Nanotechnology Essay

History of chemistry and nanotechnology essay.

What exactly is, Nanotechnology? Nanotechnology is the science of the very small and involves the manipulation of matter at the atomic or molecular level. Also, Nanotechnology does involve atomic manipulations and assembly to achieve predetermined properties and functions for the task it is assigned. Nanotechnology is not all that new technically, from a natural standpoint, but from a scientific standpoint it very much is. Many things in nature coincide with the application of Nanotechnology that we wish to use and achieve. For example, all biological cells use self-assembling materials that are crucial for things like flexing muscles or breathing and respiration. Nano materials are used in man-made materials in the present too. For

Essay on LAS 432 Course Project Draft I Politic

The use of nano-materials and extreme precision micro-engineering has the potential for great improvement in the world of electronics and information technology by providing smaller, faster, and more powerful computers and this has been at the forefront of the nanotechnology commercialization . Great examples of how nanotechnology is currently being used in these fields are products such as processors, data storage, and memory components made with nano-materials, TVs, monitors and even smartphone screens that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), and waterproof electronics such as smartphones due to the application of nano-coatings

Oi 361 - Week 1 - Definitions Paper

New sciences have also contributed to technology, as in the theoretical preparation for the invention of the steam engine. In the 20th century, innovations in semiconductor technology increased the performance and decreased the cost of electronic materials and devices by a factor of a million, an achievement unparalleled in the history of any technology.”

Annotated Bibliography: The Singularity Isn T Near

John Bell, James. "Nanotechnology Will Contribute to a "Singularity"" Nanotechnology. Ed. Jacqueline Langwith. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. of "Exploring the Singularity." Futurist 1 June 2003: n. pag. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 7 Oct. 2015. .

Chemistry In The 1800's

To answer this, one does not have to look far as the Cavendish Laboratory is rather open with current projects. For example, Nanophotonics, which is the study of the conduct of light on the nanometer scale and its interactions, is an ongoing study at the Cavendish Laboratory (NanoPhotonics, n.d., para. 1). Specifically, the NanoPhotonics Group (NP) is looking into nano-plasmonics, polymer photonic crystals, semiconductor microcavities, et cetera (NanoPhotonics, n.d., para. 2). At this current time, it is rather difficult, as assembling “nano-chunks” of matter into a structure creates nano-materials that have emergent properties, which are not found in their constituents (NanoPhotonics, n.d., para. 3). Their goal is “moving from expensive fabrication of devices to elegant nano-assembly in which materials ‘build themselves’” (NanoPhotonics, n.d., para. 3). Overall this has a large reward if research is successful and actually leads towards a

Nanotechnology: A Brave New World

Nanotechnology is the gateway to near limitless possibilities for the human race. It opens the window to a new realm we previously have never experienced-- Nanotechnology is a branch of engineering that deals with the manipulation of atoms at the molecular level. The Institute of Nanotechnology in the U.K. expresses it as "science and technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm play a critical role”. Once automated, the nanoparticles will infiltrate every aspect of our lives- from medical, engineering, biomaterials energy production, to name a few. Practically everything we use today could be replaced by nanomaterial in some way, and it even has the capability to create new materials.

Nanotechnology Bad

Nanotechnology is the cross disciplinary in nature, drawing on medicine, chemistry, biology, physics, and material science (Nanotechnology for Electronics and Sensors Applications, 1). This is an entirely new substance with unique properties that become stronger, and conduct heat and electricity. Although this new technology is argued whether it is good or bad. Some say that when the nanoparticles are inhaled it can be harmful to lung tissue, or saying in the wrong hands can be used for terrorism. Even through these arguments the benefits of this new technology outweigh the bad substantially. Nanotechnology will change the future for the better.

Nanotechnology Case Study

Nanoscience is a rapidly-developing field that covers a wide-range of application in a large variety of areas of science and technology. It is a phenomenon and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and micro molecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. The subject nanotechnology deals with study of manufacturing and manipulation of matter at nano-scale in the size range of 1-100 nm in any of the one dimension of the object which are called as nanoparticles (Rajan, 2004). Nanoscience and nanotechnologies are widely seen as having huge potential to bring benefits in areas of interfacing physical, chemical, medical, biological, agricultural, environmental, and engineering sciences with myriad

Nanotechnology In The Military Summary

The article, Nanotechnology in the Military by Will Soutter, discusses the many ways in which the government is investing in nanotechnology research for military use. The article points out that nanotechnology is something that many countries are starting to spend large amounts of money to fund research on ways to use nanotechnology for military advancement. The main focus for military advancement through nanotechnology would be better medical care and better clothing for protection and to communicate. In the article the Ministry of Defense predicts that nano-bots could soon be used to help with medical care. In addition, communication devices could be nano-enhanced by 2030. Researchers are looking for ways to use nanotechnology to improve

Pros And Uses Of Biotechnology

It is a combination of various technologies, applied together to living cells, including not only biology, but also subjects like mathematics, physics, chemistry and engineering. Its application ranges from agriculture Animal Husbandry, Cropping system, Soil science and Soil Conservation, Plant Physiology.

