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Strong Rebuttal Examples for Debate and Essays

teen saying debate rebuttal

As you prepare to defend your thesis or topic, rebuttal examples can help you create a persuasive argument. Whether you’re practicing for a debate or writing an essay, having a strong rebuttal can mean the difference between losing an argument or successfully convincing people who may not agree with you.

What Is a Good Rebuttal?

In a debate, a rebuttal is the part where you explain what is flawed about the other side’s argument. Some essays and persuasive speeches also have rebuttal sections, in which you anticipate and refute possible arguments against your thesis. Either way, the key to a good rebuttal is proving that the opposing argument is irrelevant or contains logical fallacies . A great rebuttal is organized and easy to follow, and it includes the following:

Famous Rebuttal Example: Nixon vs. Kennedy

In the famous first presidential debate between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy in 1960, there are several excellent examples of successful rebuttals. Here is one to help inspire you, in which Kennedy disputes the evidence Nixon is using for his argument:

Mr. Nixon: Within the Administration, as a chairman of the President’s Committee on Price Stability and Economic Growth, I have had the opportunity to make recommendations which have been adopted within the Administration and which I think have been reasonably effective. I know Senator Kennedy suggested in his speech at Cleveland yesterday that that committee had not been particularly effective. I would only suggest that while we do not take the credit for it – I would not presume to – that since that committee has been formed the price line has been held very well within the United States. Mr. Kennedy: Well, I would say in the latter that the – and that’s what I found uh – somewhat unsatisfactory about the figures uh – Mr. Nixon, that you used in your previous speech, when you talked about the Truman Administration. You – Mr. Truman came to office in nineteen uh – forty-four and at the end of the war, and uh – difficulties that were facing the United States during that period of transition – 1946 when price controls were lifted – so it’s rather difficult to use an overall figure taking those seven and a half years and comparing them to the last eight years.

Examples of Different Types of Rebuttals

Rebutting an argument can take several different forms, depending on how you plan to attack. Whether you’re writing an essay or debating, one of these examples may help you plan your rebuttal.

Rebuttal Example Attacking Assumptions

In this type of rebuttal, the key is to attack an assumption supporting the other argument. For example, imagine you are debating or writing an essay on the topic of video games and violence. Your position is that video games do not cause an increase in violent behavior, but the counterargument is that they do. You might make a rebuttal like this:

While some people argue that video games lead to an increase in violence, my position is that no studies have proved a cause and effect relationship between the two. The opposing argument is based on a correlation between violence and video game use, but a correlation is not the same as cause and effect. There have been no studies to indicate that video games cause violent behavior.

Rebuttal Example Attacking Relevance

Another type of rebuttal involves attacking the relevance of the other’s side’s argument. For instance, if you are debating the topic of whether homework promotes learning in students, the opposing argument might be that homework doesn’t take that much of a student’s time. You could use a rebuttal like this:

It’s true that homework doesn’t take that much time, but that point has nothing to do with whether homework promotes learning. Free time is important, but it has no bearing on learning.

Rebuttal Example Attacking Impact

A rebuttal can also attack the impact of the counter argument. For example, an opponent might argue that zoos should be banned because they encourage people to see animals as subjects in captivity. You might rebut that argument this way:

Yes, zoos do show animals in captivity; however, there’s not a logical connection between seeing animals in captivity and thinking of them as captives in all situations. People also see animals in the wild, on television programs, in documentaries, and in other situations. They don’t appear to generalize from these settings, so there’s no reason to assume that seeing an animal in captivity means people always think of that species as a captive.

Prove Your Point With Logic

The key to a great rebuttal is using examples of logic to prove your point. You can do this in debates, as well as in argumentative essays . If you keep your argument organized and concise and present it with confidence, it will be difficult for anyone to disagree with you. While you're on the topic, dive into what a claim is to better understand your opponent's stance.

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What is Rebuttal in an Argumentative Essay? (How to Write It)

antony w

by  Antony W

April 7, 2022

rebuttal in argumentative essay

Even if you have the most convincing evidence and reasons to explain your position on an issue, there will still be people in your audience who will not agree with you.

Usually, this creates an opportunity for counterclaims, which requires a response through rebuttal. So what exactly is rebuttal in an argumentative essay?

A rebuttal in an argumentative essay is a response you give to your opponent’s argument to show that the position they currently hold on an issue is wrong. While you agree with their counterargument, you point out the flaws using the strongest piece of evidence to strengthen your position. 

To be clear, it’s hard to write an argument on an issue without considering counterclaim and rebuttals in the first place.

If you think about it, debatable topics require a consideration of both sides of an issue, which is why it’s important to learn about counterclaims and rebuttals in argumentative writing.

What is a Counterclaim in an Argument? 

To understand why rebuttal comes into play in an argumentative essay, you first have to know what a counterclaim is and why it’s important in writing.

A counterclaim is an argument that an opponent makes to weaken your thesis. In particular, counterarguments try to show why your argument’s claim is wrong and try to propose an alternative to what you stand for.

From a writing standpoint, you have to recognize the counterclaims presented by the opposing side.

In fact, argumentative writing requires you to look at the two sides of an issue even if you’ve already taken a strong stance on it.

There are a number of benefits of including counterarguments in your argumentative essay:

What is Rebuttal in Argumentative Essay? 

Your opponent will always look for weaknesses in your argument and try the best they can to show that you’re wrong.

Since you have solid grounds that your stance on an issue is reasonable, truthful, or more meaningful, you have to give a solid response to the opposition.

This is where rebuttal comes in.

In argumentative writing, rebuttal refers to the answer you give directly to an opponent in response to their counterargument. The answer should be a convincing explanation that shows an opponent why and/or how they’re wrong on an issue.

How to Write a Rebuttal Paragraph in Argumentative Essay

Now that you understand the connection between a counterclaim and rebuttal in an argumentative writing, let’s look at some approaches that you can use to refute your opponent’s arguments.

1. Point Out the Errors in the Counterargument

You’ve taken a stance on an issue for a reason, and mostly it’s because you believe yours is the most reasonable position based on the data, statistics, and the information you’ve collected.

Now that there’s a counterargument that tries to challenge your position, you can refute it by mentioning the flaws in it.

It’s best to analyze the counterargument carefully. Doing so will make it easy for you to identify the weaknesses, which you can point out and use the strongest points for rebuttal

2. Give New Points that Contradict the Counterclaims 

Imagine yourself in a hall full of debaters. On your left side is an audience that agrees with your arguable claim and on your left is a group of listeners who don’t buy into your argument.

Your opponents in the room are not holding back, especially because they’re constantly raising their hands to question your information.

To win them over in such a situation, you have to play smart by recognizing their stance on the issue but then explaining why they’re wrong.

Now, take a closer look at the structure of an argument . You’ll notice that it features a section for counterclaims, which means you have to address them if your essay must stand out. 

Here, it’s ideal to recognize and agree with the counterargument that the opposing side presents. Then, present a new point of view or facts that contradict the arguments.

Doing so will get the opposing side to consider your stance, even if they don’t agree with you entirely.

3. Twist Facts in Favor of Your Argument 

Sometimes the other side of the argument may make more sense than yours does. However, that doesn’t mean you have to concede entirely.

You can agree with the other side of the argument, but then twist facts and provide solid evidence to suit your argument.

This strategy can work for just about any topic, including the most complicated or controversial ones that you have never dealt with before.

4. Making an Emotional Plea 

Making an emotional plea isn’t a powerful rebuttal strategy, but it can also be a good option to consider.

It’s important to make sure that the emotional appeal you make outweighs the argument that your opponent brings forth.

Given that it’s often the least effective option in most arguments, making an emotional appeal should be a last resort if all the other options fail.

Final Thoughts 

As you can see, counterclaims are important in an argumentative essay and there’s more than one way to give your rebuttal.

Whichever approach you use, make sure you use the strongest facts, stats, evidence, or argument to prove that your position on an issue makes more sense that what your opponents currently hold.

Lastly, if you feel like your essay topic is complicated and you have only a few hours to complete the assignment, you can get in touch with Help for Assessment and we’ll point you in the right direction so you get your essay done right.

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About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

Rebuttal in Argumentative Essay: What It Is and How to Write One?

Stefani Holloway photo

Table of contents

It will never be enough to have the most persuasive data and justification to express your position on an issue in an argument. That’s because there will always be people in an audience that don’t agree with you.

The audience that doesn’t agree with your stand on an issue creates an opportunity for a counterclaim. These counterclaims, also known as the opposing points of view, necessitate a response. And that’s why rebuttals are essential in argumentative essay writing.

It is virtually and practically impossible to write an argumentative essay without considering counterclaims and rebuttals. After all, issues that raise debate demand consideration for both sides of the argument, which is why it’s crucial to understand counterarguments and rebuttals when making an argument.

What is a Counterclaim in an Argument

Before diving deep into rebuttals in argumentative essays, it’s essential to look at counterclaims and their importance in writing.

A counterclaim is a response that a reader gives to show that your stand on an issue is either weak or incorrect. Also known as counterarguments, the counterclaims attempt to illustrate why the claim you make in your argument is incorrect and attempt to offer an alternative to what you believe.

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By their very nature, argumentative essays require these opposing points of view. Otherwise, the essay would be biased and incomplete. In other words, writing a solid argumentative essay necessitates considering both sides of an issue, even if your position is clear on one side or the other.

Including counterarguments in an argumentative essay has several advantages:

1. If you’ve looked at all sides of the issue, it tells your instructor that you’ve considered the possibility that some readers may not agree with your position in the first place;

2. Before the reader has finished reading the essay, you’ll have allowed them to view your compelling refutation of the counterclaims they’re most likely to present;

3. Your writing improves because of understanding the counterclaims from the opposite side, which makes the essay more objective.

Understanding Rebuttals in an Argument

In a live debate setup, your antagonists will constantly attempt to find flaws in your argument and prove you incorrect, even if you’ve done your best to make a strong case for your position. You must acknowledge their views, even if you don’t believe they’re correct, and prepare to refute them with a strong defense.

The rebuttal comes into play here.

When responding to an opponent’s counterargument, a rebuttal is a response to their claims. Rather than just restating your position, you should show your opponent why and how they are incorrect in the first place.

4 Practical Tips for Writing Strong Rebuttals for Practically Any Argument

Here are a few examples of how you might use counterclaims and rebuttals to challenge your opponent’s claims in an argumentative essay:

1. Share a New Point of View that Contradicts the Counterarguments

Think of yourself as a debater in a room full of your peers. As you speak, you have a group of supporters on your left and a group of detractors on your right.

Your opponents are not restrained because they’re constantly raising their hands to inquire about your knowledge.

By acknowledging their position but then demonstrating why they’re incorrect, you can win them over in this sort of circumstance.

If you look at the structure of an argumentative essay, you’ll notice that it includes a section for the counterclaims. You must include this section and give a response to the opposing point of view if you want your essay to stand out.

You should do two things at this point:

Even if the other side doesn’t agree with your position, stating your case will compel them to consider your stance on the issue.

2. Identify and Point Our Errors in the Counterarguments

When taking a position on an issue, your rationale is mainly on data, statistics, and the information you’ve gathered.

It’s time to address the counterargument’s weaknesses that attempt to undermine your stance.

Consider the counterargument thoroughly before making a decision. That way, it will be much easier for you to see any flaws and utilize your most potent arguments to counter them.

3. Twist Unquestionable Facts to Suit Your Argument

The opposing side may have a better point of view than you do. That doesn’t imply you have to give up altogether.

You can agree with the other side’s position but then twist the facts and offer soundproof to support your position on the issue.

With this approach, you can tackle any issue, no matter how difficult or contentious it may seem.

4. Make an Emotional Plea

It isn’t the most effective tactic to refute a counterargument, but making an emotional plea can be viable if you’re considering an alternative.

Your emotional appeal must surpass your opponent’s rational argument to win the argument.

So if everything else fails, resorting to an emotional appeal should only be the last choice because it is frequently the least successful option in most discussions.

Here’s a video by Mometrix Academy on appealing to emotions as a logical fallacy.

Final thoughts

An argumentative essay relies heavily on counterclaims, and there are different ways to respond to them.

Whichever method you use from the options we’ve given you above, we advise that you be careful to back up your claims with the most substantial available data, statistics, proof, or arguments to show that your viewpoint is more logical than that of your opponents.

The final option is to contact us if you’re having trouble with your essay subject and only have a limited amount of time to finish the assignment. We’ll be happy to find and assign a top argumentation essay writer for you.

Useful links:

Writing an Introduction for an Argumentative Essay: 10 Do's and Don'ts How to Write a Strong Conclusion Paragraph in an Argumentative Essay What are Good Argumentative Essay Topics: 5 Tips to Make the Right Choice (+ 15 Topic Ideas) How to Write a Hook for an Argumentative Essay How Significant Are Opposing Points of View in an Argument?

Last edit at Mar 13 2023

Stefani Holloway

Stefani is a professional writer and blogger at Writers Per Hour . She primarily contributes articles about careers, leadership, business, and writing. Her educational background in family science and journalism has given her a broad base from which to approach many topics. She especially enjoys preparing resumes for individuals who are changing careers.

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What Is a Rebuttal, and How Do You Write an Effective One?

You’ve written at least a gazillion argumentative essays in your academic career, right? And I’m sure that in just about all of them you’ve had to include the counterargument. But have you also included a rebuttal ?

Right now, some of you might be thinking, “ Wait….What? You mean I have to include even more stuff in my paper?” Don’t freak out just yet.

So what is a rebuttal? In a nutshell, the rebuttal is just more of you arguing your point.

Think of it this way. If you’re one of those people who struggles to meet word count requirements, including the rebuttal not only strengthens your argument but also makes your paper longer!

Are you now thinking, “ What is this? A legitimate way to add content, rather than useless fluff to my paper? Bring it on! ”

I was hoping you’d say that. So let’s get to it.

Not only will I give you an in-depth answer to the question that brought you here—what is a rebuttal?— but I’ll also show you how to write an effective rebuttal for your argument essay.

What Is a Rebuttal? (And How Does It Fit In Your Overall Argument?)

Understanding the rebuttal starts with knowing how it fits into your overall argument. That means we need to look at not just what a rebuttal is, but also the argument and counterargument that must come before it.

The argument

The first component of an argument is, well, your argument. In order to have a solid argument, you need a strong, arguable topic that your audience can either agree or disagree with.

In need of a little more assistance in developing an argument? Check out these posts:

what is a rebuttal

The counterargument

The counterargument is basically the opposing view. Think of all those people who disagree with what you have to say: the counterargument is what they would say about your topic.

