text Citations - brief citations included within the text of your paper. They point your reader to the full citation at the end of your paper.
- References page - a page at the end of your paper listing all the sources you used.
- Next: Tutorials >>
- Last Updated: Feb 21, 2023 1:55 PM
- URL: https://libguides.mccd.edu/apa7
Cite Your Sources: Format a paper in APA
- Cite Sources
- Format a Paper in MLA
- In-Text Citations in MLA
- Works Cited List Citations in MLA
- Annotations Bibliographies in MLA
- Other MLA Resources
- Annotated Bibliography
Format a paper in APA
- In-Text Citations
- Academic Integrity
- Other APA Resources
- Format a Paper in Chicago
- Books & Ebooks
- Videos, Music, Images
- Government & Legal
- Footnotes & Endnotes
APA Quick Links
Created by the American Psychological Association, provides detailed guidelines on how to setup your entire paper
Created specifically for LSC-CyFair students; feel free to download, save as, and overwrite for your paper!
APA STUDENT PAPER COMPONENTS
- Reference List
APA Student Title Page Guide
- The Title Page is page 1
- All subsequent pages will now also be numbered
- Positioned in the upper-middle of the page, 3 to 4 lines below the top of the page
- Centered in bold
- May take up one or two lines
- Skip a line before adding elements below
- Rachel K. Green
- Rachel K. Green and Chandler M. Bing
- Rachel K. Green, Chandler M. Bing, and Joseph F. Tribbiani Jr.
- Geology Department, Lone Star College-CyFair
- GEOL 1403: Physical Geology
- Dr. Ross Gellar
- October 3, 2022
All items on your title page and the rest of your paper should be double spaced .
Avoiding Plagiarism Guide
Six Steps to Proper Citation
Heading Levels Template
- Be mindful of grammar , style mechanics , and bias-free language when writing.
- Begin with an introduction to provide background and context.
- Do not use a heading for the introduction.
- Sections and headings vary depending on paper type and complexity. Refer to the Heading Levels Template above.
- Subsequent paragraph lines should be flush left.
- Refer to the APA Student Paper Setup Guide above.
- Refer to the page in this guide about In-Text Citations for more information and examples.
- Plagiarism occurs when failing to cite sources appropriately. Refer to the Avoiding Plagiarism Guide above.
Creating an APA Style Reference List Guide
Common Reference Examples Guide
Reference Guide for Journal Articles, Books, and Edited Book Chapters
- Each source you cite within your paper must appear as an entry in your reference list. Refer to the page in this guide about In-Text Citations for more information and examples.
- Begin your reference list on a new page separate from the main body of your paper.
- Title this page References in bold, and center at the top of the page (do not underline or use quotation marks for the title).
- From Microsoft Word, select your text > click the pop-out icon next to "Paragraph" > select "Hanging" from the special indentation dropdown menu > click "Ok" to apply formatting
- Alphabetize reference list entries by the last name of the first author of each work.
- For multiple sources by the same author(s), list entries in chronological order from earliest to most recent.
- Refer to the page in this guide entitled References for more guidelines and examples.
- << Previous: Annotated Bibliography
- Next: References >>
- Last Updated: Mar 1, 2023 6:35 PM
- URL: https://hnresearch.lonestar.edu/CiteYourSources
Writing a research or term paper in APA format? This starter APA format template for Word provides easy access to styles that match APA guidelines. Follow the correct APA format for a paper using this example of APA format as a guideline to help you create an amazing research paper, term paper, essay, and more. This is an accessible template.
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Generate accurate APA citations for free
The Scribbr Citation Generator will automatically create a flawless APA citation
- Knowledge Base
- APA Style 7th edition
How to Cite in APA Format (7th edition) | Guide & Generator
This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Scribbr also offers free guides for the older APA 6th edition , MLA Style , and Chicago Style .
Generate accurate APA citations with Scribbr
Table of contents, apa in-text citations, apa references, formatting the apa reference page, free lecture slides, frequently asked questions.
In-text citations are brief references in the running text that direct readers to the reference entry at the end of the paper. You include them every time you quote or paraphrase someone else’s ideas or words to avoid plagiarism .
An APA in-text citation consists of the author’s last name and the year of publication (also known as the author-date system). If you’re citing a specific part of a source, you should also include a locator such as a page number or timestamp. For example: (Smith, 2020, p. 170) .