Romeo And Julian Personal Statement

This interest was fostered through an undergraduate research project I conducted in the summer of 2016, funded by the Oklahoma Space Grant Consortium (OSGC). This NASA sponsored program allowed me to investigate the integration of varying degrees of personality traits outlined in behavioral biology into computer-simulated robots and learn how to work with a complex computer science project under Dr. Brent Eskridge, the Chair of the Computer Science / Network Engineering department at Southern Nazarene University. This project sparked my interest with nanoparticles because I saw that through the creation and simulation process present in the research, these same two processes could work with creating and testing theoretical compounds as alternatives for fuel or building materials. I am extremely interested in exploring how computer science, computational chemistry, and nanoparticles can be used

Statement Of Purpose: My Reflection At City College

At City College, I am teaching the Macaulay Honors College Seminar 3 (Science Forward) — I am also developing the design and content of this course, with the focus on nanoscience and biophysics. Since the course content would evolve a bit organically, I wanted to share this info with you.

Nanotechnology For Prostate Cancer ( Pca )

Nanotechnology is a novel technology what generally deals with structures and systems with a size less than 100nm. [1] Due to its unique tiny size, the properties are quite different from bulk properties include physical properties, chemistry properties, biological properties. For example, gold in bulk form is inert, but in nano scale, it tends to be very active. Moreover, different sizes, structures, and surface areas of gold nanoparticles make it exhibit different colors.

The Pros And Cons Of Accommodation For Colonization

The idea of nanotechnology was first discovered by nobel prize winner physicist Richard Feynman in 1959. In the 1980 the first SPM was developed by IBM scientist in zurich. In 1991 a new form of carbon was discovered, the nanotube which was soon later on used for one of the building block for nanomaterial and nanomachines. In 1986 a book written by Eric Drexler spared the public interest in nanotechnology since the the NNI started by president Bill Clinton invested millions which in 2020 would turn into one trillion dollars. Nanotechnology is used in many things today like sunscreen, cars, in computers, medicine and in many other things to come in the future and in today's day and

Essay on Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the development of atoms in a certain object. Nanotechnology has become very popular in the past few years. It is a way to rebuild the systems of life. To make systems move faster than ever before. Nanometer is about 10 times the size of an atom. Each of these has a huge effect on a system. Still there are questions out there that keep people wondering how important nanotechnology is to us. Many wonder how will it affect them and if we should continue this research. I myself wondered about nanotechnology. After researching this topic I have learned new and interesting facts to help me understand the entire concept.

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essay on nano technology

Nanotechnology: Role in Our Life

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essay on nano technology

Nanotechnology Essay

Unknown white compound.

The objective of the Unknown White Compound experiment was to investigate the compound’s physical and chemical properties to correctly identify and then synthesize the compound. The first step was to test the compounds solubility and create a solution with distilled water. Next, a pH test was conducted by testing the unknown compound using pH paper. Following, the flame test was used to determine the cation and the ion test was used to determine the anion, which concluded the compound to mostly be potassium nitrate. Next, a conductivity probe and pH probe were used to confirm the unknown compound to be potassium nitrate. The final step was to synthesize potassium nitrate using silver nitrate and potassium chloride. The experiments listed above concluded the unknown white compound to be potassium nitrate.

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More about Nanotechnology Essay

Related topics.

Nanotechnology in Modern Life

Introduction, nanotechnology and our life.

Indeed, there is no clear definition of the term ‘nanotechnology’. At the moment, the very existence of nanomaterial and nanotechnology is a variety of opinions, attitudes and creates myths. One of the most popular explanations for the ordinary inhabitants is as follows: nanotechnology is a technology for manipulating matter at molecular and atomic level.

Like any other phenomenon, the nano has created two opposing views: The first is that nanotechnology is our future, our development, and the second states that the nano is just a temporary whim of scientists involved in taking money for their experiments, some fashion in the scientific world. But both these views are, in principle, wrong. With regard to development, nanotechnology is truly a new level of scientific knowledge that can bring real improvements in terms of production technology. However, at this point in some areas of science or the application of nanotechnology products could be harmful or not very convenient.

Nano technology is used in the following spheres:

Nanofood is food created with the help of nanotechnology, for example, in processing plants or housing, or creating the package. Such foods contain modified molecules, which give food to their unusual properties: for example, they can glow in the dark or unusual colors. With regard to benefits, there it is the main argument in favor. The point is that nanotechnology in the food formation improve its nutritional properties and do better. These products ideally suit to developing countries, as it is relatively inexpensive. Developed countries are also seeking to obtain such a useful and valuable product, because it used to monitor their health and development of nanotechnology may give the food a large number of vitamins and reduce the content of harmful substances in it ( Rogers, 2007) .