The counterargument is an important component. It strengthens your argument by illustrating not only that you have  done your research but also that you’ve carefully considered the opposing view.

Need help unpacking all that? Read What Is A Counterargument in an Argumentative Essay .

The rebuttal

And finally, that moment you’ve been waiting for. What is a rebuttal? The rebuttal directly addresses the opposing view and states why your claims are valid. Essentially, in a rebuttal, you acknowledge the opposition but continue to argue why you’re still right.

Here’s a quick example of how you might use a rebuttal in your daily conversations:

Let’s say you and a friend are discussing the best local restaurants for a first date.

Your argument is that an Italian place across town is the best because its food is delicious, and the atmosphere is romantic.

Your friend expresses a counterargument by stating that the restaurant isn’t at all romantic. She says the restaurant is dark, that the atmosphere is dull, boring, and far too quiet, and that it’s a place only old people go.

You then offer a rebuttal by stating that a dark and quiet atmosphere doesn’t mean that it’s dull or boring or only for old people. A quiet, dimly lit dining area is the perfect romantic setting in which to get to know your date.

what is a rebuttal

See how that works? You offer your argument. Your friend presents a counterargument. You present the rebuttal by acknowledging your friend’s point, but you still argue why you’re right.

Okay, now that you have the gist and could passably give an answer when someone asks, “What is a rebuttal?” let’s focus on how you can write an effective rebuttal in your argumentative essay .

2 Strategies to Use When Writing an Effective Rebuttal

what is a rebuttal

Writing an effective rebuttal means more than saying, “I’m right, and you’re wrong.” Essentially, that is the gist of what you’re saying, but remember, you’re writing an academic essay.

That means you’ll use formal language and sentence structure , use a few of those 10-dollar words , and show that you know your stuff .

[Tweet “Writing an effective rebuttal means more than saying, “I’m right, and you’re wrong.”]

Here are two strategies for tackling your rebuttal.

Rebuttal strategy #1: Point out the errors in the counterargument

By acknowledging the counterargument but then pointing out its errors or flaws, you’re further strengthening your own argument.

This strategy allows you to illustrate that you’ve examined the issues and understand why some people may have a different perspective. But by including a strong rebuttal, you can demonstrate that your arguments are credible and stronger than the opposition’s.

Take a look at this example about minimum wage . (I’ve written the rebuttal in red to help distinguish the rebuttal from the counterargument.)

Opponents of raising the state’s minimum wage argue that an increase in wages will result in employers either losing money or being forced to cut workers’ hours in order to save costs. In reality, however, raising the state’s minimum wage will mean that workers will have additional discretionary income and will spend more money at local businesses. With the increase in revenue, businesses will not need to cut employees’ hours and will actually make money rather than lose money.

In this example, the writer acknowledges the counterargument (employers may lose money or cut hours) but then points out why the argument is flawed (workers will have additional money, and businesses will actually see an increase in profits).

Again, this strengthens your argument by illustrating why your claim is stronger than the opposition’s.

Want to see what an argument, counterargument, and rebuttal look like in action? Read A Report on the Need for the Increase of Minimum Wage .

Rebuttal strategy #2: Agree with the counterargument but provide additional information to weaken it

In some instances, it’s necessary to partially agree with the opposing view. After all, there may be some validity to the counteragument.

In these instances, you will agree with the counterargument but then provide further information that strengthens your argument while weakening the opposition’s.

Take a look at this example about technology addiction . (Once again, I’ve written the rebuttal in red to help distinguish the rebuttal from the counterargument.)

Some parents argue that teens should not be allowed to use social media because they can easily become addicted; however, simply keeping teens away from social media is not the answer. Granted, there is always a risk of addiction when using technology, but with proper education, teens can be taught how to use social media (and other technology) responsibly.

In this example, the writer first acknowledges that allowing teens to use social media means that there’s a risk of addiction.

But then the writer strengthens the argument by including additional evidence to weaken the claim that keeping teens away from social media is the best way to avoid addiction.

The Importance of Transitions

what is a rebuttal

So you’ve written the argument, counterargument, and rebuttal and think you’re ready to go, right? Hold up! Not so fast. You need to first make sure that you’ve used transitions to link everything together.

Transitions are like bridges. They connect one idea to the next. Without them, you just have a bunch of ideas floating around with nothing connecting them and nothing to help readers make sense of your arguments.

Thus, when writing both the counterargument and rebuttal, it’s important that you use transitions and other appropriate word choices to reflect a switch from the counterargument to your rebuttal.

Without these, readers can become confused and not know where the counterargument begins or ends, or where your rebuttal begins.

Take a look at the following example.

Argument: Wind farms benefit communities.

Ineffective counterargument and rebuttal:

Wind farms create too much noise pollution, but they are placed far enough away from homes and are actually quite quiet.

The first part of the sentence, which is supposed to be the counteragument in this example, isn’t effective because it simply appears to contradict the main argument (that wind farms benefit communities). There’s no indication that this is actually a counterargument.

The rebuttal is ineffective because it seems to contradict the counterargument. There’s no indication that the second part of the sentence is transitioning to the rebuttal.

In other words, this counterargument and rebuttal are a hot mess.

Effective counterargument and rebuttal:

Though opponents claim wind farms create too much noise pollution, their assumptions are inaccurate . Although wind turbines do emit some sounds, the sounds are minimal, and because the wind turbines are generally placed away from housing, residents rarely hear any noise generated by the turbines.

Notice the words in red in the example above. These transition words help readers identify both the counterargument and the transition to the rebuttal. Use of proper phrasing makes the argument much clearer and more effective.

Interested in seeing if you can spot transitions between arguments, counterarguments, and rebuttals? Take a look at a few example argumentative essays to see how other writers transition between sections.

Putting the Final Pieces Together

what is a rebuttal

Now that you can confidently answer, “What is a rebuttal?” (and write an effective one), remember that the counterargument and rebuttal often appear at the end of your paper.

This, of course, means that if you’ve made it this far, one of the final steps is to write a killer conclusion . Don’t forget, though, that essay writing doesn’t end with the basic drafting of your essay.

Citation ( MLA or APA ) and proper essay format are important too, so make sure to carefully check these components before submitting a final copy.

If you want to be extra-sure that your arguments (and counterarguments and rebuttals) all flow seamlessly and make sense, let a Kibin editor help you put it all together.

example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

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example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

About the Author

Susan M. Inez is a professor of English and writing goddess based out of the Northeast. In addition to a BA in English Education, an MA in Composition, and an MS in Education, Susan has 20 years of experience teaching courses on composition, writing in the professions, literature, and more. She also served as co-director of a campus writing center for 2 years.

Usage and Examples of a Rebuttal

Weakening an opponent's claim with facts.

David Hume Kennerly/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

A rebuttal takes on a couple of different forms. As it pertains to an argument or debate, the definition of a rebuttal is the presentation of evidence and reasoning meant to weaken or undermine an opponent's claim. However, in persuasive speaking, a rebuttal is typically part of a discourse with colleagues and rarely a stand-alone speech.

Rebuttals are used in law, public affairs, and politics, and they're in the thick of effective public speaking. They also can be found in academic publishing, editorials, letters to the editor, formal responses to personnel matters, or customer service complaints/reviews. A rebuttal is also called a counterargument.

Types and Occurrences of Rebuttals

Rebuttals can come into play during any kind of argument or occurrence where someone has to defend a position contradictory to another opinion presented. Evidence backing up the rebuttal position is key.

Formally, students use rebuttal in debate competitions. In this arena, rebuttals don't make new arguments , just battle the positions already presented in a specific, timed format. For example, a rebuttal may get four minutes after an argument is presented in eight.

In academic publishing, an author presents an argument in a paper, such as on a work of literature, stating why it should be seen in a particular light. A rebuttal letter about the paper can find the flaws in the argument and evidence cited, and present contradictory evidence. If a writer of a paper has the paper rejected for publishing by the journal, a well-crafted rebuttal letter can give further evidence of the quality of the work and the due diligence taken to come up with the thesis or hypothesis.

In law, an attorney can present a rebuttal witness to show that a witness on the other side is in error. For example, after the defense has presented its case, the prosecution can present rebuttal witnesses. This is new evidence only and witnesses that contradict defense witness testimony. An effective rebuttal to a closing argument in a trial can leave enough doubt in the jury's minds to have a defendant found not guilty.

In public affairs and politics, people can argue points in front of the local city council or even speak in front of their state government. Our representatives in Washington present diverging points of view on bills up for debate . Citizens can argue policy and present rebuttals in the opinion pages of the newspaper.

On the job, if a person has a complaint brought against him to the human resources department, that employee has a right to respond and tell his or her side of the story in a formal procedure, such as a rebuttal letter.

In business, if a customer leaves a poor review of service or products on a website, the company's owner or a manager will, at minimum, need to diffuse the situation by apologizing and offering a concession for goodwill. But in some cases, a business needs to be defended. Maybe the irate customer left out of the complaint the fact that she was inebriated and screaming at the top of her lungs when she was asked to leave the shop. Rebuttals in these types of instances need to be delicately and objectively phrased.

Characteristics of an Effective Rebuttal

"If you disagree with a comment, explain the reason," says Tim Gillespie in "Doing Literary Criticism." He notes that "mocking, scoffing, hooting, or put-downs reflect poorly on your character and on your point of view. The most effective rebuttal to an opinion with which you strongly disagree is an articulate counterargument."

Rebuttals that rely on facts are also more ethical than those that rely solely on emotion or diversion from the topic through personal attacks on the opponent. That is the arena where politics, for example, can stray from trying to communicate a message into becoming a reality show.

With evidence as the central focal point, a good rebuttal relies on several elements to win an argument, including a clear presentation of the counterclaim, recognizing the inherent barrier standing in the way of the listener accepting the statement as truth, and presenting evidence clearly and concisely while remaining courteous and highly rational.

The evidence, as a result, must do the bulk work of proving the argument while the speaker should also preemptively defend certain erroneous attacks the opponent might make against it.

That is not to say that a rebuttal can't have an emotional element, as long as it works with evidence. A statistic about the number of people filing for bankruptcy per year due to medical debt can pair with a story of one such family as an example to support the topic of health care reform. It's both illustrative — a more personal way to talk about dry statistics — and an appeal to emotions.

To prepare an effective rebuttal, you need to know your opponent's position thoroughly to be able to formulate the proper attacks and to find evidence that dismantles the validity of that viewpoint. The first speaker will also anticipate your position and will try to make it look erroneous.

You will need to show:

The more points in the argument that you can dismantle, the more effective your rebuttal. Keep track of them as they're presented in the argument, and go after as many of them as you can.

Refutation Definition

The word rebuttal can be used interchangeably with refutation , which includes any contradictory statement in an argument. Strictly speaking, the distinction between the two is that a rebuttal must provide evidence, whereas a refutation merely relies on a contrary opinion. They differ in legal and argumentation contexts, wherein refutation involves any counterargument, while rebuttals rely on contradictory evidence to provide a means for a counterargument.

A successful refutation may disprove evidence with reasoning, but rebuttals must present evidence.

example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

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How to Write an Argumentative Essay | Examples & Tips

Published on July 24, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 6, 2021.

An argumentative essay expresses an extended argument for a particular thesis statement . The author takes a clearly defined stance on their subject and builds up an evidence-based case for it.

Table of contents

When do you write an argumentative essay, approaches to argumentative essays, introducing your argument, the body: developing your argument, concluding your argument, frequently asked questions about argumentative essays.

You might be assigned an argumentative essay as a writing exercise in high school or in a composition class. The prompt will often ask you to argue for one of two positions, and may include terms like “argue” or “argument.” It will frequently take the form of a question.

The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make.

Argumentative writing at college level

At university, the vast majority of essays or papers you write will involve some form of argumentation. For example, both rhetorical analysis and literary analysis essays involve making arguments about texts.

In this context, you won’t necessarily be told to write an argumentative essay—but making an evidence-based argument is an essential goal of most academic writing, and this should be your default approach unless you’re told otherwise.

Examples of argumentative essay prompts

At a university level, all the prompts below imply an argumentative essay as the appropriate response.

Your research should lead you to develop a specific position on the topic. The essay then argues for that position and aims to convince the reader by presenting your evidence, evaluation and analysis.

An argumentative essay should be objective in its approach; your arguments should rely on logic and evidence, not on exaggeration or appeals to emotion.

There are many possible approaches to argumentative essays, but there are two common models that can help you start outlining your arguments: The Toulmin model and the Rogerian model.

Toulmin arguments

The Toulmin model consists of four steps, which may be repeated as many times as necessary for the argument:

The Toulmin model is a common approach in academic essays. You don’t have to use these specific terms (grounds, warrants, rebuttals), but establishing a clear connection between your claims and the evidence supporting them is crucial in an argumentative essay.

Say you’re making an argument about the effectiveness of workplace anti-discrimination measures. You might:

Rogerian arguments

The Rogerian model also consists of four steps you might repeat throughout your essay:

This model builds up a clear picture of both sides of an argument and seeks a compromise. It is particularly useful when people tend to disagree strongly on the issue discussed, allowing you to approach opposing arguments in good faith.

Say you want to argue that the internet has had a positive impact on education. You might:

You don’t necessarily have to pick one of these models—you may even use elements of both in different parts of your essay—but it’s worth considering them if you struggle to structure your arguments.

Regardless of which approach you take, your essay should always be structured using an introduction , a body , and a conclusion .

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Like other academic essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction . The introduction serves to capture the reader’s interest, provide background information, present your thesis statement , and (in longer essays) to summarize the structure of the body.

Hover over different parts of the example below to see how a typical introduction works.

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts is on the rise, and its role in learning is hotly debated. For many teachers who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its critical benefits for students and educators—as a uniquely comprehensive and accessible information source; a means of exposure to and engagement with different perspectives; and a highly flexible learning environment.

The body of an argumentative essay is where you develop your arguments in detail. Here you’ll present evidence, analysis, and reasoning to convince the reader that your thesis statement is true.

In the standard five-paragraph format for short essays, the body takes up three of your five paragraphs. In longer essays, it will be more paragraphs, and might be divided into sections with headings.

Each paragraph covers its own topic, introduced with a topic sentence . Each of these topics must contribute to your overall argument; don’t include irrelevant information.

This example paragraph takes a Rogerian approach: It first acknowledges the merits of the opposing position and then highlights problems with that position.

Hover over different parts of the example to see how a body paragraph is constructed.