Parenthetical vs. narrative citation
The in-text citation can take two forms: parenthetical and narrative. Both types are generated automatically when citing a source with Scribbr’s APA Citation Generator.
- Parenthetical citation: According to new research … (Smith, 2020) .
- Narrative citation: Smith (2020) notes that …
Multiple authors and corporate authors
The in-text citation changes slightly when a source has multiple authors or an organization as an author. Pay attention to punctuation and the use of the ampersand (&) symbol.
When the author, publication date or locator is unknown, take the steps outlined below.
APA references generally include information about the author , publication date , title , and source . Depending on the type of source, you may have to include extra information that helps your reader locate the source.
Citing a source starts with choosing the correct reference format. Use Scribbr’s Citation Example Generator to learn more about the format for the most common source types. Pay close attention to punctuation, capitalization, and italicization.
Generate APA citations for free
It is not uncommon for certain information to be unknown or missing, especially with sources found online. In these cases, the reference is slightly adjusted.
Scribbr Citation Checker New
The AI-powered Citation Checker helps you avoid common mistakes such as:
- Missing commas and periods
- Incorrect usage of “et al.”
- Ampersands (&) in narrative citations
- Missing reference entries
On the first line of the page, write the section label “References” (in bold and centered). On the second line, start listing your references in alphabetical order .
Apply these formatting guidelines to the APA reference page:
- Double spacing (within and between references)
- Hanging indent of ½ inch
- Legible font (e.g. Times New Roman 12 or Arial 11)
- Page number in the top right header
Which sources to include
On the reference page, you only include sources that you have cited in the text (with an in-text citation ). You should not include references to personal communications that your reader can’t access (e.g. emails, phone conversations or private online material).
Are you a teacher or professor looking to introduce your students to APA Style? Download our free introductory lecture slides, available for Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint.
Open Google Slides Download PowerPoint
When no individual author name is listed, but the source can clearly be attributed to a specific organization—e.g., a press release by a charity, a report by an agency, or a page from a company’s website—use the organization’s name as the author in the reference entry and APA in-text citations .
When no author at all can be determined—e.g. a collaboratively edited wiki or an online article published anonymously—use the title in place of the author. In the in-text citation, put the title in quotation marks if it appears in plain text in the reference list, and in italics if it appears in italics in the reference list. Shorten it if necessary.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific passage from a source, you need to indicate the location of the passage in your APA in-text citation . If there are no page numbers (e.g. when citing a website ) but the text is long, you can instead use section headings, paragraph numbers, or a combination of the two:
(Caulfield, 2019, Linking section, para. 1).
Section headings can be shortened if necessary. Kindle location numbers should not be used in ebook citations , as they are unreliable.
If you are referring to the source as a whole, it’s not necessary to include a page number or other marker.
The abbreviation “ et al. ” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten APA in-text citations with three or more authors . Here’s how it works:
Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
APA Style usually does not require an access date. You never need to include one when citing journal articles , e-books , or other stable online sources.
However, if you are citing a website or online article that’s designed to change over time, it’s a good idea to include an access date. In this case, write it in the following format at the end of the reference: Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.uva.nl/en/about-the-uva/about-the-university/about-the-university.html
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Scribbr APA Citation Checker
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
How to Format Your Research Paper
Writing your paper: apa 7th edition, apa style papers 7th edition.
- MLA Paper Format
- Chicago Paper Format
- Hanging Indents
- Ask a Librarian
APA 7th Edition Resources
- APA Style Blog The style and grammar guidelines pages present information about APA Style as described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.
- Purdue OWL: APA Style Guide This Purdue OWL style guide will help you in citing your sources in the APA Style commonly used to cite sources within the area of social sciences.
Printable APA 7th Edition Guides
Creating citations using APA 7th Edition:
- APA 7th Edition Citations - PDF
- APA 7th Edition Citations - Word
Creating in-text citations using APA 7th Edition:
- APA 7th In-Text Citations - PDF
- APA 7th In-Text Citations - Word
Integrating sources into the text of your paper using signal phrases:
- Integrating Sources - PDF
- Integrating Sources - Word
Things to know before you begin:
- Sans serif fonts: Arial (11-point), Calibri (11-point), or Lucinda Sans Unicode (10-point)
- Serif fonts: Times New Roman (12-point), Georgia (11-point), or Computer Modern (10-point)
- Margins: 1 inch on all sides
- Paragraphs: All paragraphs (except in the Abstract) should be indented
- Spacing: All of the text in your paper should be double-spaced (title page included)
Typical APA style papers have four main sections:
See the tabs below for a breakdown of how each portion should be formatted.