Here, the development of nanotechnology is everywhere. Scientists apply their development in various fields of medicine. Not so long ago, experts from the University of Michigan have created a completely new version of a vaccine against anthrax, of course, with the use of nanotechnology. They entered one of the pathogens in a particle, consisting of water, alcohol, soybean oil and some others, and this emulsion injected into the noses of test mice. As a result, the animals develop immunity to the disease. Advantage of such vaccine is that it may be introduced into an organism affected by spraying, without the syringe, and unpretentious in storage: it can be at room temperature.

Applied nanotechnology is used to strengthen the prosthesis. Scientists have invented nanowire, which strongly reinforce titanium implants. These prostheses are used in medicine to replace damaged bone. But muscles can not be firmly consolidated in the smooth surface of conventional titanium implant, so it had to change, and thus, once again from outside to invade the body. However, the coating of implants with nanowire titanium dioxide allowed solving this problem. Specialists of Schools of Pharmacy have established a three-dimensional model of cancer cells, coexisting with normal healthy cells. They were able to enter into such a model of special nanoparticles that are suitable for drug delivery. In the experiment modeled the interaction of cancer cells from normal tissues, which is defined by the position of the tumor within the brain. According to scientists in the future, such studies may lead to effective therapies for brain cancer ( Uldrich, 2006) .

Scientists have created nanoparticles that can detect and show the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the body (it is known that cells in the early stages of the disease produce hydrogen peroxide). Such particles may some day be used as a universal diagnostic tool to detect any disease in its early stages. The synthesized nanoparticles in further studying this problem can help understand the role of hydrogen peroxide in the course of disease, as well as become a kind of diagnosis.

Nanostructures have their specific properties. For example, nanoparticles of ceramics used in the preparation of paints for cars, which are resistant to all kinds of scratch, gold nanoparticles have a reddish tinge, nanoparticles of silver, to protect people against infections. Typically, these particles are created chemical method and contain a lot of impurities.

Attitudes to such technologies in the world in general are ambiguous. In Europe, nanotechnology is considered as a basis for the future of medicine, energy, information and environmental technologies ( Uldrich, 2006) .

Experts believe that nanotechnology will become the driving force behind the next industrial revolution, and will change our way of life. Research and development of nanotechnology are in a state of recovery in the pursuit of original and useful things, and then comes off as a tailor-made, very little is done to ensure that ensure public and environmental safety.

Dollars invested annually in research and development of nanotechnology is approximately 3 billion dollars, representing approximately one-third of the total number of public and private investment in nanotechnology in the world, – stated in a press release the International Center for Scholars Woodrow Wilson (Washington).

Nanotechnologies offer great potential benefits in improving almost all types of industrial products: computers, cars, clothing, food, medicines, batteries and much more.

The growing number of research reports and government cautions that created nanoparticles may be hazardous to human health and the environment, even though it was a bit of research about their toxicity, – said in a recent report of Vital Signs 2006-2007 Worldwatch Institute (Worldwatch Institute).

Nanotechnologies comprise a wide range of technologies to control the structure of matter at the level of atoms and molecules. Nanometer is one billionth share of meters, width of 10 adjacent hydrogen atoms, the thickness of a human hair is approximately 80 thousands of nanometers.

At a microscopic level, matter behaves differently than in our daily lives in this world, which dominates the classical physics of Newton.

In nanoworld «properties of matter are determined by a complex and rich combination of classical physics and quantum mechanics», – said in an exclusive online edition of Scientific American for January 2006.

Also, large quantities of tiny nanosubstance can have enormous power because of their greatly increased surface area of the relationship to the volume.

«With the decrease value of the particles and the growth of their reactivity, a substance which may be inert in the micro or macro scale, can become dangerous properties in nanoscale», – reported in Vital Signs 2006-2007.

Under the complex of developed nanosubstances it is meant that their impact will depend on more than just the chemistry, only one microscopic nanoparticle size could allow them to more easily penetrate and infect human organs. The fact that the substance of nanoscale may have extraordinary properties – properties that is inconsistent with the «capital» physics and chemistry – can be a potential threat.

Researchers are not sure how to safely work with new nanosubstances, the nanocompanies just do not know how to create safe products, and public confidence in these new technologies, risks being undermined, head of developing nanotechnology (Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies ).

According to Maynard, there is a need for international coordination: «It should find ways to harmonize research, sharing the costs and sharing of information between countries and economic regions» ( Jones, 2008) .

Maynard pointed out that the industry has a commercial purpose which is to sell products, and the results of their research are not always public. The most viable alternative system for research in industry is the system pursued by the Government.

Andrew Maynard – Chief Scientific Advisor of developing nanotechnology is an initiative organized by the Woodrow Wilson Center and the Pew Charitable Foundation in 2005, he created and July 19 in Washington, introduced a new report entitled «Nanotechnology: a strategy for research to examine the risks associated with it».