A common frustration for teachers is students’ use of Wikipedia as a source in their writing. Its prevalence among students is not exaggerated; a survey found that the vast majority of the students surveyed used Wikipedia (Head & Eisenberg, 2010). An article in The Guardian stresses a common objection to its use: “a reliance on Wikipedia can discourage students from engaging with genuine academic writing” (Coomer, 2013). Teachers are clearly not mistaken in viewing Wikipedia usage as ubiquitous among their students; but the claim that it discourages engagement with academic sources requires further investigation. This point is treated as self-evident by many teachers, but Wikipedia itself explicitly encourages students to look into other sources. Its articles often provide references to academic publications and include warning notes where citations are missing; the site’s own guidelines for research make clear that it should be used as a starting point, emphasizing that users should always “read the references and check whether they really do support what the article says” (“Wikipedia:Researching with Wikipedia,” 2020). Indeed, for many students, Wikipedia is their first encounter with the concepts of citation and referencing. The use of Wikipedia therefore has a positive side that merits deeper consideration than it often receives.

An argumentative essay ends with a conclusion that summarizes and reflects on the arguments made in the body.

No new arguments or evidence appear here, but in longer essays you may discuss the strengths and weaknesses of your argument and suggest topics for future research. In all conclusions, you should stress the relevance and importance of your argument.

Hover over the following example to see the typical elements of a conclusion.

The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.

An argumentative essay tends to be a longer essay involving independent research, and aims to make an original argument about a topic. Its thesis statement makes a contentious claim that must be supported in an objective, evidence-based way.

An expository essay also aims to be objective, but it doesn’t have to make an original argument. Rather, it aims to explain something (e.g., a process or idea) in a clear, concise way. Expository essays are often shorter assignments and rely less on research.

At college level, you must properly cite your sources in all essays , research papers , and other academic texts (except exams and in-class exercises).

Add a citation whenever you quote , paraphrase , or summarize information or ideas from a source. You should also give full source details in a bibliography or reference list at the end of your text.

The exact format of your citations depends on which citation style you are instructed to use. The most common styles are APA , MLA , and Chicago .

The majority of the essays written at university are some sort of argumentative essay . Unless otherwise specified, you can assume that the goal of any essay you’re asked to write is argumentative: To convince the reader of your position using evidence and reasoning.

In composition classes you might be given assignments that specifically test your ability to write an argumentative essay. Look out for prompts including instructions like “argue,” “assess,” or “discuss” to see if this is the goal.

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How To Write A Rebuttal In An Essay

What is a rebuttal in writing.

When writing an essay, rebutting is one way to argue points or facts that have been stated. It will directly oppose any view and will include reasons for your claims being valid. When including this in an essay, you will be acknowledging what the opposition is saying, but will continue to argue your own points. Here, you can see how to write a good rebuttal that will be easy to understand while getting your point across.

Why Are Rebuttal Paragraphs Important?

When planning to include a rebuttal in an argumentative essay, it is essential to know how to write a rebuttal paragraph. Students should plan an outline for an argumentative essay and know where to place these paragraphs. These are used for arguing points that have been made. They will appear after the main argument in an essay. When working on these paragraphs, it is important for there to be evidence that supports your arguments.

These paragraphs will introduce your opposing argument and will also acknowledge that some parts of the opposition are valid points. It will also be used for introducing the conclusion of the essay. Learning how to include these paragraphs is not always an easy task. If you need help with your essay, you can hire an argumentative essay writer that has experience including counterarguments. With professional help, students can create a powerful argument that will attract the attention of the reader and be backed with evidence.

How to Start Refuting

To get started, a three-part organization process should be used. You must have a complete understanding of the opposing viewpoint. Know who the intended audience is, what message is being sent, and what points you agree with. You will then analyze the argument and determine your position. The argument may contain untrue statements or claims that cannot be verified.

Additional research will then have to be performed. You need to back up your statements with facts and evidence when you write a counterargument. It will be important to fact-check any of the opposition’s arguments and collect reliable data that can disprove these.

Using Effective Transition Words

Examples of Rebuttal Transition Words

Transition words and phrases are key things that one should consider when writing an argumentative paper. They act as bridges and will connect your ideas and arguments. Transition words will help your reader identify the counter argument and rebuttal you are writing. It is an effective way of making the argument clearer. When you are creating a refutation essay, it is important you include these words. Some common transition phrases that can be used when writing include:

As you write a rebuttal in a sentence, be sure you use words that will easily connect the two things being compared or contrasted. These words will show a relationship between arguments and will link one idea to the next being presented.

Rebuttal Examples In an Argumentative Essay

You will have to make your arguments in essays on various topics. It is important to know the proper argumentative essay structure before getting started. Once this has been addressed, you can start to work on the counter-argument. For example, let’s say that the essay focuses on the violence children learn from video games. The objection being made is that these games cause children to use guns and shoot people.

You would then assert that violence in media existed long before the creation of video games. You would then make a counterargument that may state:

“Some may argue that certain video games include violent scenes that cause children to use guns. Youth violence does appear to be on the rise. However, before video games, there were other courses of violence that children had been exposed to. To blame video games, one would have to ignore the effect of movies, books, music, and other forms of media.”

In this example, the counter-argument addresses the initial point and acknowledges validity. It then makes use of transition words to present a different view, backed by research stating that other types of media have also had an impact on the rise of violence.

Being able to make a concise counter-argument is not always easy. It should be short and to the point. With a custom argumentative essay writing service , you can get help from experienced writers who know how to generate an effective counter-argument.

Common Mistakes To Avoid While Writing Refutation Sentences

mistakes to avoid in rebuttal writing

There are some common mistakes that are often made by students when writing essays. This is why using a custom essay writing service can be beneficial. The professionals with these services will know how to properly structure an essay and know how to do a rebuttal in an essay. Here, you can learn about the mistakes that should be avoided when writing sentences and paragraphs.

Avoiding these will ensure that any arguments made against an oppositional point will be effective.

Know that you know how to refute the points of the opposition and have this be an effective piece of an essay, you can create a paper that presents your view and supporting facts. While these essays can be difficult to structure, there are many resources online and services that can be of use. With the help me do my assignment service, you can gain access to expert advice that can help you with your essay structure and make sure that you avoid any common mistakes. Additionally, experienced professionals can provide guidance on how to effectively use transition words and how to start your essay. Knowing that you have this kind of assistance can make the essay writing process much less daunting.

Do you need a rebuttal in a synthesis essay?

This is not needed in a synthesis essay. These essays have an intro that provides the topic, a body that offers an objective two-sided interpretation, info from multiple sources, as well as citations, and a conclusion.

Which rebuttal would be ineffective in an argumentative essay?

If it takes the opposition’s point, acknowledges it, and then uses words to insult that point, it would be considered to be ineffective when drafting an argumentative essay.

Does a persuasive essay have a refutation?

Refutations are not used in persuasive essays. They are found in argumentative essays, where the writer is arguing a point and proving it is false by providing their own ideas and facts.

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example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

What Are Rebuttal Arguments In An Argumentative Essay?

Table of Contents

Most people hate writing rebuttal arguments. It feels like you’re always playing defense, and it’s hard to stay on top of your argument when you constantly have to address the other side’s points. 

Not only is rebuttal writing hard, but it can also be frustrating. Every time you try to make a point, the other person just knocks it down. Knowing how to write one will make it difficult for the other person to challenge your arguments. 

Following some simple tips for rebuttal argument writing can turn this difficult process into a powerful tool for strengthening your argument. In this blog, we’ll talk about everything you need to know about rebuttal arguments.

What Is A Rebuttal Argument

A rebuttal argument is a type of argument that is used to counter or refute another argument. It typically includes evidence or reasons that support the opposing position. Rebuttal arguments are often used in debates and other formal settings, where each side presents its case to persuade the audience.

Rebuttal arguments can challenge any argument, including claims made in speeches, papers, and everyday conversations. When rebuttal arguments are used effectively, they can help to build a stronger case for your position. 

You must first identify the opposing argument’s key points to create a strong rebuttal argument. Once you have done this, you can develop your counterarguments.

When creating a rebuttal argument, it is important to remember that your goal is not simply to tear down the opposing argument. Instead, your goal is to show that the opposing argument is not valid or strong enough to stand on its own. 

The Difference Between Rebuttals And Counter Arguments 

A rebuttal is an argument that directly counters another argument. Conversely, a counterargument is an argument that challenges another argument by offering a different perspective.

The key difference between a rebuttal and a counterargument is that a rebuttal seeks to disprove an opposing argument, while a counter argument raises objections to an argument.

A rebuttal typically addresses the points made in an opposing argument, one by one. A counterargument, on the other hand, may challenge the overall validity of an argument.

For example, if someone argues that all students should be required to wear uniforms to school, a rebuttal might point out that this would be a financial burden on families with limited resources. A counter argument might argue that uniforms promote conformity and stifle creativity.

Both rebuttals and counter arguments can be used to make a case more effectively. However, it is important to distinguish between the two so that you can choose the most appropriate strategy for your situation. 

Some Common Types Of Rebuttals

A rebuttal can take many forms, but all aim to disprove or weaken an opposing argument. Some common types of rebuttals include:

What Are The Key Components Of A Rebuttal Argument?

Here are four key components you need to include in a rebuttal argument: 

Logical Reasoning 

The first step in crafting an effective rebuttal is using logical reasoning. This means that your counter arguments must be based on facts, not emotions. For example, let’s say your friend is trying to convince you that global warming isn’t real. 

A logical rebuttal to this claim is to cite scientific evidence that greenhouse gasses are causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. 


It’s important to be assertive when presenting your counterarguments—you want to make your voice heard loud and clear. However, there’s a fine line between being assertive and being aggressive. You don’t want to come off as confrontational or angry, as this will only make the other person defensive and less likely to listen to what you have to say. 


Even though you may not agree with the other person’s point of view, it’s important to respect their opinion. This doesn’t mean you have to agree with them, but you should at least try to see where they’re coming from. 

One way to show respect is by using active listening techniques, such as making eye contact and repeating what they’ve said to ensure that you understand their position. 


Timing is everything when it comes to delivering a rebuttal. You don’t want to interrupt the other person while speaking or wait until they’re finished before starting your counterargument—this will only worsen things. 

Instead, try interjecting while speaking or immediately after they finish talking. This way, you can keep the momentum going and hopefully resolve sooner rather than later. 

Tips To Write Rebuttals In An Argumentative Essay 

A rebuttal serves two main purposes: to respond directly to the other argument and to present your argument in a stronger light. Here are some tips on how to make rebuttals in an argumentative essay .

Understand The Other Side

The first step in crafting a rebuttal is understanding the other side of the argument. What are the points that they are trying to make? What evidence are they using? Once you have a firm understanding of their position, you can start to formulate your rebuttal.

Choose Your Battles

Not every point in the other argument needs to be rebutted. You should focus on the points that you feel are most important or that you have the strongest counterargument for. Remember, your goal is to refute the other side and present your argument in the best light possible. So choose your battles wisely.

Be Respectful

It’s important to remember that even though you disagree with the other side, you should still be respectful in your language and tone. This will make it more likely that people will be open to hearing your rebuttal and considering your point of view.

Be Clear And Concise

Your rebuttal should be clear and concise so that people can easily follow along and understand your points. Avoid getting bogged down in too much detail or going off on tangents; stick to the main points you want to make.

Things To Consider While Writing A Rebuttal Argument

When writing an essay, you may find it necessary to rebut an argument made by your opponent. In a rebuttal argument, you refute the points made by your opponent and provide evidence to support your position.

A few things to remember when writing a rebuttal argument:

Steps To Create Strong Rebuttal Arguments 

When preparing to make a rebuttal argument, remember a few key things:

Sample Argumentative Essay Topics That Are Perfect For Rebuttal Arguments 

If you are looking to make some good rebuttal arguments in your essay, here are some topics you can consider. 

Examples Of Argumentative Essays Containing Rebuttal Arguments

So if you’re feeling frustrated with rebuttal writing, remember that it’s not impossible. With a little practice and helpful tips, you can turn this difficult process into a powerful tool for strengthening your argument. 

Stay strong in rebuttals, and don’t let the other person knock you down. With a little practice, you’ll be able to write rebuttal arguments that are clear, concise, and convincing. Who knows? Maybe next time, you’ll be the one knocking down your opponent’s arguments!

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the rebuttal approach .

The rebuttal approach is a technique that can be used to refute an opponent’s argument. It involves identifying the opponent’s argument, breaking it down into parts, and then refuting each.

What Is a 10-Point Rebuttal?

A 10-point rebuttal is a technique used in debate in which the speaker lists 10 points they will refute or disprove their opponent’s argument. It is an orderly way of laying out the speaker’s argument, making it clear to the audience which points they will address.

What Is The Purpose Of A Rebuttal Essay?

A rebuttal essay is written to provide evidence that disproves, or weakens, the points of an argument made in another essay. It can also be used to introduce new evidence that supports the writer’s position.

Emily Brown

An experienced author and writing instructor. Has been teaching composition and creative writing at the college level since 2015.

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example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

Argumentative Essays

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The Modes of Discourse—Exposition, Description, Narration, Argumentation (EDNA)—are common paper assignments you may encounter in your writing classes. Although these genres have been criticized by some composition scholars, the Purdue OWL recognizes the wide spread use of these approaches and students’ need to understand and produce them.

What is an argumentative essay?

The argumentative essay is a genre of writing that requires the student to investigate a topic; collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.

Please note : Some confusion may occur between the argumentative essay and the expository essay. These two genres are similar, but the argumentative essay differs from the expository essay in the amount of pre-writing (invention) and research involved. The argumentative essay is commonly assigned as a capstone or final project in first year writing or advanced composition courses and involves lengthy, detailed research. Expository essays involve less research and are shorter in length. Expository essays are often used for in-class writing exercises or tests, such as the GED or GRE.

Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material. Argumentative assignments may also require empirical research where the student collects data through interviews, surveys, observations, or experiments. Detailed research allows the student to learn about the topic and to understand different points of view regarding the topic so that she/he may choose a position and support it with the evidence collected during research. Regardless of the amount or type of research involved, argumentative essays must establish a clear thesis and follow sound reasoning.

The structure of the argumentative essay is held together by the following.

In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way. Next the author should explain why the topic is important ( exigence ) or why readers should care about the issue. Lastly, students should present the thesis statement. It is essential that this thesis statement be appropriately narrowed to follow the guidelines set forth in the assignment. If the student does not master this portion of the essay, it will be quite difficult to compose an effective or persuasive essay.

Transitions are the mortar that holds the foundation of the essay together. Without logical progression of thought, the reader is unable to follow the essay’s argument, and the structure will collapse. Transitions should wrap up the idea from the previous section and introduce the idea that is to follow in the next section.