- Paper Templates
- Sample Papers
- APA 7 Citations
Below you will find templates for APA Style papers. Click the link to make a copy of the file.
- Google Docs : To make a copy of these templates you must first sign in to your Google account. After you’re signed in, click "File" and then click “Make a Copy.”
- Microsoft Word : To make a copy of these templates download the file.
- APA Style Student Paper Template (7th Edition) - Word Download a copy of this Word Doc and change the pre-filled information to your own.
APA Style Report Templates: These templates include multiple heading levels and should be used for report style papers.
- APA Style Student Report Template (7th Edition) - Word Download a copy of this Word Doc and change the pre-filled information to your own.
Below you will find an example of an accurately formatted APA Style student paper.
- APA Style Student Paper Sample (7th Edition) - PDF Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted APA style student paper.
- APA Style Student Paper Sample (7th Edition) - Word Click here to see a sample of an accurately formatted APA style student paper.
Place only page numbers in the header.
Your paper should have the full title in bold. Place an extra space beneath the title and before your name.
Your name, your affiliation, the course title, professor’s name, and due date should be double spaced beneath the title.
All of this should be in the center of the title page.
- Put the word “Abstract” on the top of the page. Be sure it is center-aligned and in bold.
- Do not indent any paragraphs on this page.
Indent all other paragraphs throughout the body of the paper.
- Place the entire title of your paper in Title Case on the top line of a new page.
- Be sure it is center-aligned and in bold.
- Center-align the word “References” on the first line of a new page, be sure that it is in bold.
- Your citations should be alphabetized.
- Entries are double-spaced with no extra lines between them.
- Be sure to use a hanging indent for any citations that require more than one line.
Need help formatting your APA style citations using the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association ? Click the image or link below to go to the citation guide.
- APA 7th Edition Citations
Need help learning what hanging indents are and how to create them using Google Docs or Microsoft Word?
- Hanging Indents This page gives a brief description of what they are, where to find information on when and how to properly use them, and also video tutorials on how to create them.
- << Previous: Home
- Next: MLA Paper Format >>
- Last Updated: Dec 2, 2022 11:41 AM
- URL: https://necc.mass.libguides.com/formatting
To cite this LibGuide use the following templates:
APA : Northern Essex Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page . Title of LibGuide. URL
MLA : Northern Essex Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL.
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / APA Sample Papers
APA Sample Papers
Ever wonder how to format your research paper in APA style? If so, you’re in luck! The team at EasyBib.com has put together an example paper to help guide you through your next assignment. (Actually, looking for MLA? Here’s a page on what is MLA format .)
The featured example is a research paper on the uses of biometrics to inform design decisions in the tech industry, authored by our UX Research Intern Peace Iyiewuare. Like most APA style papers, it includes an APA title page , tables, and several references and APA in-text citations to scholarly journals relevant to its topic. References are an important aspect of scientific research papers, and formatting them correctly is critical to getting a good grade.
This paper follows the formatting rules specified in the 6th edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (the APA is not directly associated with this guide) . We’ve left comments and tips throughout the document, so you’ll know the specific rules around how to format titles, spacing, and font, as well as the citations on the APA reference page .
The reference list needs special care, as it demonstrates to the reader that you have accurately portrayed your outside sources and have given credit to the appropriate parties. Be sure to check our full APA citation guide for more information on paper formatting and citing sources in APA style. There is also a guide on APA footnotes in case that is your preferred form of citation.
Download the APA Visual Guide
When citations are done, don’t forget to finish your paper off with a proofread—EasyBib Plus’s plagiarism and grammar check can help! Got a misspelled adverb ? Missed capitalizing a proper noun ? Struggling with subject-verb agreement ? These are just a few things our checker could help you spot in your paper.
D. Complete Sample APA Paper
We’ve included a full student paper below to give you an idea of what an essay in APA format looks like, complete with a title page, paper, reference list, and index. If you plan to include an APA abstract in your paper, see the Professional Paper for an example.
If you’re looking for an APA format citation generator, we’ve got you covered. Use EasyBib.com! Our APA format machine can help you create every reference for your paper.
Below is an example of a student APA format essay. We also have PDF versions of both a student paper and a professional paper linked below.