According to the report, the efforts made by the Federal Government of the United States are inadequate.

In the study of the impact of nanotechnology on the environment, safety and health, there is no strategic direction and consistency. This report is the first attempt to propose a draft systematic study of the potential dangers of nanotechnology.

The report presents the requirement of two important developments: (1) Change of direction and funding for studies of risk in favor of federal agencies with a clear mandate to monitor. (2) Approximate minimal government investment of 100 million dollars over the next two years, which will provide for critical studies on the treatment of danger ( Jones, 2008) .

According to Vital Signs 2006-2007, serious concerns are not limited to security issues and the impact on health: should be explored and more profound social and ethical implications.

Scientists argue that the world stands on the threshold of unprecedented change: new economy, almost human immortality and, in general, the transition to a new civilization.

In theory, nanotechnology can provide the physical immortality of man due to the fact that Nano medicine can indefinitely regenerate cells die. According to the forecasts of the journal Scientific American in the near future will be medical devices in the size of a postage stamp. They have to put on the wound. This device will hold a blood test; will determine what medications should be used.

Nanotechnology can make a revolution in agriculture. The molecular robots would be able to produce food, replacing agricultural crops and animals. For example, it is theoretically possible to produce milk from grass, bypassing the intermediate link – a cow. Nanotechnology can also stabilize the environment. New types of industry will not produce waste, poisoning the planet.

It should be noted that the global cost of nanotechnological projects now exceeds to 9 billion dollars a year. The share of the U.S. now accounts for about one-third of all global investment in nanotechnology. Other major players in this field are the European Union and Japan. Research in this area are also active in the former CIS countries, Australia, Canada, China, South Korea, Israel, Singapore, Brazil and Taiwan ( Jones, 2008) .

In addition to the pros this branch of science has a number of disadvantages. Terrorists and criminals who obtain access to nanotechnology, can cause considerable damage to society. Chemical and biological weapons will be more dangerous and less of it will be much easier. Firearms will be much more powerful – and homing bullets. Aerospace technology could be much lighter and better constructed with minimum or no metal, which makes detection of radar will be much more complicated.

New items and changes in the customary way of life can lead to undermining the foundations of society. For example, medical devices, which will be relatively easy to modify the structure of the brain or the stimulation of certain divisions to produce effects that simulate any form of mental activity, can form the basis of “nanotechnological drug addiction.”

Charles P., Jr. Poole , Frank J. Owens , Introduction to Nanotechnology, Wiley-Interscience; 1 edition, 2003.

Foster Lynn E. , Nanotechnology: Science, Innovation, and Opportunity, Prentice Hall PTR, 2005.

Jones Richard A. L. , Soft Machines: Nanotechnology and Life, Oxford University Press, USA; illustrated edition edition, 2008.

Ratner Mark A., Ratner Daniel , Nanotechnology: A Gentle Introduction to the Next Big Idea, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002.

Rogers Ben , Pennathur Sumita , Adams Jesse , Nanotechnology: Understanding Small Systems, CRC; 1 edition, 2007.

Uldrich Jack , Investing in Nanotechnology: Think Small. Win Big, Adams Media, 2006.

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Biology Discussion

Essay on Nanotechnology

essay on nano technology


Essay on Nanotechnology. The below given article will help you to  learn about the following things:- 1. The Way into the Nanoworld 2. Building Blocks of Nanotechnology 3. Interaction and Topology and 4. The Microscopic Environment of the Nanoworld.

Essay # The Way into the Nanoworld:

From micro to nano techniques:.

Micro technology has changed our lives dra­matically. The most striking impact is appar­ent in computer technology, which is essential for today’s industry, and also for our individ­ual life- styles. Apart from microelectronics, micro technology influences many other ar­eas. The size of typical structures that is acces­sible is in the sub-micro-meter range, which is at the limits of optical resolution and barely visible with a light microscope. This is about 1/1000 smaller than structures resolvable by the naked eye, but still 1000 times larger than an atom.

Today’s developments are address­ing the size range below these dimensions. Because a typical structure size is in the nano­meter range, the methods and techniques are defined as nanotechnology. The consequent extension of the resolu­tion limit of microscopes led to instruments with the capacity to resolve features below the wavelength of light: the field ion microscope, the electron microscope, and, finally, the fam­ily of scanning probe microscopes. Now it is possible to image individual molecules, and even single atoms.

Although chemistry and micro technology appear to be fundamentally different, they are somehow related. They have mutual in­terests in the area of properties of materials. Micro-technology is not a simple extrapolation of conventional precise mechanical methods down to smaller dimensions.

Chemical meth­ods—such as plasma processes, wet chemical etching and photo-resist techniques—are pre­dominant compared with cutting or reshaping processes. However, micro technology follows physical principles.