Each paragraph should be limited to the discussion of one general idea. This will allow for clarity and direction throughout the essay. In addition, such conciseness creates an ease of readability for one’s audience. It is important to note that each paragraph in the body of the essay must have some logical connection to the thesis statement in the opening paragraph. Some paragraphs will directly support the thesis statement with evidence collected during research. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis ( warrant ).

However, argumentative essays should also consider and explain differing points of view regarding the topic. Depending on the length of the assignment, students should dedicate one or two paragraphs of an argumentative essay to discussing conflicting opinions on the topic. Rather than explaining how these differing opinions are wrong outright, students should note how opinions that do not align with their thesis might not be well informed or how they might be out of date.

The argumentative essay requires well-researched, accurate, detailed, and current information to support the thesis statement and consider other points of view. Some factual, logical, statistical, or anecdotal evidence should support the thesis. However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis. It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.

It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle. This is the portion of the essay that will leave the most immediate impression on the mind of the reader. Therefore, it must be effective and logical. Do not introduce any new information into the conclusion; rather, synthesize the information presented in the body of the essay. Restate why the topic is important, review the main points, and review your thesis. You may also want to include a short discussion of more research that should be completed in light of your work.

A complete argument

Perhaps it is helpful to think of an essay in terms of a conversation or debate with a classmate. If I were to discuss the cause of World War II and its current effect on those who lived through the tumultuous time, there would be a beginning, middle, and end to the conversation. In fact, if I were to end the argument in the middle of my second point, questions would arise concerning the current effects on those who lived through the conflict. Therefore, the argumentative essay must be complete, and logically so, leaving no doubt as to its intent or argument.

The five-paragraph essay

A common method for writing an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. This is, however, by no means the only formula for writing such essays. If it sounds straightforward, that is because it is; in fact, the method consists of (a) an introductory paragraph (b) three evidentiary body paragraphs that may include discussion of opposing views and (c) a conclusion.

Longer argumentative essays

Complex issues and detailed research call for complex and detailed essays. Argumentative essays discussing a number of research sources or empirical research will most certainly be longer than five paragraphs. Authors may have to discuss the context surrounding the topic, sources of information and their credibility, as well as a number of different opinions on the issue before concluding the essay. Many of these factors will be determined by the assignment.


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Need to defend your opinion on an issue? Argumentative essays are one of the most popular types of essays you’ll write in school. They combine persuasive arguments with fact-based research, and, when done well, can be powerful tools for making someone agree with your point of view. If you’re struggling to write an argumentative essay or just want to learn more about them, seeing examples can be a big help.

After giving an overview of this type of essay, we provide three argumentative essay examples. After each essay, we explain in-depth how the essay was structured, what worked, and where the essay could be improved. We end with tips for making your own argumentative essay as strong as possible.

What Is an Argumentative Essay?

An argumentative essay is an essay that uses evidence and facts to support the claim it’s making. Its purpose is to persuade the reader to agree with the argument being made.

A good argumentative essay will use facts and evidence to support the argument, rather than just the author’s thoughts and opinions. For example, say you wanted to write an argumentative essay stating that Charleston, SC is a great destination for families. You couldn’t just say that it’s a great place because you took your family there and enjoyed it. For it to be an argumentative essay, you need to have facts and data to support your argument, such as the number of child-friendly attractions in Charleston, special deals you can get with kids, and surveys of people who visited Charleston as a family and enjoyed it. The first argument is based entirely on feelings, whereas the second is based on evidence that can be proven.

The standard five paragraph format is common, but not required, for argumentative essays. These essays typically follow one of two formats: the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model.

3 Good Argumentative Essay Examples + Analysis

Below are three examples of argumentative essays, written by yours truly in my school days, as well as analysis of what each did well and where it could be improved.

Argumentative Essay Example 1

Proponents of this idea state that it will save local cities and towns money because libraries are expensive to maintain. They also believe it will encourage more people to read because they won’t have to travel to a library to get a book; they can simply click on what they want to read and read it from wherever they are. They could also access more materials because libraries won’t have to buy physical copies of books; they can simply rent out as many digital copies as they need.

However, it would be a serious mistake to replace libraries with tablets. First, digital books and resources are associated with less learning and more problems than print resources. A study done on tablet vs book reading found that people read 20-30% slower on tablets, retain 20% less information, and understand 10% less of what they read compared to people who read the same information in print. Additionally, staring too long at a screen has been shown to cause numerous health problems, including blurred vision, dizziness, dry eyes, headaches, and eye strain, at much higher instances than reading print does. People who use tablets and mobile devices excessively also have a higher incidence of more serious health issues such as fibromyalgia, shoulder and back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and muscle strain. I know that whenever I read from my e-reader for too long, my eyes begin to feel tired and my neck hurts. We should not add to these problems by giving people, especially young people, more reasons to look at screens.

Second, it is incredibly narrow-minded to assume that the only service libraries offer is book lending. Libraries have a multitude of benefits, and many are only available if the library has a physical location. Some of these benefits include acting as a quiet study space, giving people a way to converse with their neighbors, holding classes on a variety of topics, providing jobs, answering patron questions, and keeping the community connected. One neighborhood found that, after a local library instituted community events such as play times for toddlers and parents, job fairs for teenagers, and meeting spaces for senior citizens, over a third of residents reported feeling more connected to their community. Similarly, a Pew survey conducted in 2015 found that nearly two-thirds of American adults feel that closing their local library would have a major impact on their community. People see libraries as a way to connect with others and get their questions answered, benefits tablets can’t offer nearly as well or as easily.

While replacing libraries with tablets may seem like a simple solution, it would encourage people to spend even more time looking at digital screens, despite the myriad issues surrounding them. It would also end access to many of the benefits of libraries that people have come to rely on. In many areas, libraries are such an important part of the community network that they could never be replaced by a simple object.

The author begins by giving an overview of the counter-argument, then the thesis appears as the first sentence in the third paragraph. The essay then spends the rest of the paper dismantling the counter argument and showing why readers should believe the other side.

What this essay does well:


Argumentative Essay Example 2

There are multiple drugs available to treat malaria, and many of them work well and save lives, but malaria eradication programs that focus too much on them and not enough on prevention haven’t seen long-term success in Sub-Saharan Africa. A major program to combat malaria was WHO’s Global Malaria Eradication Programme. Started in 1955, it had a goal of eliminating malaria in Africa within the next ten years. Based upon previously successful programs in Brazil and the United States, the program focused mainly on vector control. This included widely distributing chloroquine and spraying large amounts of DDT. More than one billion dollars was spent trying to abolish malaria. However, the program suffered from many problems and in 1969, WHO was forced to admit that the program had not succeeded in eradicating malaria. The number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa who contracted malaria as well as the number of malaria deaths had actually increased over 10% during the time the program was active.

One of the major reasons for the failure of the project was that it set uniform strategies and policies. By failing to consider variations between governments, geography, and infrastructure, the program was not nearly as successful as it could have been. Sub-Saharan Africa has neither the money nor the infrastructure to support such an elaborate program, and it couldn’t be run the way it was meant to. Most African countries don't have the resources to send all their people to doctors and get shots, nor can they afford to clear wetlands or other malaria prone areas. The continent’s spending per person for eradicating malaria was just a quarter of what Brazil spent. Sub-Saharan Africa simply can’t rely on a plan that requires more money, infrastructure, and expertise than they have to spare.

Additionally, the widespread use of chloroquine has created drug resistant parasites which are now plaguing Sub-Saharan Africa. Because chloroquine was used widely but inconsistently, mosquitoes developed resistance, and chloroquine is now nearly completely ineffective in Sub-Saharan Africa, with over 95% of mosquitoes resistant to it. As a result, newer, more expensive drugs need to be used to prevent and treat malaria, which further drives up the cost of malaria treatment for a region that can ill afford it.

Instead of developing plans to treat malaria after the infection has incurred, programs should focus on preventing infection from occurring in the first place. Not only is this plan cheaper and more effective, reducing the number of people who contract malaria also reduces loss of work/school days which can further bring down the productivity of the region.

One of the cheapest and most effective ways of preventing malaria is to implement insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs).  These nets provide a protective barrier around the person or people using them. While untreated bed nets are still helpful, those treated with insecticides are much more useful because they stop mosquitoes from biting people through the nets, and they help reduce mosquito populations in a community, thus helping people who don’t even own bed nets.  Bed nets are also very effective because most mosquito bites occur while the person is sleeping, so bed nets would be able to drastically reduce the number of transmissions during the night. In fact, transmission of malaria can be reduced by as much as 90% in areas where the use of ITNs is widespread. Because money is so scarce in Sub-Saharan Africa, the low cost is a great benefit and a major reason why the program is so successful. Bed nets cost roughly 2 USD to make, last several years, and can protect two adults. Studies have shown that, for every 100-1000 more nets are being used, one less child dies of malaria. With an estimated 300 million people in Africa not being protected by mosquito nets, there’s the potential to save three million lives by spending just a few dollars per person.

Reducing the number of people who contract malaria would also reduce poverty levels in Africa significantly, thus improving other aspects of society like education levels and the economy. Vector control is more effective than treatment strategies because it means fewer people are getting sick. When fewer people get sick, the working population is stronger as a whole because people are not put out of work from malaria, nor are they caring for sick relatives. Malaria-afflicted families can typically only harvest 40% of the crops that healthy families can harvest. Additionally, a family with members who have malaria spends roughly a quarter of its income treatment, not including the loss of work they also must deal with due to the illness. It’s estimated that malaria costs Africa 12 billion USD in lost income every year. A strong working population creates a stronger economy, which Sub-Saharan Africa is in desperate need of.  

This essay begins with an introduction, which ends with the thesis (that malaria eradication plans in Sub-Saharan Africa should focus on prevention rather than treatment). The first part of the essay lays out why the counter argument (treatment rather than prevention) is not as effective, and the second part of the essay focuses on why prevention of malaria is the better path to take.


Argumentative Essay Example 3

There are many ways payments could work. They could be in the form of a free-market approach, where athletes are able to earn whatever the market is willing to pay them, it could be a set amount of money per athlete, or student athletes could earn income from endorsements, autographs, and control of their likeness, similar to the way top Olympians earn money.

Proponents of the idea believe that, because college athletes are the ones who are training, participating in games, and bringing in audiences, they should receive some sort of compensation for their work. If there were no college athletes, the NCAA wouldn’t exist, college coaches wouldn’t receive there (sometimes very high) salaries, and brands like Nike couldn’t profit from college sports. In fact, the NCAA brings in roughly $1 billion in revenue a year, but college athletes don’t receive any of that money in the form of a paycheck. Additionally, people who believe college athletes should be paid state that paying college athletes will actually encourage them to remain in college longer and not turn pro as quickly, either by giving them a way to begin earning money in college or requiring them to sign a contract stating they’ll stay at the university for a certain number of years while making an agreed-upon salary.  

Supporters of this idea point to Zion Williamson, the Duke basketball superstar, who, during his freshman year, sustained a serious knee injury. Many argued that, even if he enjoyed playing for Duke, it wasn’t worth risking another injury and ending his professional career before it even began for a program that wasn’t paying him. Williamson seems to have agreed with them and declared his eligibility for the NCAA draft later that year. If he was being paid, he may have stayed at Duke longer. In fact, roughly a third of student athletes surveyed stated that receiving a salary while in college would make them “strongly consider” remaining collegiate athletes longer before turning pro.

Paying athletes could also stop the recruitment scandals that have plagued the NCAA. In 2018, the NCAA stripped the University of Louisville's men's basketball team of its 2013 national championship title because it was discovered coaches were using sex workers to entice recruits to join the team. There have been dozens of other recruitment scandals where college athletes and recruits have been bribed with anything from having their grades changed, to getting free cars, to being straight out bribed. By paying college athletes and putting their salaries out in the open, the NCAA could end the illegal and underhanded ways some schools and coaches try to entice athletes to join.

People who argue against the idea of paying college athletes believe the practice could be disastrous for college sports. By paying athletes, they argue, they’d turn college sports into a bidding war, where only the richest schools could afford top athletes, and the majority of schools would be shut out from developing a talented team (though some argue this already happens because the best players often go to the most established college sports programs, who typically pay their coaches millions of dollars per year). It could also ruin the tight camaraderie of many college teams if players become jealous that certain teammates are making more money than they are.

They also argue that paying college athletes actually means only a small fraction would make significant money. Out of the 350 Division I athletic departments, fewer than a dozen earn any money. Nearly all the money the NCAA makes comes from men’s football and basketball, so paying college athletes would make a small group of men--who likely will be signed to pro teams and begin making millions immediately out of college--rich at the expense of other players.

Those against paying college athletes also believe that the athletes are receiving enough benefits already. The top athletes already receive scholarships that are worth tens of thousands per year, they receive free food/housing/textbooks, have access to top medical care if they are injured, receive top coaching, get travel perks and free gear, and can use their time in college as a way to capture the attention of professional recruiters. No other college students receive anywhere near as much from their schools.

People on this side also point out that, while the NCAA brings in a massive amount of money each year, it is still a non-profit organization. How? Because over 95% of those profits are redistributed to its members’ institutions in the form of scholarships, grants, conferences, support for Division II and Division III teams, and educational programs. Taking away a significant part of that revenue would hurt smaller programs that rely on that money to keep running.

While both sides have good points, it’s clear that the negatives of paying college athletes far outweigh the positives. College athletes spend a significant amount of time and energy playing for their school, but they are compensated for it by the scholarships and perks they receive. Adding a salary to that would result in a college athletic system where only a small handful of athletes (those likely to become millionaires in the professional leagues) are paid by a handful of schools who enter bidding wars to recruit them, while the majority of student athletics and college athletic programs suffer or even shut down for lack of money. Continuing to offer the current level of benefits to student athletes makes it possible for as many people to benefit from and enjoy college sports as possible.

This argumentative essay follows the Rogerian model. It discusses each side, first laying out multiple reasons people believe student athletes should be paid, then discussing reasons why the athletes shouldn’t be paid. It ends by stating that college athletes shouldn’t be paid by arguing that paying them would destroy college athletics programs and cause them to have many of the issues professional sports leagues have.


3 Tips for Writing a Good Argumentative Essay

Now that you’ve seen examples of what good argumentative essay samples look like, follow these three tips when crafting your own essay.

#1: Make Your Thesis Crystal Clear

The thesis is the key to your argumentative essay; if it isn’t clear or readers can’t find it easily, your entire essay will be weak as a result. Always make sure that your thesis statement is easy to find. The typical spot for it is the final sentence of the introduction paragraph, but if it doesn’t fit in that spot for your essay, try to at least put it as the first or last sentence of a different paragraph so it stands out more.