See Student Paper See Professional Paper
Using Biometrics to Evaluate Visual Design
Jane Lisa Dekker
Art Department, Northern California Valley State University
UXAD 272: Strategic Web Design
Professor Juan Liu, PhD
January 29, 2020
A vast amount of research has been conducted regarding the importance of visual design, and its role as a mediator of user’s experience when browsing a site or interacting with an interface. In the literature, visual design is one aspect of website quality. Jones and Kim (2010) define website quality as “the perceived quality of a retail website that involves a [user’s] perceptions of the retailer’s website and comprises consumer reactions towards such attributes as information, entertainment/enjoyment, usability, transaction capabilities, and design aesthetics” (p. 632). They further examined the impact web quality and retail brand trust has on purchase intentions. Additional research examining e-commerce sites has shown web quality has an impact on both initial and continued purchase intention (Kuan, Bock, & Vathanophas, 2008), as well as consumer satisfaction (Lin, 2007). Moreso, research on the relationship between visual design and perceived usability (Stojmenovic, Pilgrim, & Lindgaard, 2014) has revealed a positive correlation between the two. As users’ ratings of visual quality increase, their ratings of perceived usability follows a similar trend. Although this research spans various domains, the reliance on self-report measures to gauge concepts like visual design and web quality is prevalent throughout much of the literature.
Although some self-report scales are validated within the literature, there are still issues with the use of self-report questionnaires. One is the reliance on the honesty of the participant. This tends to be more of an issue in studies related to questionnaires that measure characteristics of the participant, rather than objective stimuli. More relevant to this study is the issue of introspection and memory. Surveys are often distributed after a task is completed, and its accuracy is dependent on the ability of the participant to remember their experience during the study. Multiple research studies have shown that human memory is far from static. This can
be dangerous if a researcher chooses to solely rely on self-report methods to test a hypothesis. We believe these self-report methods in tandem with biometric methods can help ensure the validity of the questionnaires, and provide information beyond the scope of self-report scales.
We know from previous research that the quality of websites mediates many aspects of e-commerce, and provides insight as to how consumers view the webpages in general. However, simply knowing a webpage is perceived as lower quality doesn’t give insight as to what aspects of a page are disliked by a user. Additionally, it’s possible that the user is misremembering aspects of the webpage or being dishonest in their assessment. Using eye tracking metrics, galvanic skin response, and facial expression measures in tandem with a scale aimed at measuring visual design quality has a couple of identifiable benefits. Using both can potentially identify patterns amongst the biometric measures and the questionnaire, which would strengthen the validity of the results. More so, the eye tracking data has the potential to identify patterns amongst websites of lower or higher quality.
If found, these patterns can be used to evaluate particular aspects of a page that are impacting the quality of a webpage. Overall, we are interested in answering two questions:
Research Question 1 : Can attitudinal changes regarding substantial website redesigns be captured using biometric measures?
Research Question 2 : How do biometric measures correlate with self-reported measures of visual appeal?
Answering these questions has the potential to provide a method of justification for design changes, ranging from minor tweak to complete rebrands. There is not an easy way for companies to quantitatively analyze visual design decisions. A method for doing so would help companies evaluate visual designs before implementation in order to cost-justify them. To this end, we hope to demonstrate that biometric measurements can be used with questionnaires to verify and validate potential design changes a company or organization might want to implement.
By examining data from test subjects during a brief exposure to several websites, we hoped to explore the relationship between the self-reported evaluation of visual design quality and key biometric measurements of a subject’s emotional valence and arousal. Subjects were exposed to ten pairs of websites before and after a substantial visual design change and asked to evaluate the website based on their initial impressions of the site’s visual design quality using the VisAWI-S scale, as shown in Table 1.
During this assessment we collected GSR, facial expressions (limited by errors in initial study configuration), pupillary response, and fixation data using iMotions software coupled with a Tobii eye tracker, Shimmer GSR device, and Affdex facial expression analysis toolkit. This data was analyzed, in Table 2, to discover relationships between the independent and dependent variables, as well as relationships between certain dependent variables.