As in classical chemistry, chemical processes in micro technology use a relatively high number of similar particles. Individual particles play no dominant role, whether in fabrication methods or in appli­cations. In nanotechnology, the primary role of classical physical principles is replaced as molecular and atomic dimensions are ap­proached. Physical-technical and chemical aspects influence the fabrication and the use and application of Nano-technical structures on an equal basis.

The effects of microscopic physic—a field that is influenced by and uses quantum phenomenon—complement these aspects. In contrast to classical chemistry, small ensembles or even individual particles can play a decisive role. The nanotechnology literature often focus­es on the structure size and differentiates be­tween two basic approaches.

The Top-Down approach tries to enhance the methods from micro technology to achieve structure sizes in the medium and also lower nanometer range. This approach is based on a physical and micro lithographic philosophy, which is in con­trast to the other approach, where atomic or molecular units are used to assemble molec­ular structures, ranging from atomic dimen­sions up to supra-molecular structures in the nanometer range. This Bottom-Up approach is mainly influenced by chemical principles.

The challenge of modern nanotechnology is the realization of syntheses by the Top-Down and Bottom-Up approaches. This task is not driven entirely by the absolute struc­ture dimensions, because today macro and supra-molecules extending-up to hundreds of nanometers or even micro-meters can already be synthesized or isolated from biological systems. So the overlap of both approaches is not a problem. Both techniques provide spe­cific capabilities that can be implemented by the other. The lithographic techniques (Top- Down) offer the connection between struc­ture and technical environment.

The interface with the surrounding system is given in this approach, but it is not really possible with the chemical (Bottom-Up) ap­proach. At the same time, the integration of nanostructure into a functional micro-technical environment is realized. On the other hand, chemical technologies provide adjust­ment of chemical binding strength and pre­ferred orientation of bonds, together with a fine tuning according to the numbers of bound atoms or atomic groups and a classifi­cation of the spatial orientation based on the number of bonds and their angles.

Therefore, nanotechnology depends on both classical micro-technology, especially microlithography, and chemistry, in par­ticular interfacial and surface chemistry and supra-molecular synthesis. Additional basic methods are molecular biology and biochem­istry, because nature has provided, with the existence of large molecules and supra-molec­ular complexes, not only examples, but also interesting technical tools).

Definition of Nanostructures :

A clear distinction between nanostructures and microstructures is given here, arbitrarily using length measurements. Nanostructures are defined according to their geometrical dimensions. This definition addresses techni­cal dimensions, induced by external shaping processes; with the key feature being that the shaping, the orientation and the positioning is realized relative to an external reference system, such as the geometry of a substrate. Of less importance is whether this process uses geometrical tools, media or other instruments.

A narrow definition of nanostructures is that they include structures with at least two dimensions below 100 nm. An extended definition also includes structures with one dimension below 100 nm and a second dimension below 1 pm. Following on from this definition, ultra-thin layers with lateral sub micro-meter structure sizes are also nano­structures. All spontaneously distributed or spontane­ously oriented structures in materials and on surfaces are not incorporated in Nano technical structures.

However, this does not exclude the presence of such structures in Nano technical setups, as long as their dimensions are in accord with the above-mentioned crite­ria. Also microstructure ultrathin layers are excluded, because they exhibit only one nanometer dimension. Nano devices are de­vices with at least one essential functional component that is a nanostructure. Nano systems consist of several Nano devices that are of importance to the functioning of the whole system.

Insight into the Nanoworld:

The realization that there are small things in the world that are not visible to the naked eye extends back into human history. The devel­opment of the natural sciences created an in­terest in the micro world, in order to enable a better understanding of the world and the processes therein. Therefore, the develop­ment of new microscopic imaging methods represents certain milestones in the natural sciences. The micro world was approached by extending the range available for the direct visualization of objects through the enhance­ment of microscopic resolution.

Access to spatial modifications in the Nano world is not limited to one direction. Long before instruments were available for the im­aging of molecules, an understanding of the spatial arrangements of atoms in molecules and solids, in disperse systems and on surfaces had been developed.

The basis for this devel­opment was the anticipation of the existence of small building elements, which extended back to Greek philosophers (Leukip and Demokrit: ‘atomos’—the indivisible = small­est unit). ‘This hypothesis was confirmed by Dalton with the discovery of stoichiometry as a quantitative system in materials: chemical reactions are comprised of fixed ratios of reactant masses.

Based on the systematic orga­nization of chemical elements—developed by Dobereiner, Meyer and Mendeleyev—into the Periodic Table of the elements, and supple­mented by models of the internal structure of atoms, a new theory of the spatial connection of atoms was created: the theory of chemical bonds. It not only defines the ratios of atoms involved in a reaction but leads also to rules for the spatial arrangement of atoms or group of atoms. We know today that the immense variety of solid inorganic compounds and or­ganisms is based on this spatial arrangement of chemical bonds.