Also make sure that your thesis makes clear what side of the argument you’re on. After you’ve written it, it’s a great idea to show your thesis to a couple different people--classmates are great for this. Just by reading your thesis they should be able to understand what point you’ll be trying to make with the rest of your essay.

#2: Show Why the Other Side Is Weak

When writing your essay, you may be tempted to ignore the other side of the argument and just focus on your side, but don’t do this. The best argumentative essays really tear apart the other side to show why readers shouldn’t believe it. Before you begin writing your essay, research what the other side believes, and what their strongest points are. Then, in your essay, be sure to mention each of these and use evidence to explain why they’re incorrect/weak arguments. That’ll make your essay much more effective than if you only focused on your side of the argument.

#3: Use Evidence to Support Your Side

Remember, an essay can’t be an argumentative essay if it doesn’t support its argument with evidence. For every point you make, make sure you have facts to back it up. Some examples are previous studies done on the topic, surveys of large groups of people, data points, etc. There should be lots of numbers in your argumentative essay that support your side of the argument. This will make your essay much stronger compared to only relying on your own opinions to support your argument.

Summary: Argumentative Essay Sample

Argumentative essays are persuasive essays that use facts and evidence to support their side of the argument. Most argumentative essays follow either the Toulmin model or the Rogerian model. By reading good argumentative essay examples, you can learn how to develop your essay and provide enough support to make readers agree with your opinion. When writing your essay, remember to always make your thesis clear, show where the other side is weak, and back up your opinion with data and evidence.

What's Next?

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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.

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How to Write An Argumentative Essay (With Examples)

Feb 14, 2023

example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

Are you looking for ways how to write an argumentative essay? Check out these helpful examples!

Argumentative essays can be tricky to write, but with a little practice, they can become relatively easy. In order to write an argumentative essay, it is important to always have a strong argument as your topic.

An argumentative essay has an objective approach to its statements, the argument should greatly rely on evidence and logic. However, there is a slight bit of wiggle room within your essay. For example, your thesis statement may include an opinion or a controversial idea, and while you should still support it with facts, it is possible to add your opinion to the essay without going against the objective of the essay.

If you want to create a high-quality argumentative essay, Jenni.ai is here for you! This AI-assistant writing software can easily help you with writing any kind of academic paper, including your argumentative essay.

Tips on how to make an Argumentative Essay

Creating an argumentative essay can be quite daunting, especially if you are not used to writing this kind of essay. However, there are some simple guidelines you can follow to ensure that your essay will be both coherent and convincing:

Make sure to choose a topic with strong talking points. This makes it easier to form strong coherent arguments that will dictate the direction you want to take with your essay.

Use the correct tone when creating your argumentative essay. People mistake assertiveness in argumentative essays to mean being aggressive and argumentative, which will not win you any points with your readers. Convincing arguments should be presented calmly and clearly in the introduction section of your essay, with supporting information being presented throughout the body of your essay.

Make sure to use factual statements when presenting your arguments. This is important if you are writing an academic essay as this ensures that your arguments are well-researched and thought out. Fact-based research is always more reliable than opinions.

Keep your arguments logical and concise. This will make it easy for your readers to follow your train of thought and helps to keep them engaged throughout the essay.

Make sure that you indicate all the relevant talking points in a clear and concise manner in your conclusion section.

Always make sure to proofread your work thoroughly throughout your writing process because typos and grammatical errors will greatly affect the quality and credibility of your work.

With these tips in mind, you are on your way to creating a high-quality argumentative essay that is easy to understand and will be compelling to your readers. 

How to create an Outline for your Argumentative Essay

As we already know, creating an argumentative essay involves a strong topic in order to create a strong argument. Creating an outline for it is a lot easier than most people think, especially for beginners. Here are some simple steps to create an argumentative essay:

1. Research your topic - As mentioned above, you will need to carry out in-depth research to find suitable evidence to back up your argument. If you know what you are going to write about before carrying out your research, then you will be able to structure it more easily. 

2. Introduction - In this part of your essay, you will want to introduce the reader to the topic that you will be discussing. The introductory paragraph works like a hook to entice your readers about your interesting topic. Make sure to create an introduction that is easy to understand so that your readers will be interested in reading. A good way to do this is by providing them with a brief background about the topic so that they understand it better.

3. Hypothesis or Premise - This is where you present your main arguments about your topic. You could provide questions to answer or evidence to support your claims. It will serve as the basis for the argument in your essay. Keep in mind that you will need to support all of your points with evidence from your research.

4. Body - Like any good argumentative essay, your body should contain all of the supporting evidence that you will use to support your argument. Each body paragraph should be dedicated to a different point that you would like to make. Body paragraphs cover different pieces of evidence that you provide to support your claims throughout the essay.

5. Conclusion - This is where you create a summary of all your talking points. This could also serve as a brief refresher of what you have discussed in the body of the essay. The conclusion is one of the most important parts of your essay because this is where you rebut the opposing arguments and remind your reader of the key points that you have discussed in the paper.

Types of Argumentative Essay

1. Rogerian Argumentative Essay - This type of essay is great for controversial topics because its creator, Carl Rogers intended this essay type to be as tame and respectful as possible.

The Rogerian style is centred around maintaining a balance between the two sides of the argument rather than siding with one opinion over the other. After both sides have been considered, a great way to end this essay is with a proper resolution of all the arguments presented. Usually, this results in finding a way to bring the two sides together rather than permanently sidelining one opinion over another.

This approach promotes both intellectual honesty and responsible thinking, which is a great way to approach an argumentative essay!

2. Classic Argumentative Essay - This type of argumentative essay entices the reader to a certain point of view.

This style is developed by Aristotle and it requires the reader to look at both sides of the argument while ultimately deciding which one is the most concise and factual. An essay like this requires a presentation of claims and counterarguments as well as an overall claim about the topic being argued over.

3. Toulmin Argumentative Essay - Arguments are broken down into multiple elements in order to prove a point. The main elements to follow with the Toulmin argumentative essay are the claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal, and backing.

The claim is the thesis that is being argued for, while the grounds are the arguments that back up the claim.

The warrant is the argument from which the claim can be proven; this can be based on historical data, social or cultural research, or scientific research.

The qualifier is the explanation that explains the basis on which the claim was made and the justification provided to justify the claim.

The rebuttal is the part where you respond to the claims that have been presented against your claim. This can be used to acknowledge an opposing viewpoint by proving your reasoning and logic are stronger or more logical than theirs.

And the backing is the part of your essay where you convince your reader to take a side in the argument.

The Toulmin argument is best used when there could be several possible solutions to a certain argument. This style is also very useful for debates and discussions because it allows both sides of an argument to be laid out for consideration.

Argumentative Essay Examples

Now that we've explained the different types of argumentative essays as well as useful tips you can use throughout your writing process, here are some excerpt examples of the different types of argumentative essays:

1. Is School Conductive to Learning? (Classical Argumentative Essay)

"If students get As on a test then they know the material, right? How many of those students would still know the information if you asked them about a week later? How about a month later? Most students will not remember most of the information for very long after the test. Why is that? They learned it, didn't they? Well, that depends on how you define "learning". "Learning" is gaining knowledge and experience which stays in the long-term memory and is of value to the recipient. So we have to ask, is our education system really teaching children?

The way education is set up in this country is simple. There is usually only one teacher in a classroom teaching from 12 to 30 students at a time. Information is written on a blackboard in the front of the room while the children take notes and listen. There may be some variation depending on the school and teacher. Then the students are tested on the material. After the test, the class moves on to new information. The material is usually not looked at again until a final test at the end of the semester, for which students study very hard a few days before. If they pass the test it is assumed that they "learned" the information, regardless of if they forget it later. Our education system is not only not enhancing learning but may actually be inhibiting it.

The education system in the United States today treats the minds of children like bowls to be filled with information. What it does not realize is that if you fill a bowl too quickly most of the liquid will bounce back out. It is the same with the mind of a child. When they are given too much information in such a small amount of time very little of it is actually retained. This is because of the vast amount of information students are given in very small amounts of time. Children study a single topic for two weeks to a month and then they are tested on it. After the test, they study something different for the next two weeks to a month. This causes the previous information to be forgotten and replaced by new information. This means that children end up with only very general knowledge of the topics studied.

A few children do learn this quickly, but not very many. Children learn at greatly varying paces, however, schools assume that all children learn at the same speed. This causes many children to be very frustrated and give up trying to learn. Many children who learn at a slower pace fall behind beyond any hope of catching up. Often the children who learn more quickly get bored and give up completely. Many of these children begin associating learning with boredom or frustration and actually start to dislike and even fight against learning.

Our system of schooling is not set up the way it should be. It was created to enhance learning, to teach children what they needed to know. It has strayed from that purpose. Our school system not only does not teach, but it turns students away from learning. Our children deserve better than this. They deserve to be shown how much fun and how beneficial learning can be. Learning can be what gives our lives value, but we are cheating our children of that. The school system needs to be seriously looked at and changed. The future of our world could be shaped by how well our children are prepared for it. They will be better prepared for it if they are shown how important and how rewarding knowledge and confidence can be. If our children are given these building blocks then they will become stronger adults and they will enhance the structure of the human world."

2. Helmets: Life or Liberty? (Rogerian Argumentative Essay)

"Snowboarding and snow skiing are two of the most enjoyed recreational sports in the world today. They give a unique sense of freedom and satisfaction that is unlike any other sport that can offer. Rob Reichenfeld remarked after his first lesson, “When you’re onto a good thing you stick with it, and like millions around the world I had discovered something undefinably special” (2). The freedom to carve down an entire mountain as fast or as slowly as desired, to drop off a twenty-foot cliff into five feet of fluff, to weave a line through a patch of technical trees, or to float down a steep face with bottomless powder is just a few reasons so many people are determined to make it to the mountains every year in search of a supreme rush. Snow sports provide an outlet for people to express themselves in unconventional ways by taking risks they normally would not take.

Snow sports are becoming more popular than ever before. They are prevalent in movies such as Extreme Days, Out Cold, several James Bond films, and Aspen Extreme, just to name a few. Now we see the X Games on television and snow sports in the Olympics. And the commercial market has taken full advantage of the extreme side of these sports as well. Mountain Dew has created an entire marketing scheme based solely on extreme sports, with snowboarding being a large part. Not only are snow sports becoming exceeding popular in the media, but more and more newcomers are also picking up a board or a set of skis every day of the winter season.

Along with all of this new popularity and thousands of new partakers in these sports, head injuries are becoming an increasing element of the equation. Although the percentage of head injuries due to snow sports is fairly low, about 0.3—6.5 skiers or snowboarders per thousand a day (“Heads you win?…”), a lot of people are affected when you consider how many thousands of people might be skiing or snowboarding in the entire U.S. on any given day. These numbers have raised a question of some magnitude: should ski resorts intrude on their guests’ individual liberties by implementing helmet rules?

Helmets do have several distinct drawbacks, despite their many benefits. Though opinions are starting to change, helmets are sometimes viewed as uncool or “nerdy”. These ideas are similar to those people used to have about motorcycle helmets, car seat belts, bicycle helmets, and skating elbow- and kneepads. Initially, it seems, any form of safety equipment gets a bad rap, especially from a young crowd that has no real concern for bodily harm.

The benefits of wearing head protection while resort skiing or snowboarding greatly outweigh the disadvantages, so such protective headgear should be required by all ski resorts. With the improvements being made in the comfort, stylishness, and effectiveness of helmets in the industry, there are no excuses left for skiers or boarders not to be wearing them. These types of resort rules could save countless lives as well as possibly save innumerable tax dollars that are spent on the medical costs of people who receive brain damage as a result of snow sport-induced head trauma. Such rules would also serve to lower lift ticket prices, as less money would be spent by resorts to defending against lawsuits brought on by head trauma victims. It would be to the benefit of everyone in the snow sports community if such regulations were to be put into place. I hope that they will indeed be applied in the near future, further insuring many more years of safe and exhilarating snow sporting."  

3. The Power of Black Panther (Toulmin)

  "Despite it just hitting theatres, Black Panther is already labelled as a ‘cultural movement’. Many Marvel fans eagerly waited to see the movie while discussions exploded on social media about Marvel’s new black superhero. However, not all of the discussions have stayed peaceful. With the emergence of this hero comes the emergence of the timeless debate of race, more specifically race in the media and how it is presented. There are some who say that having a black hero should not be this big of a deal and they deny the need for heroes of colour. Morals are colourless; we’ve learned from and enjoyed the millions of white heroes, so why is this black hero so special?

The issue here runs far deeper than this and goes beyond comic book characters. The real issue is the overall representation of minority groups in America. There needs to be a better representation of minorities in media to help the majority understand them and to help minorities feel a part of society. These are important factors in peace and unity within our nation. II. For the longest time, white men have dominated all American media industries, especially cishet men. Cishet refers to a person who is both cisgender and heterosexual. Over the years, women and minorities have fought to get where they are Background and issue questionClaimDefinitionDunne 2in the media today. They are now performing more and more roles outside of their stereotypes.

We need a more understanding majority and minorities who feel like they are an equal part of society, in order to come together and work for a better nation. Having fair media representation for minorities is a vital key to doing so. With the current hate destroying our country, we need to educate ourselves and each other. What better way to change a nation obsessed with its media, than with the media?" 

Creating argumentative essays is quite a complex process and there are multiple styles and ways to approach it. The goal of the process is to convince the audience of your point of view based on evidence or facts rather than personal opinions.

If you want to create high-quality argumentative essays, we recommend using Jenni.ai to speed up your writing process and help you craft more compelling arguments! You can sign up at Jenni.ai for free here !

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Counter Argument Example: How to Write an Rebuttal

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In this blog post, we’ll look at the best ways to prepare and write an argument that undermines either your own thesis or that of an opponent. We’ll also look at why a counter argument can be so powerful in logic, persuasion, and reasoning.

At the core of argument is critical thinking. If you’d like to enhance your ability to formulate persuasive, effective counter arguments, enroll in our course, Develop Your Critical Thinking Skills Easily !

What is a counter argument?

A counter argument is any argument that is opposed to your thesis. It explains why your thesis – in part of in full – is incorrect, and uses evidence and logical reasoning to undermine your thesis.

Given this definition, it seems unusual that you would want to prepare an argument that rebuts your own thesis. However, in some cases presenting a counter argument can actually strengthen your thesis and weaken any arguments that opposite it.

A counter argument can be any argument in opposition to a thesis. For example, if your thesis is that the sky is blue , a counter argument could argue that the sky isn’t blue.

Why would you present a counter argument?