Jones, C., & Kim, S. (2010). Influences of retail brand trust, off-line patronage, clothing involvement and website quality on online apparel shopping intention: Online apparel shopping intention. International Journal of Consumer Studies , 34 (6), 627–637. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2010.00871.x
Kuan, H.-H., Bock, G.-W., & Vathanophas, V. (2008). Comparing the effects of website quality on customer initial purchase and continued purchase at e-commerce websites. Behaviour & Information Technology , 27 (1), 3–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290600801959
Lin, H.-F. (2007). The impact of website quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in the B2C e-commerce context. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence , 18 (4), 363–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360701231302
Stojmenovic, M., Pilgrim, C., & Lindgaard, G. (2014). Perceived and objective usability and visual appeal in a website domain with a less developed mental model. Proceedings of the 26 th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: The Future of Design , 316–323. https://doi.org/10.1145/2686612.2686660
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
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How to Write an APA Style Paper
Last Updated: November 7, 2022 References Approved
This article was co-authored by wikiHow Staff . Our trained team of editors and researchers validate articles for accuracy and comprehensiveness. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. In this case, 80% of readers who voted found the article helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 312,828 times. Learn more...
The American Psychological Association's (APA) method of citation is one of the most widely used styles for writing scientific and research papers, particularly in fields like psychology, sociology, business, economics, and medicine. This style can seem intimidating, but it’s mostly a matter of dividing your paper into the right sections and following basic formatting guidelines. Give your paper a strong intro, then follow up with the methods, results, and discussion sections. Include references, an abstract, and any relevant tables or figures, and you’re good to go!
Formatting the Title Page and Abstract
- For instance, a title like “Age, Health, and Cities” is too short and vague.
- ”Age-Based Influences on the Perception of Access to Healthcare in Cities” is more informative.
- Center the title on the page.
- Age as an Influence on Perceived Access to Healthcare in Cities
- Rohanda Jenkins
- University of Toledo
- For example, “AGE AND PERCEIVED ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE”
Creating the Main Body
- Your introduction should summarize your topic, it’s relevance to other research, and how you arrived at your hypothesis.
- Keep things interesting. Avoid boring your readers with lists like “Schmidt concluded in 2009 that…. As Donaldson conferred in 2011…. In 2013, Pavlov then argued…”
- Instead, write in terms of ideas: “Scholars such as Schmidt and Donaldson have proven that there is widespread variability in access to healthcare. The role of age in creating this variability has not been adequately considered. Knowledge of health care options among the elderly is an important starting point that Pavlov’s research explores, but a more comprehensive study of age-based influences is needed.”
- Title each subsection (“Participants,” “Materials,” “Procedures”) in bold print, and set the subsection titles all the way to the left. Begin each paragraph on the next line.
- If it is necessary to describe the equipment you used, you can also include an “Apparatus” section instead of or in addition to the “Materials” section.
- The goal of the methods section is to show other researches how to replicate the study, if they wanted to.
- Refer to the APA manual or your specific field for precise information on how to format statistics.
- Make references to any supplementary materials you have in your paper (charts, images, graphs, tables, etc.). For example, you might write something like “As Figure 1 indicates…”
- For example, your discussion might say something “Although this study indicated that teens perceive health care as being less accessible than adults over 35, additional research is needed to explore this topic among 18-35 year olds.”
Applying the Finishing Touches
- List the references alphabetically, according to the first author’s last name.
- Don’t put an extra space between each reference. Regular double spacing is all you need.
- Use hanging indentation for the reference entries.
- Make sure to also include APA style in-text citations if you cite a reference in the body of your essay.
- If you are a student, however, your instructor may ask you to incorporate tables or figures into the body of your paper. Always ask if you aren’t sure.
- Put the word “Abstract” centered in regular type on the line above the paragraph.
- You should write the abstract after you’re finished with the paper, put position it on its own page just after the title page.
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- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa6_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/title-page
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html
- ↑ https://www.canadacollege.edu/htpcommittee/docs/GUIDELINES%20FOR%20RESEARCH%20PAPER%20S14.pdf
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/discussion-phrases-guide.pdf
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_basic_rules.html
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/tables-figures/figures
- ↑ https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids/abstract-keywords-guide.pdf
About This Article
To write an APA-style paper, use a 12-point font size, double spacing, and 1-inch margins all around. You should also include a title page with the title of your paper and your name and institution. Also, include a page header at the top of every page that gives a brief synopsis of your paper's title in under 50 characters. At the end of your paper, make a "References" page that contains all of the sources you used in alphabetical order according to the author's last name. To learn how to write and format the body of an APA-style paper, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Academic Writing Style Guide: How to Format an APA Paper
What is “Referencing Style” and Why You Need It?
Good academic writing involves proper formatting and citing of the works and thoughts of other reputable authors and researchers. In order to do that, a specific style of referencing is assigned that should be followed consistently throughout the whole academic paper. This style then defines the format for other components of the text. Every student knows that proper academic referencing is the key to obtaining a high grade for a paper or an essay.