Stoichiometry and geom­etry describe the chemical aspects of mol­ecules and solids. The stability and the dy­namics of chemical changes are determined by the rates of possible reactions that are based on thermodynamics and kinetics. Key contri­butions to the understanding of the energetic and kinetic foundations came from Clausius, Arrhenius and Eyring.’

Intervention into the Nanoworld:

The scientific understanding of the molecu­lar world and the application of quantitative methods laid the foundations of modern chemistry Before the quantification of chemi­cal reactions, there was already an applied area of chemistry, for example in mining or met­allurgy. However, it was established through an empirical approach.

The understanding of the molecular context and its quantitative description, supplemented by the control of reactions by parameters derived from theo­retical work or model calculations, improved dramatically the conditions for manipulations in the molecular world.

Measurements and quantitative work established the structure oriented chemistry. Synthetic chemistry, with its beginnings usually being attributed to the synthesis of urea by Friedrich Wohler (1828), provides a molecular-technical approach to the Nano world.

The formulation of binding theories and the development of analytical methods for the elucidation of the spatial ar­rangements in molecules (e.g., IR spectrosco­py, X-ray based structure determination, and NMR spectroscopy) transformed chemistry from a stoichiometric to a structured-orient­ed science.

Modern chemistry is a deliberate intervention into the Nano world, because the arrangement of the bonds and the geometry of the molecules are addressed by the choice of both the reaction and the reaction parame­ters.

In contrast to micro technology, synthet­ic chemistry uses a large number of similar particles, which show a statistical distribu­tion with regard to spatial arrangement and orientation. So today’s molecular techniques connect a highly defined internal molecular geometry with an uncertainty in the arrange­ment of the individual particles with respect to an external frame of reference.

Recent decades have witnessed the synthesis of an increasing variety of internal geometries in molecules and solids with small and large, movable and rigid, stabile and high-affinity molecules and building units of solid materi­als.

Apart from the atomic composition, the topology of bonds is of increased interest. A large number of macromolecular compounds have been made, with dimensions between a few nanometers and (in a stretched state) sev­eral micro-meters. These early steps into the Nano world were not limited to the molecular techniques. Physical probes with dimensions in the lower nanometer range are also suited to the fabrication and manipulation of nano­structures.

Essay #  Building Blocks of Nanotechnology :

Nanotechnology utilizes the units provided by nature, which can be assembled and also manipulated based on atomic interactions. Atoms, molecules and solids are, therefore, the basic building blocks of nanotechnology.

However, there is a fundamental difference from the classical definition of a building material used in a conventional technical en­vironment, which also consists of atoms and molecules in solid materials. The smallest unit in technical terms includes an enormous number of similar atoms and molecules, in contrast to the small ensembles of particles—or even individual particles—addressed in nanotechnology. This puts the definition of material into perspective.

The properties of a material are determined by the cooperative effect of a huge number of similar particles in a three-dimensional arrangement and by a mixture of only a few types of similar particles (e.g., in an alloy).

Many physical properties of materials require a larger ensemble of atoms for a meaningful definition, independent of the amount of material, for example, density, the thermal expansion coefficient, hardness, colour, electrical and thermal conductivity. With solid materials, it is known that the properties of surfaces may differ from the bulk conditions. In the classical case, the number of surface atoms and molecules is small com­pared with the number of bulk particles. This ratio is inverted in the case of nanoparticles, thin layers and Nano technical elements.

The properties of nanostructures are, therefore, more closely related to the states of individual molecules, molecules on surfaces or interfac­es than to the properties of the bulk material. Also, the terminology of classical chemistry is not fully applicable to nanostructures. Key terms—such as diffusion, reactivity, reaction rate, turnover and chemical equilibrium—are only defined for vast numbers of particles.

So their use is limited to the case of nanostructures with small numbers of similar particles. Reaction rate is replaced by the probability of a bond change, and diffusive transport by the actual particle velocity and direction.

How­ever, not all definitions from classical physics and chemistry are unimportant at the Nano scale. The consideration of single particles is preferred compared with the integral discus­sion of particles in solid, liquid or gaseous media. Because the dimensions extend to the molecular scale, the importance of the chem­ical interactions between particles is greatly enhanced compared with the classical case. Nano technical elements consist of individual particles or groups of particles with different interactions between the atoms (Fig. 1).

The following types can be distinguished:

Molecules, Atomic Solids and Molecular Solids

Three dimensions for individual particles can be quite different. Atoms have diameters of about 0.1 nm; individual coiled macro molecules reach diameters of more than 20 nm. In an extended state, these molecules exhibit lengths of up to several micro-meters. In principle, there is no upper size limitation for molecules. Technical applications usually use small molecules with typical dimensions of about 1 nm besides polymers and solids with three dimensional binding networks.

Synthetic mole—Ides, such as linear polymer, exhibit, typically, molar masses of 10 000 to 1 000 000. These values correspond to particle diameters of 2-10 nm in a coiled state in most instances. Apart from the molecules, both elemen­tal solids and compound solids are essential for nanotechnology. They are, for example, prepared as nanoparticles with dimensions ranging from a few atoms up to diameters of 0.1 pm, corresponding to about 100 000 000 atoms.

Similar values can be found in struc­tural elements of thin atomic or molecular layers, in monomolecular films or stacks of monolayers. A number of one hundred mil­lion seems large, but it is still small compared with the number of atoms in standard micro-technological structures. This quantity corre­sponds to the number of atoms in individual large macromolecules, e.g. in long-chain or­ganic polymers. It is not usually the single atom, but small solids, large individual mole­cules and small molecular ensembles that are the real building blocks for nanotechnology.

The nature of their connection and arrange­ment determines the constructive potential and functions of the Nano technical devices and systems. Besides the standard litho­graphic methods known from micro technology, a wide range of chemical techniques are applied in nanotechnology, from fields such as synthetic, surface, solid state, colloid and bio-molecular and bioorganic chemistry.

In addition to the importance of chemical meth­ods in many micro lithographical processes, these methods are increasing in influence in the nanometer range to become a key com­ponent in addition to the so-called physical techniques for the creation of small struc­tures.

Interaction and Topology :

Shaping and joining of materials to devices, instruments and machines is the prerequi­site for functional technical systems. The spatial modification of material surfaces and the three-dimensional arrangement of the components result in a functional structural. This principle applies to both the macro­scopic technique and the Nano world.

How­ever, the spatial arrangement and functions at the nanometer scale cannot be described adequately by the classical parameters of me­chanics and material sciences. It is not the classical mechanical parameters of solids, but molecular dimensions and individual atomic or molecular interactions (especially the local character of chemical bonds) that determine the arrangement and stability of nanostruc­tures, their flexibility and function.

The properties of a material are controlled by the bond strengths between the particles. For shaping and joining, the processes are determined by the strength and direction of positive interactions between the joining sur­faces. In classical technology and usually also in micro technology, a separation between the bonding forces in the bulk material and the surface forces has some significance. Both internal and external bonds are based on in­teratomic interactions, the chemical bonds.

With the dimensions of Nano technical ob­jects approaching molecular dimensions, a combined consideration of both internal and external interactions of a material with its environment is needed. Besides the spatial separation of a material, the orientation of the internal and the surface bonds also deter­mine the properties of materials or of mate­rial compounds.

Conventional technology uses materials with isotropic properties. Isotropic means that these properties are approximated as be­ing similar in all spatial orientations of the solid. Restrictions are as a result of materials being created in an inhomogeneous process (e.g., wood) or materials transformed by processes inducing preferred orientation (e.g., shaping).

The macroscopic model of ideal isotropy is also not valid for single-crystalline materials such as silicon, gallium arsenide, or other typical microelectronic materials. A single-crystalline solid excludes the statisti­cal distribution of interatomic distances and of bond orientations.

It includes elementary cells consisting of a few atoms, and a random­ly oriented plane results in a density fluctuat­ing with the angle of this plane. In addition, the bond strength between atoms is localized and is determined from its orientation. Such elementary cells create the solid in a periodic arrangement in an identical orientation. So the anisotropy of the particle density and bond strength on the atomic scale is trans­formed into macroscopic dimensions.

However, non-crystalline materials created by surface deposition processes can also show anisotropy almost all thin layers prepared by evaporation or sputtering exhibit anisotropy due to the preferred positioning by an initial nucleation and a limited surface mobility of the particles, which results in grain boundar­ies and the overall morphology of the layer.

Even spin-coated polymer layers have such anisotropic properties, because the shear forces induced by the flow of the thin film lead to a preferred orientation of the chain-­like molecules parallel to the substrate plane.

The transition from an almost isotropic to an anisotropic situation is partly based on the downscaling of the dimensions. For example, a material consists of many small crystals, so these statistically distributed crystals appear in total as an isotropic material.

A classifica­tion of isotropic is justified as long as the in­dividual crystals are much smaller than the smallest dimension of a technical structure created by the material. The dimensions of Nano technical structures are often the same as or even less than the crystal size.

The mate­rial properties on the nanometer scale corre­spond to the properties of the single crystals, so that they possess a high anisotropy even for a material with macroscopic isotropy. The anisotropy of a mono-crystalline mate­rial is determined by the anisotropic electron configuration and the electronic interac­tions between the atoms of the crystal.

It is based on the arrangement of the locations of the highest occupation probability of the electrons, especially of the outer electrons responsible for chemical bonds. The length, strength and direction of the bonds as well as the number of bonds per atom in a material, therefore, determine the integral properties of the material and the spatial dependence of these properties.

The decisive influence of number, direction and strength of interatomic bonds is even stronger for the properties of molecules. Al­though molecules can have symmetrical axis, outside of such axis practically all properties of the molecules are strongly anisotropic.

A material consisting of molecules can exhibit isotropic properties at a macroscopic level, as long as the orientation of the molecules is dis­tributed statistically in all directions. At the Nano scale, anisotropy is observed, especially in the case of monomolecular layers, but also for molecular multilayers, small ensembles of molecules, clusters and individual molecules. Because Nano technological objects consist of anisotropic building blocks, it is usually not possible to construct systems where ob­jects of the same type are distributed statisti­cally with respect to their orientation.

On the contrary, preferred directions are chosen, and also the connection to other molecules oc­curs in preferred orientations. So the aniso­tropic connection network of smaller and larger molecules and small solids leads to a constructive network of objects and connec­tions, with anisotropically distributed stron­ger and weaker bonds—both at the molecular level and in larger modules.

These networks of bonds create connection topologies, which cannot be described simply by their spatial distribution. Depending on the character of the bonds between the particles, various complex topologies can interact with each other, depending on the point of view (e.g., conductivity, mechanical hardness, thermal or special chemical stability) of the descrip­tion of the connection strength.

The discussion of topological connections in three-dimensional objects at the nanome­ter scale assists with the evaluation of proper­ties, which are only described in an integral manner for classical solids. These properties are essential for the function of Nano structured devices, for processes involving move­ment, for chemical transformations, and for energy and signal-transduction. The spatial relationship is of particular importance for the evaluation and exploitation of microscopic effects, which are unique for Nano systems, such as single quantum and single particle processes.

Essay # The Microscopic Environment of the Nanoworld:

Nanometer structures are abundant in na­ture and technology. The general tendency of nature towards the spontaneous creation of structures by non-equilibrium processes leads to the formation of more or less regular structures with nanometer dimensions. Such objects exist in a variety of time scales and ex­hibit rather dissipated or conserved charac­ter. Typical structures can be found in cosmic dust, in the inorganic structures of solidified magma, or in the early seeds of condensing atmospheric water vapour.

In contrast to many inorganic structures, the Nano-Scopic objects in Nano systems are not spatially independent, whether they are in technical systems or in natural functioning systems. They are always embedded in an en­vironment or at least adjusted to interactions in a larger setting. Nature demonstrates this principle in an impressive manner. The small­est tools of life, the proteins, have dimensions of a few nanometers up to some tens of nano­meters. They are usually found in closed com­partments, in cells or cell organelles.

Often an arrangement into superstructures—as in, for example, cell membranes, can be observed. These tools for the lower nanometer range are produced in the cells as biological microsys­tems, and are usually also used by these cells.

The slightly larger functional Nano objects, such as cell organelles, are also integrated into this microsystem environment. The smallest biological objects with a certain functional autonomy are viruses. With dimensions of several tens of nanometers up to a few hun­dred nanometers they are smaller than the smallest cells; nevertheless they can connect thousands of individual macromolecules into a highly ordered and complex structure.

However, they are not able to live on their own. Only when they (or their subsystems) interact with cells in more complex Nano machinery are they able to reproduce and to in­duce biological effects. This principle of integrating small func­tional objects into a wider environment is common in technical applications.

It can already be seen in conventional construc­tion schemes, e.g., in the combination and functional connection of several units in the hood of a car. This principle is essential in micro technology. Electronic solid state circuits combine individual electronic devices, such as wires, transistors and resistors in a chip.

The circuits are arranged on a circuit path, and these paths are assembled into machines. Approaching the nanotechnology range, even more levels of geometrical and functional in­tegration are required, to make the Nano objects usable and the interface functional.

The large distance between the macro world with typical dimensions of centimeters to meters and the structure sizes of the Nano world has to be considered. This gap is comparable to the difference between a typical machine and up to near cosmic dimensions (Fig. 2).

Macroscopic and Microscopic Object

The application of micro technological ob­jects requires the integration of microchips into a macroscopic technical environment. Such an arrangement is needed to realize all interface functions between the micro and macro world. The lithographic microstructures are not accessible for robotic systems as individual structures, but only in an en­semble on a chip with the overall dimensions in millimeters.

The smallest lateral dimen­sions of such a structure are in the medium to lower nanometer range, but the contact ar­eas for electrical access of the chip are in the millimeter range. This principle of geometric integration is also utilized in nanotechnology; in this case the micro technology is used as an additional interface level. Although selected nanostructures can be produced independent of micro technology, a functional interfacing of Nano systems re­quires the interaction with a microsystem as a mediator to the macroscopic world.

There­fore, a close connection between Nano and micro technology is required. Additionally, a variety of methods originally developed for micro technology were further developed for applications in nanotechnology.

So, not only is a geometrical but also a technological in­tegration observed. Nevertheless, apart from the methods established in micro technology and now also used in nanotechnology (such as thin film techniques), there are other methods preferably used in only one area, e.g.: photolithography and galvanic tech­niques are typical methods in the micro-m­eter range; and scanning probe techniques, electron beam lithography, molecular films and supra-molecular chemistry are interesting methods in the nanometer range.

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