Presenting a counter argument gives you an opportunity to respond to criticism in your own essay. It allows you to answer common questions or rebuttals that your audience might have before they have a chance to raise them independently.

Counter arguments are frequently used in academic essays. For example, an essay arguing that certain parts of the countryside should be protected from commercial development might argue against itself by citing the benefits of development.

By bringing up your opponent’s argument in advance and countering it within your own essay, you can make your own argument more persuasive. You also provide a more detailed, informed understanding of the topic to your readers.

Using a counter argument is one of many persuasion tactics. Learn more about how to form persuasive, compelling arguments in our course, The Power of Persuasion .

Using counter arguments in debate

In debate, counter arguments are frequently used offensively – to undermine a point raised by an opponent – and to strengthen the argument you’re making by showing the flaws in any arguments against it.

Forming a counter argument is challenging, and requires a well-rounded knowledge and understanding of the topic you’re discussing. Because of this, forming a counter argument to common beliefs is a great way to learn about important issues.

Counter arguments can be based upon a variety of different assumptions. You could base a counter argument on facts, and argue that the opposing argument doesn’t use factually correct data. You can also base a counter argument on analysis.

In certain cases, counter arguments could target the relevance of an argument. This type of counter argument is built around the assumption that even if a certain fact is true, it has little relevance to the argument being debated.

Developing a strong counter argument

Developing a good counter argument is one of the most important skills anyone can possess. Being able to understand your opponent’s argument and turn it around is a very powerful persuasive skill that can be used to win debates and influence people.

The best way to start developing a counter argument is by exploring the topics you expect your opponent to discuss, and familiarizing yourself with the argument they are most likely to use.

Learn about the data you expect your opponent to cite, the reliability of their data, and the most persuasive arguments against it. Identify any false assumptions your opponent is likely to use so that they are easy to spot during a debate.

You can then present a factual counter argument by pointing out inconsistencies in the facts they present to support their argument. You can use an analytical counter argument, and point out that while their facts are correct, their analysis isn’t.

In his wonderful essay, How to Disagree , Paul Graham breaks debating down into a pyramid with seven different levels. A good counter argument should be built using the strategies near the top of the pyramid, rather than those near the bottom.

Effective counter arguments need to be logically consistent, focused, and delivered in a format that your audience can understand. Enroll in our course, A Clear Logical Argument Guaranteed , to learn how to from logical, persuasive arguments.

Using counter arguments to refine your thesis

In the process of presenting counter arguments to your thesis, you may discover an argument that is both true and relevant. In this case, using this counter argument is likely to damage your thesis more than it supports it.

This presents an interesting moral conundrum. Do you simply exclude the counter argument in order to strengthen your thesis, or refine your thesis to take the new evidence into account?

When evidence directly disproves your thesis, you should use it to modify, refine, and strengthen your thesis. Acknowledge the validity of the counter argument and adjust your own argument to respond to its criticisms.

Separating counter arguments from your thesis

When writing your thesis or participating in a debate, it’s important to label your counter argument as something that other people believe, rather than something that forms the core of your own argument.

If you don’t clearly mark your counter argument as being a rebuttal of your thesis, your audience may mistakenly believe it’s your own view. Make sure you introduce your counter argument using phrases like “It is argued that” or “It may seem as if”.

In general, you should present a counter argument towards the end of your thesis but prior to your conclusion. This gives you a chance to express your key points in advance of the counter argument and provide a rebuttal for your audience.

Are you writing a counter argument for a college essay? Our course, College Writing Essentials , will teach you how to write persuasive, logically consistent, and effective academic essays.

Would you like to learn more about debating?

Although counter arguments are most frequently used in academic essays, they are most powerful when used in response to an argument presented in debate. A well-rounded, fair counter argument can often win a challenging debate or argument.

Our blog post on argument writing is a great primer on writing counter arguments that persuade and inform your audience and strengthen your thesis.

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Argumentative Essays: The Counter-Argument & Refutation

An argumentative essay presents an argument for or against a topic. For example, if your topic is working from home , then your essay would either argue in favor of working from home (this is the for  side) or against working from home.

Like most essays, an argumentative essay begins with an introduction that ends with the writer's position (or stance) in the thesis statement .

Introduction Paragraph

(Background information....)

This thesis statement shows that the two points I plan to explain in my body paragraphs are 1) working from home improves well-being, and 2) it allows companies to reduce costs. Each topic will have its own paragraph. Here's an example of a very basic essay outline with these ideas:

Body Paragraph 1

Body Paragraph 2

Does this look like a strong essay? Not really . There are no academic sources (research) used, and also...

You Need to Also Respond to the Counter-Arguments!

The above essay outline is very basic. The argument it presents can be made much stronger if you consider the counter-argument , and then try to respond (refute) its points.

The counter-argument presents the main points on the other side of the debate. Because we are arguing FOR working from home, this means the counter-argument is AGAINST working from home. The best way to find the counter-argument is by reading research on the topic to learn about the other side of the debate. The counter-argument for this topic might include these points:

Next, we have to try to respond to the counter-argument in the refutation (or rebuttal/response) paragraph .

The Refutation/Response Paragraph

The purpose of this paragraph is to address the points of the counter-argument and to explain why they are false, somewhat false, or unimportant. So how can we respond to the above counter-argument? With research !

A study by Bloom (2013) followed workers at a call center in China who tried working from home for nine months. Its key results were as follows:

In other words, this study shows that the counter-argument might be false. (Note: To have an even stronger essay, present data from more than one study.) Now we have a refutation.

Where Do We Put the Counter-Argument and Refutation?

Commonly, these sections can go at the beginning of the essay (after the introduction), or at the end of the essay (before the conclusion). Let's put it at the beginning. Now our essay looks like this:

Counter-argument Paragraph

Refutation/Response Paragraph

Body Paragraph 3

Body Paragraph 4

The outline is stronger now because it includes the counter-argument and refutation. Note that the essay still needs more details and research to become more convincing.

Working from home

Working from home may increase productivity.

Extra Advice on Argumentative Essays

It's not a compare and contrast essay.

An argumentative essay focuses on one topic (e.g. cats) and argues for or against it. An argumentative essay should not have two topics (e.g. cats vs dogs). When you compare two ideas, you are writing a compare and contrast essay. An argumentative essay has one topic (cats). If you are FOR cats as pets, a simplistic outline for an argumentative essay could look something like this:

Use Language in Counter-Argument That Shows Its Not Your Position

The counter-argument is not your position. To make this clear, use language such as this in your counter-argument:

These  underlined phrases make it clear that you are presenting  someone else's argument , not your own.

Choose the Side with the Strongest Support

Do not choose your side based on your own personal opinion. Instead, do some research and learn the truth about the topic. After you have read the arguments for and against, choose the side with the strongest support as your position.

Do Not Include Too Many Counter-arguments

Include the main (two or three) points in the counter-argument. If you include too many points, refuting these points becomes quite difficult.

If you have any questions, leave a comment below.

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10 comments on “ Argumentative Essays: The Counter-Argument & Refutation ”

Thank you professor. It is really helpful.

Can you also put the counter argument in the third paragraph

It depends on what your instructor wants. Generally, a good argumentative essay needs to have a counter-argument and refutation somewhere. Most teachers will probably let you put them anywhere (e.g. in the start, middle, or end) and be happy as long as they are present. But ask your teacher to be sure.

Thank you for the information Professor

how could I address a counter argument for “plastic bags and its consumption should be banned”?

For what reasons do they say they should be banned? You need to address the reasons themselves and show that these reasons are invalid/weak.

Thank you for this useful article. I understand very well.

Thank you for the useful article, this helps me a lot!

Thank you for this useful article which helps me in my study.

Thank you, professor Mylene 102-04

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How to Write a Standout Argumentative Essay

Matt Ellis

An argumentative essay is a piece of writing that uses factual evidence and logical support to convince the reader of a certain way of thinking. Although many types of essays aim at persuading the reader to believe a specific point of view, argumentative essays rely heavily on hard evidence, drawing on other studies and sources to prove their argument is best. 

Don’t let the name fool you: Argumentative essays don’t have to be aggressive or combative. Rather, it gets its name from the style of arguing, whereby the writer presents sufficient research to both support their own claim and invalidate opposing perspectives. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, remember that the goal is to show that your thesis is the only logical conclusion. 

Give your essays extra polish Grammarly helps you improve academic writing Write with Grammarly

Argumentative essays are only as good as their argument, and structuring good arguments requires a little more than just being stubborn (even if it helps!). Below, we run through the most useful techniques for writing the perfect argumentative essay. But don’t take our word for it—our evidence speaks for itself! 

What is an argumentative essay? 

Like persuasive essays and other types of essays , the point of argumentative essays is to convince the reader of a particular point of view. What makes an essay argumentative is the method of convincing: An argumentative essay uses fact-based evidence and unquestionable logic to prove that its thesis is true. 

Persuasive essays do this, too, but tend to be more emotional and less formal . Argumentative essays focus more on concrete empirical data, whereas persuasive essays appeal more to the reader’s emotions. In other words, argumentative essays favor quantitative support, while persuasive essays favor qualitative support. 

Likewise, it’s easy to confuse argumentative essays with expository essays , which rely heavily on fact-based evidence and copious research. The main difference is bias : Argumentative essays presume one point of view is correct, whereas expository essays usually present all sides of the argument and leave it to the reader to make up their own mind. 

Another distinction of argumentative essays is that the thesis is not obvious . It usually has strong enough opposition to necessitate an explanation of why it’s wrong. For example, “the sky is blue on a sunny day” would be an awful thesis for an argumentative essay. Not only would it be redundant, but also far too simplistic: Your evidence may be “look outside,” and that’d be the end of it! 

The idea is that an argumentative essay leaves no doubt that its thesis is accurate, usually by disproving or invalidating opposing theories. That’s why argumentative essays don’t just talk about the writer’s own thesis but discuss other contradicting points of view as well. It’s hard to name one perspective as “true” if you’re ignoring all the others. 

Basic argumentative essay structure

Because your entire argumentative essay depends on how well you present your case, your essay structure is crucial. To make matters worse, the structure of argumentative essays is a little more involved than those of other essay types because you also have to address other points of view. This alone leads to even more considerations, like whose argument to address first, and at what point to introduce key evidence. 

Let’s start with the most basic argumentative essay structure: the simple five-paragraph format that suits most short essays. 

This simple structure serves you well in a pinch, especially for timed essays that are part of a test. However, advanced essays require more detailed structures, especially if they have a length requirement of over five paragraphs. 

Advanced argumentative essay structure

Some essays need to support more complicated arguments and more definitive rebuttals than normal. In these cases, the three major formats below should serve your argumentative essay for a variety of needs. 

Aristotelian (Classic)

When to use it: making straightforward arguments

The Aristotelian or classic argument is a default structure for a clear argument, more like an extension of the simple five-paragraph structure above. It draws on credibility ( ethos ), emotion ( pathos ), and reasoning ( logos ) to prove its points, all of which can be adapted for virtually any argument. In form, it follows a direct and logical path: 

1 Introduce the problem.

2 Explain your perspective.

3 Explain your opponent’s perspective. Refute their points one-by-one as you go. 

4 Present your evidence.

5 Conclude your argument.

When to use it: presenting complex issues with no clear truths or when your thesis is a rebuttal or counterargument. 

The Toulmin method was developed to analyze arguments themselves, so it makes sense to use it for essays. Because it’s steeped in logic and deep analysis, this approach best suits complicated issues that need unraveling, but also works well for refuting an opposing point of view piece by piece. 

In form, it includes six main areas, but you’re free to organize them in whatever order works best for your essay. Keep in mind that your claim can itself be a rebuttal of another argument, so your entire essay could be disproving another thesis rather than presenting your own. 

1   Claim: your thesis or argument, stated clearly

2   Reasons: your evidence, including data or generally accepted facts

3   Warrant: the connection between your claim and reasons (requiring you to state assumptions explicitly so there’s no confusion)

4   Backing: additional evidence to support your claim

5   Qualifier: the limits to your own claim, including concessions

6   Rebuttal: addressing opposing viewpoints and criticisms of your claim

When to use it: showing both sides of an argument as valid or when presenting to a mixed audience.

The Rogerian method is simply a middle-ground approach, where you acknowledge the validity of both your thesis and the opposition’s viewpoint. It’s the least confrontational and most respectful, which helps in convincing readers who are naturally biased against your main claim. In form, it follows a five-step structure: 

2 Explain your opponent’s perspective first. Validate their points when correct. 

3 Explain your perspective. 

4 Bring both sides together. Present a middle ground where both viewpoints coexist. 

5 Conclude your (balanced) argument.

How to write a good thesis

The thesis, or argument, is the cornerstone of any good essay. If your thesis is weak or full of holes, not even a perfect essay structure can save you. 

The thesis itself should be the one takeaway you want your readers to leave with. What are you trying to convince them of, or what do you want them to remember after reading? Knowing this informs all other aspects of writing your essay, including the best structure and format, not to mention which evidence to collect. 

For starters, choose a topic you feel strongly about (if it’s not already assigned). It helps if your argument is specific; having a broad or general argument means more facets to examine, which can make for a wordy essay. 

It also helps to consider your audience. You don’t always have to tell readers what they want to hear, but their biases should influence how you write your essay, including your wording and how much credit to give the opposition. 

Above all, choose a thesis with sufficient evidence. Argumentative essays thrive on factual proof from credible sources, and you don’t want to waste time searching for data that doesn’t exist. If you can’t find enough facts to back up your thesis, maybe you shouldn’t argue that point in the first place. 

How to write an argumentative essay: the writing process

Argumentative essays follow the same recommended writing process as other kinds of writing, albeit with more emphasis on researching and preparing. Here’s a brief overview of how to adapt the process for argumentative essays: 

1   Brainstorming: If your argument is not provided in the assignment, take some time to think up a good thesis based on our guidelines above. 

2   Preparing: This phase is for collecting all the evidence going into your essay, as well as writing an outline . Because proof is key to argumentative essays, set aside ample time for research until you have all the support you need. It’s also a good time to outline your essay, answering questions like when and how to discuss opposing viewpoints. 

3   Drafting: Write a rough draft of your essay. It helps to include any data and direct quotes as early as possible, especially with argumentative essays that often cite outside sources. 

4   Revising: Polish your rough draft, optimize word choice, and restructure your arguments if necessary. Make sure your language is clear and appropriate for the reader, and double-check that you effectively made all your points and rebuttals. 

5   Proofreading : Go through your draft and focus exclusively on fixing mistakes. If you’re not confident in your grammar skills or diction, use Grammarly . 