APA style format was developed by the American Psychological Association and it is one of the academic referencing styles — along with MLA, Vancouver, and Chicago/Turabian styles. It is also known as the “author-date” system, meaning that the APA format guide requires a brief reference to the author and the date of publication to be included in the main body of the text, and also the full reference list at the end.
This article from our admission essay writing services team contains a wide array of information and tips that answer the question “What is APA format?”. However, as a student, you should always follow the requirements provided by the school/professor and not hesitate to ask for specific citing instructions before starting to write your essay.
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Everything You Need to Know About APA Format
First of all, APA writing format is not something that has been set in stone for ages – it is a current referencing style that is being constantly updated by the American Psychological Association. The most recent requirements can be found in the 6th edition of the APA's Publication Manual.
The requirement of what referencing style to use is often attributed by a specific discipline. APA paper format is commonly used for subjects such as Psychology, Social Sciences, Education, Economics, and Business studies.
Another question every student keeps asking while struggling to come to terms with his or her APA format essay is: why do people use referencing styles at all? There are at least three reasons why your professors require you to use the APA referencing guide:
1. To make your work more presentable. Can you sense how all the articles you read for class have a professional and serious tone when they cite all their references and give credit to ideas published by previous authors? That’s exactly the kind of professionalism your essay will acquire when you engage with literature and use a defined referencing style.
2. To speak the same language as your reader. APA citation format allows you to save your word count and communicate what sources you used for the essay by using special formats for journals, books, or online articles.
3. To avoid being penalized for plagiarism. When a student cites an author or uses ideas that were developed by another scholar, he or she must give credit to that person. Otherwise, those essay parts will be marked as plagiarism and the grade will be substantially reduced. Some school penalties for plagiarism go as far as reducing the grade by 50%, or even failing you from the course — thus, giving you no credit. If you are struggling with the uniqueness of the article, you can buy essay writing at our service.
As you can see, avoiding plagiarism penalties and supporting essay arguments with references to credible sources are the key benefits a student will get once he or she learns how to write a paper in APA format.
General APA Format Rules: From Formatting to Making Proper References
The basics of APA formatting include giving the paper a proper look so that your professor is impressed at first sight. After reading hundreds of papers throughout their careers, professors can recognize it when the APA format is not followed properly. That’s why it is of crucial importance to make sure you follow the requirements for line spacing, page margins, font sizes, and APA format headings.
First of all, the text should be typed double-spaced with sufficient margins on each side of the page (at least 1 inch or more). Wide margins are important for professors to make notes and leave feedback while reading the paper. The preferred font is Times New Roman in size 12.
The APA outline format, or, in other words, the structure of any academic paper, should include these main parts:
- The cover page or title page
- Abstract, introduction, or outline
- Main body, analysis, or main arguments
- Conclusions, recommendations, or discussions
- Reference list
The topics and individual university requirements will affect what sections should be present in the essay or paper. The sections will also be affected by the arguments that a student wants to make in the essay and how these are developed in the main body of the text. But, not a single APA format essay can be written without these five crucial components. We will now examine the requirements for each of these parts in more detail.
Cover Page for an APA Style Essay
The cover page is the “face” of an essay or a paper and it is the first thing that the examiner or reader will see. It has to be impeccable. Some universities or colleges will have their own sample title page (or cover page) that should be added to each essay submission. Make sure to clarify this with your department before submitting your essay.
Normally, an APA format cover page is expected to include a running head, title of the essay or paper, name of the person who submitted the work, institution to which the work was submitted, and a page number.
What is the Running Head and Where Should It Be Included in an APA Style Essay?
Very often, colleges or universities require each page to have a running head (or page header) which includes certain information. The running head contains the title of the paper, and is also supposed to be present on the title page — a mistake many beginner students make all too often is omitting it.
Just like with everything in academic writing, knowing how to make the text shorter is a golden talent. The same applies to the APA format running head: it should not exceed 50 characters (including spaces). That’s why authors (e.g. persuasive essay writer ) often take their time to come up with shortened versions of their titles specifically for their page headers.
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Different Levels of APA Headings and Subheadings
The APA heading format requires a clear division of the text into logical parts that are separated among each other with headings. Normally, there are 5 format types for headings, whereas the author uses the same heading styles to paragraphs with equal importance.
The subheadings help the writer to logically divide one section into subsections. For example, in a section about the possible consequences of performance-based management, subsections can present the benefits and costs of such an approach.
Tips for Using Heading Levels When Writing an APA Essay
Heading levels are the navigation signs that help guide the reader through the text. They denote when an important chapter begins and when an additional idea is added to the same argument that was announced in the previous heading. The general rule is that there are no requirements to use all five styles of headings. The author should only use headings for the sections present in his or her text. Here is how the different levels of headings and their formats look like.
Some Examples for APA Headings
Assuming this article is an academic text for the principles of APA usage in colleges and universities, here is what APA format headings would look like in this context.
Preparing a Proper APA Outline
The outline is a short structure of the text that serves two purposes:
- Preparatory purpose. Writing an outline helps the writer organize his or her thoughts and estimate the workload/research needed to complete the text.
- Explanatory purpose. Having an outline helps the reader get a better idea of what to expect from the text, and what parts and concepts are covered by the author.
Writing outlines is a life-saving skill for beginner writers – they help keep thoughts organized and guide the mind through a defined roadmap, decreasing the chance of becoming lost in one’s thoughts or endless research. So, if we were to prepare an outline for this article, it would look like this.
- What is APA: who developed it, who uses it and why?
- General rules for using APA format:
- Cover/title page
- Main components of a good APA paper:
- Introduction and conclusions
- Some examples and practical tips on APA style usage
After developing the outline, it becomes clear what the author has to cover in the readings, or preparatory materials, for writing the article. Once the text is ready, the outline then serves as a guide for the reader to show which sections the text will cover.
What Is a Good Abstract in APA format?
The abstract is a very condensed and informative paragraph that contains the main information the reader should know about the text before even reading it. Writing abstracts is an art on its own. In a short abstract that is just 200 words (or more if the text is longer — usually it's about 10% of the essay word count), a writer should clearly state the main idea of the text, its objectives, research question, methods, and key conclusions.
In terms of formatting, the abstract is formatted as a separate part of the text that stands out both contextually and visually from the rest of the main text. Usually, it is written in plain text, with no formatting and a simple "Abstract" title on the top. In the end, many scholars like to put a couple of keywords that identify the essence of the paper’s content.
Writing the Main Section of the Text in APA Format
The main section is the juice of the article. It contains all the thoughts, ideas, and arguments of the writer. It follows right after the abstract page, and has a running head on top with a shortened title written in capital letters. Each page should be numbered, with the abstract page being page 2 (the title page is counted as page 1, but the number doesn’t appear there).
The main body is broken down into a couple of sections. The main ones are the introduction, methods, arguments/discussions, and conclusions. Depending on the department or subject requirements, the arguments also have specific sections – always remember to check with the professor about what should be covered in the main body of the text. For example, for a policy report, the arguments should include a framework review, an analysis of the organization or policy challenges, and recommendations based on the academic literature.
Each section (methods, conclusions, and discussions) should begin with a new paragraph and have a title. It can be something as simple as “Methodology”, or something more elaborative like “Results of Analysis How Sanitation Affects Literacy”. Discussions or arguments should be the largest part of the text, that is why the main body is often divided into subsections – to present and elaborate on results in a structured manner.
Depending on the area and specific requirements put forth by the course, here are two APA main body examples in terms of what sections they should cover.
APA main body example 1: quantitative discipline/research results
Introduction: higher contraceptive prevalence is known to reduce HIV Methods: regression analysis of HIV and contraception prevalence in lower middle-income countries Results: statistically significant negative effect of contraception on HIV Discussion: Why contraception lowers HIV; In what conditions it works better/worse; Case study Conclusion: use of contraception can reduce HIV in countries where current contraceptive prevalence is lower than 20%
APA main body example 2: political science policy report
Introduction: high alcohol consumption is a threat to public health Framework for analysis: a review of different country policies to lower alcohol consumption Application of framework: Which policy can work best for country X and why; Context of country X; Benefits of using approaches A, B, C; Costs of using approaches A, B, C Recommendations: given country’s X political situation and national economic status, it can employ approach A to reduce alcohol consumption Conclusion: country X should consider doing A and expect the following results within 5 years
You might also be interested in reading Beowulf summary essay .
Detailed Video Guide
If you percept visual information better, watch the detailed video guide on APA formatting and citation below:
Examples of Essays in APA Style
Below are real examples of some essays formatted according to APA style requirements that can serve as a good basis for you to start writing your own essay. These samples were written by our service according to the specific requirements provided by their corresponding professors or universities and can differ in some ways from what is required from you. So, don’t forget to check with the department or course convener for specific details for the paper that you are expected to produce.
Read also our process analysis essay outline . It can broaden your understanding in writing the essay.
Need Help with APA Formatting?
This article outlines all the key principles of APA style for academic writing. However, writing is a practical skill that doesn’t improve solely by reading about it – it only improves with practice. If you don’t feel like a pro in essay writing yet and the deadline is fast approaching, have no worries. Our essay service will make sure that the results meet all the stylistic requirements.
To format a paper in APA Style, writers can typically use the default settings and automatic formatting tools of their word-processing program or make only minor adjustments. The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal.
APA Sample Paper APA Formatting and Style Guide (7th Edition) General Format In-Text Citations: The Basics In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources
Throughout your paper, you need to apply the following APA format guidelines: Set page margins to 1 inch on all sides. Double-space all text, including headings. Indent the first line of every paragraph 0.5 inches. Use an accessible font (e.g., Times New Roman 12pt., Arial 11pt., or Georgia 11pt.). Include a page number on every page.
Welcome to the Purdue OWL. This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
The format for the byline depends on whether the paper has one author, two authors, or three or more authors. When the paper has one author, write the name on its own line (e.g., Jasmine C. Hernandez). When the paper has two authors, write the names on the same line and separate them with the word "and" (e.g., Upton J. Wang and Natalia Dominguez).
The 7th edition was published in 2019 and has significant changes from the 6th edition (2009). APA 7th Ed. Manual. The APA Publication Manual is the official guide to APA format. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association by American Psychological Association. Call Number: 808 PUB.
APA style paper Writing a research or term paper that needs to be in APA format? Use this APA-style report template to get started, with styles formatted to match APA guidelines and sample content to show how it all goes together. This APA sample paper template will help you finish your APA formatted paper with ease. This is an accessible template.
While the APA Publication Manual does not require a specific font, it should be accessible to all readers and used consistently throughout the paper. Recommended fonts include sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, and 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, and ...
APA styles Writing a research or term paper in APA format? This starter APA format template for Word provides easy access to styles that match APA guidelines. Follow the correct APA format for a paper using this example of APA format as a guideline to help you create an amazing research paper, term paper, essay, and more.
Formatting the APA reference page The basics On the reference page, you list all the sources that you've cited throughout your paper. Place the page right after the main body and before any appendices. On the first line of the page, write the section label "References" (in bold and centered).
APA 7 Paper Format. Writing Your Paper: APA 7th Edition; APA Style Papers 7th Edition; MLA Paper Format; Chicago Paper Format; Footnotes; Hanging Indents; Ask a Librarian; APA 7th Edition Resources Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.) by American Psychological Association. Call Number: Ref BF76.7 .P83 2020 ...
Ever wonder how to format your research paper in APA style? If so, you're in luck! The team at EasyBib.com has put together an example paper to help guide you through your next assignment.
Formatting Papers in APA Style. Write a 205-word summary sharing your areas of weakness when using APA formatting and what resources you can utilize to improve your skills. Instructions: The paper has to be in APA format. this paper is for a master level of writting. Any question let me know.
Subheading Subheadings are formatted with italics and are aligned flush left. Citations Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the authors and dates of the sources. The full source citation will appear in the list of references that follows the body of the paper. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year ...
Creating the Main Body. 1. Introduce your paper. The first section of an APA style paper will be the introduction, but it doesn't have to be labeled. Just write the title of your paper (in regular type) on the start of the next page, then begin writing your introduction on the line below it.
The preferred font is Times New Roman in size 12. The APA outline format, or, in other words, the structure of any academic paper, should include these main parts: The cover page or title page. Abstract, introduction, or outline. Main body, analysis, or main arguments. Conclusions, recommendations, or discussions.
You can look at the APA professional sample paper for guidelines on these. Commented [AF2]:bold, and written in title case. It should be three or four lines The paper's title should be centered, below the top margin of the page. In this sample paper, we'veput four blank lines above the title. Commented [AF3]:title, with one double-spaced blank ...
In Apa Format A Paper In Apa Format This book consists of a collection of selected papers presented at the TARC International Conference 2016 held from 17 to Page 1/138. Get Free A Paper In Apa Format 18 October, 2016. It offers a tool for empowering schools and teachers as a way forward for transforming education.