Although optional, it always helps to have a fresh set of eyes on your essays before finalizing it. See if your argument is strong enough to convince your friends!

Argumentative essay writing tips

Our tips for writing better essays apply just as well to argumentative essays as any others, so that’s the best place to start if you’re looking for additional guidance. For tips specific to argumentative essays, try these: 

Support your argument with concrete facts

Although similar to persuasive essays, argumentative essays are in some ways the exact opposite. While persuasive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, argumentative essays appeal to the reader’s reason. That’s why hard facts work best. 

Do plenty of research until you have enough data to support each of your main points. Feel free to cite other sources or studies to improve your credibility as well. Try to withhold your personal opinions and feelings as much as possible—let your evidence speak for you. 

Be proactive about language

In an argumentative essay, tone and style are more important than you may think, especially if you’re criticizing another person’s perspective. Be respectful when choosing your words and phrasing. Using an aggressive tone reflects worse on the writer than the target, even if rebutting a despicable point of view. 

Use aids for style and grammar

Even the smallest typo can derail the most carefully planned argument. The problem is, it’s hard to formulate the best possible argument if you’re distracted by spelling and grammar. 

Grammarly finds all of your writing mistakes for you so you can stay focused on what’s important. It even checks your tone and clarity to make sure your true argument always shines through and comes across as intended. See how Grammarly can help your next writing project by downloading it now.

example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay

Persuasive Essay

Essay writing is a typical task for all students. Basically, learners in various levels of education commonly write persuasive essays. They master their skills as a means of providing an opinion on different topics. For example, writers develop their arguments to persuade their audience. In this case, an in-depth discussion concerning persuasive essay writing focuses on its definition, supporting evidence section, and rebuttal section.

Definition of a Persuasive Essay

Persuasive essays are a specific type of academic paper. Basically, the main aim of writing a persuasive essay is to convince readers that a particular opinion is correct, and students should support their persuasive essay topics . In this case, authors make a claim and strive to show readers that it is reasonable. Also, persuasive writing requires learners to explain their positions in an organized manner. It addresses all relevant perspectives but demonstrates the superiority of the authors’ point of view. In turn, the development of a persuasive argument requires an unbiased approach to a topic. It is because authors provide not only a complete argument but also a comprehensive discussion. Therefore, a persuasive essay can be defined as a piece of writing that works to coerce an audience to accept a given position concerning a controversial topic.

Persuasive essay

Evidence Section

A segment of the body in a persuasive essay is designed to discuss evidence supporting the author’s main argument. For instance, a significant portion of body paragraphs contains evidence from experts acquired during research on an issue. In this case, a crucial aspect of a persuasive speech is the provision of facts that have been established through studies with irreproachable methodologies. Also, detailed explanations support the evidence. These aspects demonstrate logical reasoning and a clear link to a thesis statement . Hence, the choice of evidence used to support the author’s central claim has a significant impact on an essay’s overall persuasion effect.

Rebuttal Part in Persuasive Essays

Students include a rebuttal section within the body of an essay. In particular, this section is equally important. It allows authors to explain the flaws of the other competing lines of thought. For example, the rebuttal portion of an essay contributes to the coercion effect. Moreover, it shows the audience that writers have considered alternative opinions and found them to be deficient. Hence, an effective persuasive essay must display a high level of objectivity in identifying the shortcomings of opposing opinions.

Other Features

Persuasive essays are a stepping stone toward objective scientific arguments. Basically, the consistent practice of skills in a persuasive essay develops the ability to argue objectively by integrating reasons, evidence, and logic. In this case, objective arguments are the foundation of the scientific language of disagreement, which is independent of personal biases. Consequently, such works prepare learners for participation in the academic sphere through the contribution of new arguments or refuting existing arguments.

Conclusion on a Persuasive Essay

A persuasive essay is used to advance an individual’s opinion to the audience through evidence-based writing, which persuades readers of its objectivity. In particular, there are two main sections in the body of such an essay: supporting evidence and rebuttal. Each of these sections plays a vital role in convincing the audience of the validity of an argument. Thus, this type of essay is essential because it prepares young minds for the development of sophisticated objective arguments that contribute positively to academia. In turn, compare and contrast essay and cause and effect essay forms differ from other types of essays .

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Argumentative Essay Writing

Argumentative Essay Examples

Cathy A.

Best Argumentative Essay Examples for Your Help

Published on: Mar 10, 2023

Last updated on: Mar 9, 2023

argumentative essay examples

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Argumentative essays are one of the most common types of essay writing. Students are assigned to write such essays very frequently.

Despite being assigned so frequently, students still find it hard to write a good argumentative essay .

There are certain things that one needs to follow to write a good argumentative essay. The first thing is to choose an effective and interesting topic. Use all possible sources to dig out the best topic.

Afterward, the student should choose the model that they would follow to write this type of essay. Follow the steps of the chosen model and start writing the essay.

The models for writing an argumentative essay are the classical model, the Rogerian model, and the Toulmin model.

To make sure that you write a good argumentative essay, read the different types of examples mentioned in this blog.

Good Argumentative Essay Examples

Argumentative essays are an inevitable part of academic life. To write a good argumentative essay, you need to see a few good examples of this type of essay.

To analyze whether the example is good to take help from or not. You need to look for a few things in it.

Make sure it follows one specific model and has an introductory paragraph, organized body paragraphs, and a formal conclusion.

How to Start an Argumentative Essay Example

Learning how to start an argumentative essay example is a tricky thing for beginners. It is quite simple but can be challenging for newbies.   To start an argumentative essay example, you need to write a brief and attractive introduction. It is written to convince the reader and make them understand your point of view .

Add body paragraphs after the introduction to support your thesis statement. Also, use body paragraphs to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of your side of the argument.

Write a formal conclusion for your essay and summarize all the key elements of your essay. Look at the example mentioned below to understand the concept more clearly.

Check out this video for more information!

Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Example 

Argumentative essays are assigned to university students more often than the students of schools and colleges.

 It involves arguments over vast and sometimes bold topics as well.

For university students, usually, argumentative essay topics are not provided. They are required to search for the topic themselves and write accordingly.

The following examples will give an idea of how university students write argumentative essays.

Argumentative Essay Example for University (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Sample for University (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for College

For the college level, it is recommended to use simple language and avoid the use of complex words in essays.

Make sure that using simple language and valid evidence, you support your claim well and make it as convincing as possible

If you are a college student and want to write an argumentative essay, read the examples provided below. Focus on the formatting and the vocabulary used.

Argumentative Essay Example for College (PDF)

College Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for Middle School

Being a middle school student, you must be wondering how we write an argumentative essay. And how can you support your argument?

Go through the following examples and hopefully, you will be able to write an effective argumentative essay very easily.

Argumentative Essay Example for Middle School(PDF)

Middle School Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for High School

High school students are not very aware of all the skills that are needed to write research papers and essays. 

Especially, when it comes to argumentative essays, it becomes quite a challenge for high schools to defend their argument

In this scenario, the best option is to look into some good examples. Here we have summed up two best examples of argumentative essays for high school students specifically.

Argumentative Essay Example for High School (PDF)

High School Argumentative Essay Sample (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for O Level

The course outline for O levels is quite tough. O levels students need to have a good command of the English language and amazing writing skills.

If you are an O-level student, the following examples will guide you on how to write an argumentative essay.

Argumentative Essay Example for O Level (PDF)

Argumentative Essay for O Level Students (PDF)

5-Paragraph Argumentative Essay Examples

A 5-paragraph essay is basically a formatting style for essay writing. It has the following five parts:

In the introduction, the writer introduces the topic and provides a glance at the collected data to support the main argument.

The first body paragraph discusses the first and most important point related to the argument. It starts with a topic sentence and has all the factual data to make the argument convincing.

The second body paragraph mentions the second most important element of the argument. A topic sentence is used to start these paragraphs. It gives the idea of the point that will discuss in the following paragraph.

The third paragraph discusses all the miscellaneous points. Also, it uses a transitional sentence at the end to show a relation to the conclusion.

The conclusion of a five-paragraph essay reiterates all the major elements of an argumentative essay. It also restates the thesis statement using a more convincing choice of words.

Look at the example below to see how a well-written five-paragraph essay looks like

5 Paragraph Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for 6th Grade

Students in 6th grade are at a point where they are learning new things every day. 

Writing an argumentative essay is an interesting activity for them as they like to convince people of their point of view.

Argumentative essays written at such levels are very simple but well convincing. 

The following example will give you more detail on how a 6th-grade student should write an argumentative essay.

6th Grade Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Examples for 7th Grade

There is not much difference between a 6th-grade and a 7th-grade student. Both of them are enhancing their writing and academic skills.

Here is another example to help you with writing an effective argumentative essay.

7th Grade Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

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Short Argumentative Essay Examples

For an argumentative essay, there is no specific limit for the word count. It only has to convince the readers and pass on the knowledge of the writer to the intended audience.

It can be short or detailed. It would be considered valid as far as it has an argument involved in it.

Following is an example of a short argumentative essay example

Short Argumentative Essay Example (PDF)

Immigration Argumentative Essay Examples

Immigration is a hot topic for a very long time now. People have different opinions regarding this issue.

Where there is more than one opinion, an argumentative essay can be written on that topic. The following are examples of argumentative essays on immigration.

Read them and try to understand how an effective argumentative essay is written on such a topic.

Argumentative Essay Example on Immigration (PDF)

Argumentative Essay Sample on Immigration (PDF)

Writing essays is usually a tiring and time-consuming assignment to do. Students already have a bunch of assignments for other subjects to complete. In this situation, asking for help from professional writers is the best choice.

If you are still in need of assistance, our argumentative essay writer can help you create a compelling essay that presents your argument clearly and effectively. 

With our argumentative essay writing service, you will enjoy perks like expert guidance, unlimited revisions, and helpful customer support. Let our essay writer help you make an impact with your essay on global warming today! 

Place your order with our essay writing service today!

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 7 types of arguments.

The seven types of arguments are as follows:

What is the structure of an argument?

The structure of an argument consists of a main point (thesis statement) that is supported by evidence. 

This evidence can include facts, statistics, examples, and other forms of data that help to prove or disprove the thesis statement. 

After providing the evidence, arguments also often include a conclusion that summarizes the main points made throughout the argument.

Cathy A. (Literature, Marketing)

For more than five years now, Cathy has been one of our most hardworking authors on the platform. With a Masters degree in mass communication, she knows the ins and outs of professional writing. Clients often leave her glowing reviews for being an amazing writer who takes her work very seriously.

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Templates for structuring argumentative essays with practice exercises and solutions

On this page, thesis statement, referring to others’ work.

Agreeing with what you’ve reviewed in the “They say” section

Disagreeing with what you’ve reviewed in the “they say” section.

My critics say

This page introduces a framework for writing argumentative/analytical essays, following a structure dubbed “They Say, I Say, My Critics Say, I Respond.” [1]

This page also includes a number of templates [2]   or examples that you may find helpful for writing argumentative/analytical essays. Keep in mind that it is possible to change the sequence of the framework sections. Also, the templates can be used interchangeably.

A principal element of an argumentative/analytical essay is the thesis statement.

A thesis statement is one or two sentences (maybe more in longer essays) typically occurring near the end of an essay introduction; it shows your position regarding the topic you are investigating or your answer(s) to the question(s) that you are responding to.

Here are some templates that may help you write an effective thesis statement:

Thesis statement exercise and solutions

Imagine that you have been asked to write an argumentative essay about physical education in the Canadian high school system. Use one of the templates suggested to write a thesis statement about this topic.

The body of an essay usually begins by providing a background of the topic or a summary of the resources that you have reviewed (this is sometimes called a literature review). Here, you bring other people’s views into the paper. You want to show your readers what other scholars say (“they say”) about the topic, using techniques like paraphrasing, summarizing, and direct quotation.

You can start this section using one the following templates or examples to delve into the topic.

They say exercise and solutions

Imagine that you are now trying to incorporate some sources into your academic paper about physical education in the Canadian high school system. Try using a couple of templates from the “They Say” section of the handout.

Bonus exercise: See if you can identify the “template” structure that each of the sentences below is using (hint, they are different from the templates provided above).

After the background section (e.g., summary or literature review), you need to include your own position on the topic (“I say”). Tell your reader if, for instance, you agree, disagree, or even both agree and disagree with the work you have reviewed.

You can use one of the following templates or samples to bring your voice in:

I say exercises and solutions

Try using a template from each of the sections below to bring your own position into your writing:

Using impersonal language There is little doubt that the teenage years are important for establishing life-long habits.

Agreeing with what you’ve reviewed in the “They say” section I support the view, presented by Vowel et al (1999) that effective physical education needs to consider the heightened self-consciousness that many teenagers experience and, in particular, needs to be sensitive to the body image issues that can be pervasive among young people.

Disagreeing with what you’ve reviewed in the “They say” section By focusing on school physical education programs and their shortcomings, Wilson (2010) overlooks the deeper problem that young people are experiencing a lack of motivation to incorporate healthy exercise into their daily lives.

Agreeing and Disagreeing simultaneously Though I concede that school physical education programs are valuable, I still insist that they cannot be the sole or even the primary way that we promote an active lifestyle among young people.

In a good argumentative essay, in addition to expressing your position and argument, you should consider possible opposing views to your argument: refer to what your opponents say (“my critics say”) and why they may disagree with your argument.

Including the ideas of those who may disagree with you makes up the counterargument section of your paper. You can refer to actual people, including other research scholars who may disagree with you, or try and imagine what those who disagree with you might say.

Remember, a thesis should be debatable, so you should be able to imagine someone disagreeing you’re your position. Here are some templates that may help you in writing counterargument:

My critics say exercise and solutions

Using one of the templates, try imagining a counterargument for the thesis you drafted earlier.

Sociocultural theorists used to believe that adolescence was a time of “natural defiance” (Fung, 1995) and therefore discounted the role of educational programs aimed at supporting teenagers to form healthy habits. Much of the focus of schooling therefore became about teaching specific content and skills.

Critics may call into question my assumption that effective physical education can help establish life-long healthy living habits.

After explaining what your opponents say, you have to refute them. This is sometimes called the rebuttal. Here, you can show your readers that your opponents either fail to provide enough evidence to support their argument or their evidence lacks credibility and/or is flawed.

Alternatively, you may argue that your opponents’ argument is valid, but not persuasive enough to be used in your study, or that their argument could be valid in a different context.

Don’t forget that for each part of your argument, you must provide enough evidence for the claims that you make. This means that if you include one of these templates in your essays, you have to explain the evidence it presents in a way that is clear and convincing for your reader.

I respond exercise and solutions

Using one of the templates, craft a rebuttal to the counterargument you just created.

Sociocultural theorists used to believe that adolescence was a time of “natural defiance” (Fung, 1995) and therefore discounted the role of educational programs aimed at supporting teenagers to form healthy habits. Much of the focus of schooling therefore became about teaching specific content and skills. However, this argument fails to demonstrate that the defiance observed during adolescence was “natural” or inherent and not a product of a specific cultural environment. It therefore does not convince me that education during the adolescent years needs to remain rigidly focused on content and skills.

Critics may call into question my assumption that effective physical education can help establish life-long healthy living habits. While it is true that we cannot assume that physical education will automatically lead to the establishment of healthy habits, I maintain that the creation of such habits, rather than simply teaching specific physical education content or skills, should be the central goal of an effective physical education program.

Graff, G., & Birkenstein, C. (2017). They say / I say: The moves that matter in academic writing, with readings (3rd ed.). New York: Norton W. W. Company.

Marshall, S. (2017). Advance in academic writing: Integrating research, critical thinking, academic reading and writing. Toronto, Canada: Pearson Education ESL.

Morley, J. (2014). Academic phrasebank. Retrieved from http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/

[1] Adapted from Graff and Birkenstein (2016).

[2] The templates used in this handout are adapted from Morley (2014), Marshall (2017), and Graff and Birkenstein (2016).

Argumentative essay rebuttal example. Counterargument & Rebuttal 2022-11-07

An argumentative essay is a type of writing that presents a clear and concise position on a controversial issue, and provides evidence to support that position. The purpose of an argumentative essay is to persuade the reader to adopt a particular perspective or take a specific action.

One common element of argumentative essays is the rebuttal, in which the writer anticipates and refutes counterarguments to their position. A rebuttal can strengthen an argument by showing that the writer has considered and addressed alternative viewpoints, and can demonstrate that the writer's position is well-reasoned and supported by evidence.

Here is an example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay:

In an essay arguing that the death penalty should be abolished, the writer may anticipate the counterargument that the death penalty serves as a deterrent to crime. The writer could then present the following rebuttal:

"While it may seem logical that the threat of execution would deter potential criminals, research has shown that this is not the case. A study by the National Research Council found that the death penalty does not significantly reduce the rate of violent crime. In fact, some states that have abolished the death penalty have seen a decrease in their murder rates. It is also worth noting that the cost of maintaining a death penalty system is significantly higher than that of a system without the death penalty, as the legal process for capital punishment cases is lengthy and resource-intensive.

Given the lack of evidence supporting the deterrent effect of the death penalty and the high financial cost of maintaining the system, it is clear that the death penalty is not a effective or cost-efficient means of reducing crime. It is time to consider alternatives to the death penalty that are more effective and more humane."

In this example, the writer has effectively anticipated and addressed the counterargument that the death penalty serves as a deterrent, and provided evidence to support their position that the death penalty should be abolished. The writer has also demonstrated that they have considered alternative viewpoints and have provided a well-reasoned and supported argument for their position.

What Is A Rebuttal In An Argumentative Essay

argumentative essay rebuttal example

How to Write a Rebuttal Essay: How to Make It Work The first time I wrote an argumentative essay, I was very excited. Do you not know how to write a strong thesis statement and introduction for your essay? A counter argument might argue that uniforms promote conformity and stifle creativity. Students start writing essays without an outline mostly because they do not appreciate the advantages of an outline. What Is The Purpose Of A Rebuttal Essay? That is why we have provided you with different types of Argumentative Essay Examples from 7th grade to college level. For example, if someone argues that all students should be required to wear uniforms to school, a rebuttal might point out that this would be a financial burden on families with limited resources. The counter argument can also be presented in the form оf a question.

10 Argumentative Essay Outline Examples And Templates

argumentative essay rebuttal example

It would be great if you could integrate some statistical numbers in your writing. There is no strict limit to how many paragraphs you should have. Kennedy in 1960, there are several excellent examples of successful rebuttals. Write a conclusion that restates your main point and ends with a call to action. Yоu should try to persuade your readers to agree with your point of view by presenting strong evidence, facts, or examples. A counter argument is a type оf argument that shows the audience that your opinion іs wrong. Even though this is true, what the proponents fail to mention is the other harmful elements that are in the smoke.

Argumentative Essay On Rebuttal Argument

argumentative essay rebuttal example

A counterargument, on the other hand, may challenge the overall validity of an argument. Highlight the reasons why a woman might opt for abortion and why some people are against the practice. This way, you can keep the momentum going and hopefully resolve sooner rather than later. For example, a study investigating crimes statistics in Arizona indicated that the strategy reduced the number of reported crimes by 17. You are not simply writing about whether global warming is a myth; you are writing about why the idea is a myth.

Rebuttal Sections

argumentative essay rebuttal example

Yоu will present your evidence in the form of facts and statistics that show that thе opposing view is incorrect. It is important to consider other positions because in most cases, your primary audience will be fence-sitters. What evidence are they using? Thе death penalty is also expensive for the state, as it requires expensive prisons and staff. This blog post will teach you how to write a winning argumentative essay. There have been no studies to indicate that video games cause violent behavior. The purpose of a rebuttal essay is to help the reader understand the other argument and tо show that your position is better than the other position.

Argumentative Essay Examples & Samples That Worked

argumentative essay rebuttal example

Choose Your Point оf View. The following are some common examples of rebuttals: The rebuttal іs an important part of an argumentative essay because it allows you to show your reader that you understand the opposing viewpoint and you understand why it is wrong. You should use the final paragraph in an argumentative essay structure to summarize your main argument and state what you believe will happen if nothing is done to solve this problem or issue. This is a proof that the government has always been committed in supporting the family, social life which is part of parenting. For example, if someone were to argue that abortion is morally wrong, a rebuttal could be used to point out that abortion is not always morally wrong. And often the victim has internalized some of the messages they have gotten, and feels that no one can help them. This is done in the form of a rebuttal.

What is Rebuttal in an Argumentative Essay? (And How to Write It)

argumentative essay rebuttal example

A rebuttal essay іs written with evidence from both sides of the argument. Read More: How many paragraphs should a rebuttal essay have? He then discusses how social media can lead tо addiction and how it can lead to bullying. It is important to note that you need to use credible evidence to back up your arguments. You would then use this evidence to back up your claim, writing something like this: This example uses the same evidence to argue both for and against global warming. . The purpose of the rebuttal іs to show that the opposing view is weak. In other words, a rebuttal essay is a way to argue against thе opposing argument without directly disagreeing with it.

Rebuttal Essay Argumentative Essay

argumentative essay rebuttal example

So get ready to become inspired by useful insights that we have to offer. Reach out to us and get the best essay writing help of an argumentative essay writer. Additional information: What are the types of rebuttals? The rebuttal comes into play here. However, you are countering an argument with your own argument, which is then supported by evidence. For instance, the welfare programs view marriage as the practical solution to eradicate poverty Conclusion Works cited Crittendent, Ann. This is done by stating that you agree with the points made by the opposing side, but that you have different reasons why the argument is flawed.

Counterargument & Rebuttal

argumentative essay rebuttal example

Consider the counterargument thoroughly before making a decision. The bully feels in power and sometimes also ashamed. To do this, the most important part is to select a topic you can research and use data to support your claim. The counterargument can bе true, but іt does not have to be the entire point of the argument. Introduction Contains a catchy hook, setting and a powerful thesis statement. The government has also established various social programs that are aimed at improving the welfare of the poor.

Rebuttal Essay Example

argumentative essay rebuttal example

Once you have done this, you can develop your counterarguments. Use citations and quotations to refer to your sources. The sequence is easy to follow. They are divided into categories by an academic level for easier navigation. Tips To Write Rebuttals In An Argumentative Essay A rebuttal serves two main purposes: to respond directly to the other argument and to present your argument in a stronger light. Therefore, it is evident that the United States government has always been committed to support its citizens in the development of human capital since colonial era.

16 Easy Argumentative Essay Examples For Students

argumentative essay rebuttal example

The topic should be interesting to you so that you can write about іt with passion and without any mistakes. In conclusion, summarize your argument and summarize the points you made in the body оf your essay. In the United States, the death penalty is the most humane and effective way to deal with serious criminals. This evidence is divided into five categories: data, warrant, qualifiers, rebuttals, and backing. Therefore, you have to dedicate ample time to research and gather data and information.


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  6. How To Write A Rebuttal Argument

    example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay


  1. The Argumentative Essay

  2. 03

  3. Brainstorming and mind mapping

  4. Argument Essay Assignment

  5. Write With Me: Counterclaim Paragraph

  6. Directive Language


  1. Rebuttal Sections

    Your position might assert, for example, that a writer has not proved his assertion because he has provided evidence that is outdated, or that the argument is filled with fallacies. Your refutation: The specifics of your counterargument will depend upon the nature of your disagreement.

  2. Strong Rebuttal Examples for Debate and Essays

    Famous Rebuttal Example: Nixon vs. Kennedy In the famous first presidential debate between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy in 1960, there are several excellent examples of successful rebuttals. Here is one to help inspire you, in which Kennedy disputes the evidence Nixon is using for his argument:

  3. What is Rebuttal in an Argumentative Essay? (How to Write It)

    A rebuttal in an argumentative essay is a response you give to your opponent's argument to show that the position they currently hold on an issue is wrong. While you agree with their counterargument, you point out the flaws using the strongest piece of evidence to strengthen your position.

  4. Rebuttal in Argumentative Essay: What It Is and How to Write One

    Here are a few examples of how you might use counterclaims and rebuttals to challenge your opponent's claims in an argumentative essay: 1. Share a New Point of View that Contradicts the Counterarguments Think of yourself as a debater in a room full of your peers.

  5. What Is a Rebuttal, and How Do You Write an Effective One?

    Here's a quick example of how you might use a rebuttal in your daily conversations: Let's say you and a friend are discussing the best local restaurants for a first date. Your argument is that an Italian place across town is the best because its food is delicious, and the atmosphere is romantic.

  6. Rebuttal: Definition, Usage and Examples

    For example, after the defense has presented its case, the prosecution can present rebuttal witnesses. This is new evidence only and witnesses that contradict defense witness testimony. An effective rebuttal to a closing argument in a trial can leave enough doubt in the jury's minds to have a defendant found not guilty. Politics

  7. Organizing Your Argument

    Three argumentative methods —the Toulmin Method, Classical Method, and Rogerian Method— give guidance for how to organize the points in an argument. Note that these are only three of the most popular models for organizing an argument. Alternatives exist. Be sure to consult your instructor and/or defer to your assignment's directions if ...

  8. How to Write an Argumentative Essay

    Example: Two-sided argumentative essay prompt Has the rise of the internet had a net positive or negative impact on education? Support your argument with evidence. The prompt may also be more open-ended in terms of the possible arguments you could make. Example: Open argumentative essay prompt

  9. How To Write A Rebuttal In An Essay

    Rebuttal Examples In an Argumentative Essay You will have to make your arguments in essays on various topics. It is important to know the proper argumentative essay structure before getting started. Once this has been addressed, you can start to work on the counter-argument.

  10. Rebuttal Arguments

    Examples Of Argumentative Essays Containing Rebuttal Arguments Globalization (PDF) Why People Become Homeless (PDF) Positive Effects of Playing Video Games (PDF) Popular Motivation Techniques (PDF) So if you're feeling frustrated with rebuttal writing, remember that it's not impossible.

  11. Argumentative Essays

    As noted in the paragraph above, a successful and well-rounded argumentative essay will also discuss opinions not aligning with the thesis. It is unethical to exclude evidence that may not support the thesis.

  12. 3 Strong Argumentative Essay Examples, Analyzed

    Argumentative Essay Example 1 As online learning becomes more common and more and more resources are converted to digital form, some people have suggested that public libraries should be shut down and, in their place, everyone should be given an iPad with an e-reader subscription.

  13. How to Write An Argumentative Essay (With Examples)

    1. Research your topic - As mentioned above, you will need to carry out in-depth research to find suitable evidence to back up your argument. If you know what you are going to write about before carrying out your research, then you will be able to structure it more easily. 2.

  14. How to Write an Argumentative Essay Outline

    1. First evidential support of your reason (known as confirmatio) 2. Second evidential support of your reason, then third, and so on. B. Summarize your first reason again and tie it together with evidential support. III. Second reason, etc. A. Continue to list your reasons in the same format as the first.

  15. Counter Argument Example: How to Write an Rebuttal

    Counter arguments are frequently used in academic essays. For example, an essay arguing that certain parts of the countryside should be protected from commercial development might argue against itself by citing the benefits of development.

  16. Example Of A Argumentative Thesis Teaching Resources

    If your students struggle with the elements of Argumentative essays, this resource guides them through 5 paragraphs which include the hook, introduction of the topic, thesis, claims, evidence, explanation, counterclaim, rebuttal, and conclusion. To understand the key components of a narrative essay, students "deconstruct" an example student essay.

  17. Argumentative Essays: The Counter-Argument & Refutation

    Argumentative Essays: The Counter-Argument & Refutation An argumentative essay presents an argument for or against a topic. For example, if your topic is working from home, then your essay would either argue in favor of working from home (this is the for side) or against working from home.

  18. How to Write a Standout Argumentative Essay

    3 Drafting: Write a rough draft of your essay. It helps to include any data and direct quotes as early as possible, especially with argumentative essays that often cite outside sources. 4 Revising: Polish your rough draft, optimize word choice, and restructure your arguments if necessary. Make sure your language is clear and appropriate for the ...

  19. Persuasive Essay: Definition, Evidence, and Rebuttal

    A persuasive essay is used to advance an individual's opinion to the audience through evidence-based writing, which persuades readers of its objectivity. In particular, there are two main sections in the body of such an essay: supporting evidence and rebuttal. Each of these sections plays a vital role in convincing the audience of the ...

  20. 20 Easy and Free Argumentative Essay Examples for Students

    To start an argumentative essay example, you need to write a brief and attractive introduction. It is written to convince the reader and make them understand your point of view. Add body paragraphs after the introduction to support your thesis statement.

  21. Templates for structuring argumentative essays with practice exercises

    In this essay, I attempt to defend the view that ..... Thesis statement exercise and solutions. Imagine that you have been asked to write an argumentative essay about physical education in the Canadian high school system. Use one of the templates suggested to write a thesis statement about this topic. view solutions

  22. Argumentative essay rebuttal example. Argumentative Essay Examples

    Here is an example of a rebuttal in an argumentative essay: In an essay arguing that the death penalty should be abolished, the writer may anticipate the counterargument that the death penalty serves as a deterrent to crime. The writer could then present the following rebuttal: