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In Summary: 10 Examples of Essay Conclusions
The conclusion of an essay may be the toughest section to write. Think about it; you're really tired at this point. It's probably the night before your paper is due and you just want to be done . So, the temptation is there to simply rush through it, and hope that your teacher is exhausted once she gets to your paper and doesn't bother to read it fully.
But the conclusion is probably the most important part of the paper. It ties everything together up nicely in the end. Not writing a good conclusion would be like if we never found out if Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy got together or if we never knew what that monster was in the Upside Down in "Stranger Things." Though not every ending has to be 100% conclusive (in fact, most endings never are— think the movie Inception ), it does have to have a well-thought out conclusion.
So, how do you write a good conclusion? What are the key components of a solid conclusion? What does a thorough and effective conclusion look like?
Read on for more information about our conclusion on conclusions.
What are the key components of a good conclusion?
Remember that thesis statement which you wrote in the first or second paragraph of your essay? You know, the one where you stated a claim about something? You argued something about a topic and you used the body paragraphs to prove your thesis statement through all of the research that you've performed.
Now that you've fully explained the research and the support for your thesis statement throughout the body of the paper, it's time to come back to that original idea in the conclusion. The conclusion basically asks us to do a few things:
- Restate the main idea of the paper (why you wrote this entire long piece to begin with).
- Summarize all the key points you made throughout the body of the paper (things that proved your thesis statement).
- Write about why this paper and topic are important, and leave the reader with ideas for additional research or maybe some questions that didn't get answered. The idea is that you want to leave the reader with a long-lasting impression. This is your opportunity to really drive your point home and to use some really interesting language.
Okay, so now that we have a game plan of how we need to write a good conclusion and what components consists of, let's look at a few examples of some sample essay conclusions.
Essay conclusion 1 — Why Ross didn't deserve Rachel on "Friends"
Although viewers always expected Ross and Rachel to reunite at the end of the series, the fact remains that Ross didn't deserve Rachel as a partner. As we saw in the beginning of the series, Ross was unfaithful to Rachel when they had been dating for over a year, and he didn't want to admit his wrongdoing when they tried to get back together after their initial breakup. Additionally, Ross was an extremely jealous and demanding partner, yelling at Rachel in front of all of their friends on several occasions. Finally, and most egregiously, Ross had a terrible reaction when Rachel told Ross she was pregnant after Monica and Chandler's wedding, making him an undesirable romantic partner for her, or any other character on the show for that matter. This conclusion is especially apparent after viewing the show more than 10 years after the final episode aired and having a collectively better understanding of women's rights and domestic abuse in relationships.
Essay conclusion 2 — Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary school?
In conclusion, although it's easy to see why allowing an elementary school child to have a cell phone would be convenient for after-school pickups or arranging playdates with friends, there is too much evidence to show that it's generally not a good idea. Children already have a lot of access to media (on average over seven hours per day) and it is the parent's responsibility to monitor their media access, which is more difficult if the child has exclusive cell phone access. Cyber bullying, which is increasingly becoming a problem, is also going to be a risk when your child has unlimited access to a smart phone. Clearly, elementary school-aged children are not emotionally mature enough to handle the responsibility of a smart phone, and the borrowing of a parent's cell phone should be highly monitored to ensure safe and healthful usage.
Essay conclusion 3 — Should sexual education be taught in public schools?
It's clear that sexual education is completely vital to the public-school curriculum. Not only does this lead to a better understanding of human development and human sexuality, but awareness and sex education also reduce the rates of teen pregnancy. Studies have shown that comprehensive sexual education increases the age of when teens have sex for the first time. Learning about contraception and how to use contraception correctly ultimately leads to lower rates of STDs. Lastly, comprehensive sex education also teaches students about consensual sex, and will hopefully lead to healthier sexual relationships and lower rates of sexual assault in the future. Not only should sex education be taught in public schools, but it should be mandatory for all public-school systems.
Essay conclusion 4 — What are the biggest challenges for women in the workplace?
Women have outnumbered men on the payroll in nonfarm jobs since 2010, but even with a majority of females in the office, there are still huge challenges for them at work. One of the biggest issues, which has been widely covered and debated on, is the fact that women still earn less of a wage for the same job as their male counterparts. Now that women are the breadwinners of many families, this is stunting economic growth and opportunity for their children. Additionally, women are less likely to be in charge at work. With less than 6% of Fortune 500 companies with a female CEO, women have a steeper hill to climb at the very top echelon of jobs. With a more level playing field, women's opportunities will increase and the workforce will ultimately be more inviting for all.
Essay conclusion 5 — You're having dinner with your favorite author. What happens? Describe the scene.
Harper Lee puts down her cup of coffee on the table, quietly scanning the room for an exit.
I'm nervous, wondering what to say to end this surreal evening.
"Thank you so much for meeting with me. I know that you're a very private person, and I can't tell you how much this means to me."
She smiles slightly at me and waves at the waiter for the check, which he brings promptly.
Essay conclusion 6 — Should music with curse words be allowed at school dances?
Language can be powerful and sometimes even harmful, but censorship of language is one of the worst things we can do as a society. I believe that the content of the song is more important than a few curse words. If a song's content is designed to provoke, intimidate, or make someone feel inferior, then I believe that is more harmful than a few impolite words in a chorus.
Essay conclusion 7 — What is something that should be taught in school that isn't?
Financial literacy is one of the most important things a person needs to understand as a fully functional adult. It's crucial for someone to be able to know how to purchase a car, open a bank account, invest in a 401k plan, and pay back his or her student debt all while being able to balance paying rent and saving money. Financial literacy should be taught to students while they are still in high school so that they can feel prepared to go out on their own and make a positive contribution to society.
Essay conclusion 8 — Is an increased dependence on technology good for society?
Technology surely isn't going anywhere. If anything, we will become more and more dependent on the capabilities of our smartphones and other devices in the future. However, we have to make sure that this dependence on technology isn't making us lazier or less curious about the world around us. With more knowledge available than ever before with today's technology, people are less discerning about what kind of materials they read and whether or not those materials are factual. People are also less likely to make a personal connection with someone while they're out in the world, which can increase levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Ultimately, we have to learn how to co-exist with technology in a way that is both healthful and constructive.
Essay conclusion 9 — Should schools start later in the morning?
There are some clear benefits to starting school later in the morning for K-12 students such as better academic performance and improved sleeping schedules. Although it might take a bit of rearranging schedules for parents to take their kids to school later on in the day, it's more important that students perform better academically than for the drop-off to be convenient for the parents on their way to work. To combat this, increased bus routes and crossing guards should be implemented so that parents who have to get to work at a certain time can be assured that their kids are making it to school safely.
Essay conclusion 10 — How do video games affect children and teenagers?
Video games have been an integral part of childhood and adolescence for a few decades now, but the effects on aggression levels and exposure to violence may make us take pause on how much exposure parents should let their kids have to these games. The video game industry is growing exponentially, and as the technology and video quality increase so does the ability to separate virtual reality from reality. Games with violent content are known to cause aggressive and sometimes even violent behavior in teens. Many video games, first-person shooter games in particular, have violent content. When the player is rewarded for violent behavior in the game, it reinforces the subtle idea that violence is acceptable and can be used in real life. With busy schedules and easy access to so much media, it's difficult for parents to be able to oversee everything that their children are exposed to. Video game designers should be held accountable for the violent content in their games, and a push should be made for more parental oversight and rules on video game usage.
In conclusion of conclusions
Conclusions are really just about wrapping things up. You want to be as succinct as possible, you want to reiterate the points you've already made throughout the essay, and you want to be compelling. With a little bit of practice and revision, you should be able to get the process down in no time. And if you need help with revising your conclusion or any other part of your paper, be sure to seek out the advice of a trusted teacher or a writing center, or hire one of our professional editors to give you a second opinion on your paper.
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- Ending the Essay: Conclusions
So much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished the essay.
The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.
To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning.
- Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
- Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion.
To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following:
- Conclude with a quotation from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective. A quotation from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James Joyce's short story collection, Dubliners , with information about Joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about Joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word.
- Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes .
- Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy is . . . a gigantic enterprise of dehumanization "; the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic -- rather than moral or ethical-- terms.
- Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel Ambiguous Adventure , by the Senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou Kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate Western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal. The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible.
Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay:
- Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long--more than ten pages or so. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas.
- Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These phrases can be useful--even welcome--in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
- Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches. . ."
Copyright 1998, Pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
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- How to conclude an essay | Interactive example
How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example
Published on January 24, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on December 6, 2021.
The conclusion is the final paragraph of your essay . A strong conclusion aims to:
- Tie together the essay’s main points
- Show why your argument matters
- Leave the reader with a strong impression
Your conclusion should give a sense of closure and completion to your argument, but also show what new questions or possibilities it has opened up.
This conclusion is taken from our annotated essay example , which discusses the history of the Braille system. Hover over each part to see why it’s effective.
Braille paved the way for dramatic cultural changes in the way blind people were treated and the opportunities available to them. Louis Braille’s innovation was to reimagine existing reading systems from a blind perspective, and the success of this invention required sighted teachers to adapt to their students’ reality instead of the other way around. In this sense, Braille helped drive broader social changes in the status of blindness. New accessibility tools provide practical advantages to those who need them, but they can also change the perspectives and attitudes of those who do not.
Table of contents
Step 1: return to your thesis, step 2: review your main points, step 3: show why it matters, what shouldn’t go in the conclusion, more examples of essay conclusions, frequently asked questions about writing an essay conclusion.
To begin your conclusion, signal that the essay is coming to an end by returning to your overall argument.
Don’t just repeat your thesis statement —instead, try to rephrase your argument in a way that shows how it has been developed since the introduction.
Next, remind the reader of the main points that you used to support your argument.
Avoid simply summarizing each paragraph or repeating each point in order; try to bring your points together in a way that makes the connections between them clear. The conclusion is your final chance to show how all the paragraphs of your essay add up to a coherent whole.
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To wrap up your conclusion, zoom out to a broader view of the topic and consider the implications of your argument. For example:
- Does it contribute a new understanding of your topic?
- Does it raise new questions for future study?
- Does it lead to practical suggestions or predictions?
- Can it be applied to different contexts?
- Can it be connected to a broader debate or theme?
Whatever your essay is about, the conclusion should aim to emphasize the significance of your argument, whether that’s within your academic subject or in the wider world.
Try to end with a strong, decisive sentence, leaving the reader with a lingering sense of interest in your topic.
The easiest way to improve your conclusion is to eliminate these common mistakes.
Don’t include new evidence
Any evidence or analysis that is essential to supporting your thesis statement should appear in the main body of the essay.
The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that nicely summarizes your central point. But it shouldn’t introduce any major new sources or ideas that need further explanation to understand.
Don’t use “concluding phrases”
Avoid using obvious stock phrases to tell the reader what you’re doing:
- “In conclusion…”
- “To sum up…”
These phrases aren’t forbidden, but they can make your writing sound weak. By returning to your main argument, it will quickly become clear that you are concluding the essay—you shouldn’t have to spell it out.
Don’t undermine your argument
Avoid using apologetic phrases that sound uncertain or confused:
- “This is just one approach among many.”
- “There are good arguments on both sides of this issue.”
- “There is no clear answer to this problem.”
Even if your essay has explored different points of view, your own position should be clear. There may be many possible approaches to the topic, but you want to leave the reader convinced that yours is the best one!
- Literary analysis
This conclusion is taken from an argumentative essay about the internet’s impact on education. It acknowledges the opposing arguments while taking a clear, decisive position.
The internet has had a major positive impact on the world of education; occasional pitfalls aside, its value is evident in numerous applications. The future of teaching lies in the possibilities the internet opens up for communication, research, and interactivity. As the popularity of distance learning shows, students value the flexibility and accessibility offered by digital education, and educators should fully embrace these advantages. The internet’s dangers, real and imaginary, have been documented exhaustively by skeptics, but the internet is here to stay; it is time to focus seriously on its potential for good.
This conclusion is taken from a short expository essay that explains the invention of the printing press and its effects on European society. It focuses on giving a clear, concise overview of what was covered in the essay.
The invention of the printing press was important not only in terms of its immediate cultural and economic effects, but also in terms of its major impact on politics and religion across Europe. In the century following the invention of the printing press, the relatively stationary intellectual atmosphere of the Middle Ages gave way to the social upheavals of the Reformation and the Renaissance. A single technological innovation had contributed to the total reshaping of the continent.
This conclusion is taken from a literary analysis essay about Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein . It summarizes what the essay’s analysis achieved and emphasizes its originality.
By tracing the depiction of Frankenstein through the novel’s three volumes, I have demonstrated how the narrative structure shifts our perception of the character. While the Frankenstein of the first volume is depicted as having innocent intentions, the second and third volumes—first in the creature’s accusatory voice, and then in his own voice—increasingly undermine him, causing him to appear alternately ridiculous and vindictive. Far from the one-dimensional villain he is often taken to be, the character of Frankenstein is compelling because of the dynamic narrative frame in which he is placed. In this frame, Frankenstein’s narrative self-presentation responds to the images of him we see from others’ perspectives. This conclusion sheds new light on the novel, foregrounding Shelley’s unique layering of narrative perspectives and its importance for the depiction of character.
Your essay’s conclusion should contain:
- A rephrased version of your overall thesis
- A brief review of the key points you made in the main body
- An indication of why your argument matters
The conclusion may also reflect on the broader implications of your argument, showing how your ideas could applied to other contexts or debates.
For a stronger conclusion paragraph, avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the main body
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion paragraph of an essay is usually shorter than the introduction . As a rule, it shouldn’t take up more than 10–15% of the text.
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McCombes, S. (2021, December 06). How to Conclude an Essay | Interactive Example. Scribbr. Retrieved March 13, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/conclusion/
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Good Conclusion Starters for Final Paragraphs
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The way you end a work of writing is just as important as the hook you use to capture readers’ attention and the content in between. The concluding paragraph or section of your paper should begin with words telling readers that the content is drawing to a close. Review some examples of good conclusion sentence starters so you’ll be able to craft appropriate endings of your own.
Characteristics of Effective Conclusion Starters
When it’s time to bring your work to an end, it’s important to sum up the key points or concepts rather than simply stopping abruptly. Conclusion starters are transitional phrases that let readers know they have reached the final part of a document. Conclusion starters should:
- be just a few words that introduce the first sentence of the final paragraph or brief concluding section
- let readers know that they have reached the beginning of the final section
- make readers aware that what they’re about to read won’t provide new information
- set readers expectations for how the work will be drawn to a close (such as a summary of main points, statement of need for additional research, or call to action)
Conclusion Starter Ideas for Essays and Speeches
Whether you’re a student in college, high school or middle school, chances are that you will be assigned to write quite a few essays and deliver many speeches or presentations. When deciding how to end an essay or a speech, you’ll need to choose a conclusion starter that’s appropriate for the overall tone .
Examples of conclusion paragraph starter words and phrases include:
- all things considered
- given these points
- I feel we have no choice but to conclude
- in conclusion
- in drawing to a close
- in light of this information
- in my opinion
- in the final analysis
- now that you know
- the logical conclusion seems to be
- to summarize
- upon considering all the facts
- upon exploring the situation from multiple perspectives
- what else can we conclude but that
- what other conclusion can we draw from
- when considered from the perspective of
- when faced with the question of
- with all this in mind
Sample Conclusion Starters for Research Papers
Since a research paper’s focus is on presenting the findings of a particular study, the conclusion usually focuses on major findings and their implications. For academic research papers , it is generally expected that the paper will end with a call for additional research in the form of further study of a similar topic or to explore a related research question . The tone should be formal, taking into account the extent to which readers would be expected to have advanced knowledge of the subject matter.
Phrases you might use to start your research paper conclusion include:
- as a result
- as expected, the results indicate
- as indicated by the data
- based on the evidence presented
- based on the results of this study, it seems
- based on what is known at this point in time
- data seem to indicate
- in light of these results
- in the context of x , it seems that
- surprisingly, the data revealed
- the data clearly indicate
- the data reveal
- the major revelation from this study is
- the results of this study demonstrate
- the results of this study seem to indicate
- to extrapolate from the data
- upon analyzing the data
- upon review of these findings
- what this study reveals is
- what we now know is
- while additional research is needed
- while further study is warranted
- while these results seem to indicate
- with results like these, it seems
Less Formal Conclusion Starter Examples
Some writing is much less formal than a research paper or school assignment, or you may even get assigned to write an informal essay that calls for more of a personal touch than an academic tone. In such cases, you may want to opt for a conclusion starter with a more laid-back, conversational tone like these examples.
- after all has been said and done
- as I see things
- at the end of the day
- beyond a shadow of a doubt
- in a nutshell
- in case you’ve wondered
- in simple terms
- my personal take on
- on the whole
- the time has come
- to cut a long story short
- to cut to the chase
- to get to the heart of the matter
- to plainly state the facts
- to wrap this up
- what are we to think about
- what I believe to be true
- what it boils down to
- what I think is
- when all is said and done
- who knew that
- without all the mumbo jumbo
Build Your Conclusion Writing Expertise
Writing good conclusions is certainly an important skill for all writers to have, from students to those who write or do public speaking for a living (and all writers in between). Now that you have some ideas of good conclusion starters, focus on how to write a conclusion in full. Begin by exploring some conclusion examples .
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How to End an Essay
Last Updated: February 8, 2023 References Approved
This article was co-authored by Jake Adams . Jake Adams is an academic tutor and the owner of Simplifi EDU, a Santa Monica, California based online tutoring business offering learning resources and online tutors for academic subjects K-College, SAT & ACT prep, and college admissions applications. With over 14 years of professional tutoring experience, Jake is dedicated to providing his clients the very best online tutoring experience and access to a network of excellent undergraduate and graduate-level tutors from top colleges all over the nation. Jake holds a BS in International Business and Marketing from Pepperdine University. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article has 38 testimonials from our readers, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 3,141,069 times.
The final paragraph of an essay is what ties the piece together into a single, cohesive whole. Coming up with a good ending can be tricky, but understanding what elements it should and shouldn’t have will help you craft a stellar conclusion worthy of nothing less than an A+.
Brainstorming Your Conclusion
- Asking yourself the “so what?” question as you write your essay can also help you dig below the surface of your ideas.
- Knowing your essay’s focus will also help you avoid introducing any new information or topics in your conclusion.
- For example, if you began your essay with the idea of humanity’s sense of smallness in the face of space’s vast expanses, you could return to that idea in the conclusion. However, you might expand this theme to include the idea that as human knowledge grows, space is actually becoming smaller.
- For example, you could extend an essay on “Orange is the New Black” to the American culture of imprisonment in general.
Writing the Conclusion
- You should probably stay away from overused phrases such as “In conclusion,” “To summarize,” or “In closing.” Because they are used so often, they come across as cliched and stiff.  X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source Consider less-popular yet concise words such as "conclusively."
- Avoid summarizing your points exactly as you wrote them. Your readers have already read your essay. They don’t have to be reminded of every single point you just made.
- Find a way to rework your thesis in an interesting way, using different language. Restating your thesis using the same words strikes the reader as lazy and doesn’t offer new insight into your argument.
- For example, instead of saying "That's why I think that Abraham Lincoln was the best American President in the 19th century," say "That's why Abraham Lincoln was the best American President in the 19th century." The reader already knows that if you write about Lincoln being the best President, you also believe it. Saying "I think" sounds like you're hedging and makes you sound less authoritative.
- Another example: Don't apologize for your views. They're your ideas, so take ownership of them. Never say something like "I may not be an expert" or "At least this is my opinion,"  X Research source as this weakens your reliability.
- End with a little bit of irony. Be playful with your last sentence and pose an ironic by-product of what you're talking about. Then, the end of your essay becomes especially provocative.
- Make an appeal to emotions. Much of the time, essays are very rational, forgetting about emotions. That's why appealing to people's emotions can be a really powerful way to conclude an essay. Done in the right way, this will help the article have heart. Just make sure that your conclusion is in keeping with the tone of the rest of your essay.
- Include a call to action (use sparingly). If your essay is truly about getting people to change, then including a call to action is a useful tool to rouse your base. But use it sparingly: In the wrong context (an expository essay, or an argumentative essay) it can be overkill.
Avoiding Common Pitfalls
- Instead, try to take your reader to the “next level” in your conclusion, or provide some further sophistication to your original ideas.
- Also, don't use "Firstly," "Secondly," "Thirdly," etc. to make/finish your points. Make it clear what you're saying and how many points you're making.
Sample Essay Conclusions
- Always be sure to review your essay after it is complete. Check if you have the proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation. Keep revising it until you're satisfied with what you're going to turn in.  X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Always make sure you try to keep relevant information in the conclusion. Also, try to tie back into your thesis statement in order to show the reader that you know how your reason fits into the topic of the essay. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- It always helps if you have someone else older than you to give you their advice or input on your paragraph. Maybe they can help you out there. ⧼thumbs_response⧽ Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
You Might Also Like
- ↑ http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/conclusions/
- ↑ http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ http://writing2.richmond.edu/writing/wweb/conclude.html
- ↑ https://www.pittsfordschools.org/site/handlers/filedownload.ashx?moduleinstanceid=542&dataid=4677&FileName=conclusions1.pdf
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/revising-drafts/
About This Article
To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then, use a few sentences to briefly summarize the main points of your essay by rephrasing the topic sentences of your body paragraphs. Finally, end your conclusion with a call to action that encourages your readers to do something or learn more about your topic. In general, try to keep your conclusion between 5 and 7 sentences long. For more tips from our English co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing an essay conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Learn about the elements of a successful essay conclusion.
The conclusion is a very important part of your essay. Although it is sometimes treated as a roundup of all of the bits that didn’t fit into the paper earlier, it deserves better treatment than that! It's the last thing the reader will see, so it tends to stick in the reader's memory. It's also a great place to remind the reader exactly why your topic is important. A conclusion is more than just "the last paragraph"—it's a working part of the paper. This is the place to push your reader to think about the consequences of your topic for the wider world or for the reader's own life!
A good conclusion should do a few things:
Restate your thesis
Synthesize or summarize your major points
Make the context of your argument clear
Restating Your Thesis
You've already spent time and energy crafting a solid thesis statement for your introduction, and if you've done your job right, your whole paper focuses on that thesis statement. That's why it's so important to address the thesis in your conclusion! Many writers choose to begin the conclusion by restating the thesis, but you can put your thesis into the conclusion anywhere—the first sentence of the paragraph, the last sentence, or in between. Here are a few tips for rephrasing your thesis:
Remind the reader that you've proven this thesis over the course of your paper. For example, if you're arguing that your readers should get their pets from animal shelters rather than pet stores, you might say, "If you were considering that puppy in the pet-shop window, remember that your purchase will support 'puppy mills' instead of rescuing a needy dog, and consider selecting your new friend at your local animal shelter." This example gives the reader not only the thesis of the paper, but a reminder of the most powerful point in the argument!
Revise the thesis statement so that it reflects the relationship you've developed with the reader during the paper. For example, if you've written a paper that targets parents of young children, you can find a way to phrase your thesis to capitalize on that—maybe by beginning your thesis statement with, "As a parent of a young child…"
Don’t repeat your thesis word for word—make sure that your new statement is an independent, fresh sentence!
Summary or Synthesis
This section of the conclusion might come before the thesis statement or after it. Your conclusion should remind the reader of what your paper actually says! The best conclusion will include a synthesis, not just a summary—instead of a mere list of your major points, the best conclusion will draw those points together and relate them to one another so that your reader can apply the information given in the essay. Here are a couple of ways to do that:
Give a list of the major arguments for your thesis (usually, these are the topic sentences of the parts of your essay).
Explain how these parts are connected. For example, in the animal-shelter essay, you might point out that adopting a shelter dog helps more animals because your adoption fee supports the shelter, which makes your choice more socially responsible.
One of the most important functions of the conclusion is to provide context for your argument. Your reader may finish your essay without a problem and understand your argument without understanding why that argument is important. Your introduction might point out the reason your topic matters, but your conclusion should also tackle this questions. Here are some strategies for making your reader see why the topic is important:
Tell the reader what you want him or her to do. Is your essay a call to action? If so, remind the reader of what he/she should do. If not, remember that asking the reader to think a certain way is an action in itself. (In the above examples, the essay asks the reader to adopt a shelter dog—a specific action.)
Explain why this topic is timely or important. For example, the animal-shelter essay might end with a statistic about the number of pets in shelters waiting for adoption.
Remind the readers of why the topic matters to them personally. For example, it doesn’t matter much if you believe in the mission of animal shelters, if you're not planning to get a dog; however, once you're looking for a dog, it is much more important. The conclusion of this essay might say, "Since you’re in the market for a dog, you have a major decision to make: where to get one." This will remind the reader that the argument is personally important!
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How to Write a Strong Conclusion for Your Essay
Last updated: November 2019
How to conclude an essay:
- Restate the thesis by making the same point with other words (paraphrase).
- Review your supporting ideas.
- For that, summarize all arguments by paraphrasing how you proved the thesis.
- Connect back to the essay hook and relate your closing statement to the opening one.
- Combine all the above to improved and expanded conclusion.
Ever wondered how to conclude an essay?
For some students, it’s far from the most challenging part of essay writing. They find it more challenging to choose a good topic for an essay, state a thesis , or write a clear essay outline . But our reader Emily has knocked spots off them all when asked to share tips on how to write a conclusion for your essay to impress teachers and help you get an A!
Don’t worry, Emily, you are not alone.
A concluding sentence of your essay isn’t less but sometimes even more challenging to write than its introduction. Our writers know it firsthand, so they give consent graciously to share the ultimate guide on conclusion definition, conclusion paragraph outline, conclusion examples, and expert tips on how to how to write a conclusion for a research paper .
So, keep on reading to master the art of writing essay conclusions once and for all.
What is an Essay Conclusion?
Conclusion definition is simple:
It’s the last paragraph of your essay or any other college pager, summarizing its thesis and arguments. It helps readers see why your essay should matter to them.
Why you need to know how to end an essay:
A conclusion provides closure and drives the main points of your essay one last time. It’s the chance to impress and give readers an understanding of why your paper matters. In other words, your essay conclusion should answer the question, “ So what ?”
- Give the audience something to think about after they finish reading your essay.
- A conclusion should give completeness to your paper. Ending it on a positive note would be a good practice.
It’s not about introducing new ideas but summing up your writing. The goal is to restate the thesis, summarize the essay’s body, and leave readers with a final impression.
Key aspects to remember:
- A strong essay conclusion restates, not rewrites your thesis from the introduction.
- A strong essay conclusion consists of three sentences minimum .
- It concludes thoughts, not presents new ideas.
So, here’s how to write a conclusion for your essay.
Conclusion Paragraph Outline
The number of sentences in your conclusion will depend on how many paragraphs (statements) you have in the essay.
Conclusion paragraph outline:
1) A conclusion starter:
- It’s the sentence restaining a thesis of your essay. So, if you wonder how to start a conclusion, rephrase your thesis statement and write it first.
2) A summary of the main parts of an essay:
- Here you’ll have 2-3 sentences wrapping up the arguments of your essay. Explain how they fit together.
3) A concluding sentence:
- It’s a final sentence of your essay, providing a sense of closure and connecting readers back to the introduction.
Here goes a standard structure with conclusion examples for you to understand how to conclude an essay:
Sentence #1: restate the thesis by making the same point with other words (paraphrase).
- Thesis: “Dogs are better pets than cats.”
- Paraphrased: “Dogs make the best pets in the world.”
Sentence #2-4: review your arguments; summarize them by paraphrasing how you proved the thesis.
- “Dogs are cleaner, better at showing affection, and ultimately easier to train.”
Sentence #5: connect back to the essay hook and relate your closing statement to the opening one; transit to human nature to impress a reader and give them food for thought.
- “Change your life for the better – go get a dog.”
Finally , combine all sentences to the improved and expanded essay conclusion. Based on the above examples, it might look as follows:
- “There is no doubt that dogs make the best pets in the world. They provide a cleaner environment for your home, are not afraid to show their feelings, and can be trained to do a variety of tricks and jobs. Every second that goes by, you are missing out on happiness. Get out of your chair and make a positive difference in your life – go get a dog!”
Also , you will need a transition word to make readers understand you are going to conclude an essay. The most common are “In conclusion..,” “To sum up,” and “As previously stated…,” but don’t use them! (If you don’t want to drive your teacher nuts, of course.)
Try “So…” instead. Or, visit the web page of the University of Richmond’s Writing Center to find more transitional words for a concluding sentence of your essay.
You’ve been hit by the structure of essay conclusions.
Top Strategies to Use for Writing Essay Conclusions
Here are the most effective strategies to use when writing a conclusion sentence of your college paper. Also you can use our essay maker for stundetns .
Paraphrase the essay introduction to bring a full-circle to readers. Ending an essay with the same scenario might help to prove your point and create a better understanding.
Example ( source ):
- “From the parking lot, I could see the towers of the castle of the Magic Kingdom standing stately against the blue sky. To the right, the tall peak of The Matterhorn rose even higher. From the left, I could hear the jungle sounds of Adventureland. As I entered the gate, Main Street stretched before me with its quaint shops evoking an old-fashioned small town so charming it could never have existed. I was entranced. Disneyland may have been built for children, but it brings out the child in adults.”
- “I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland, but here I was at 1:00 A.M., closing time, leaving the front gates with the now dark towers of the Magic Kingdom behind me. I could see tired children, toddling along and struggling to keep their eyes open as best they could. Others slept in their parents’ arms as we waited for the parking lot tram that would take us to our cars. My forty-year-old feet ached, and I felt a bit sad to think that in a couple of days I would be leaving California, my vacation over, to go back to my desk. But then I smiled to think that for at least a day I felt ten years old again.”
Try looking to the future for emphasizing the importance of your essay and give readers food for thought. “When” and “if” are power words to support your points in this strategy for essay conclusions.
- “Physical punishment can be a useful method of discipline. However it should be the last choice for parents. If we want to build a world with less violence we must begin at home, and we must teach our children to be responsible.”
You might want to amplify the main point of an essay or put it in a different perspective for setting a larger context when you write my term paper . That would help readers gain a new vision on the topic and bring ideas altogether to create a new but related meaning.
Examples ( source ):
- “Finally, I feel that we cannot generalize about children or adults being better learners. It depends on the situation and the motivation of the person, and the level of enthusiasm he or she has for learning.”
- “Society would be healthier if more people took part in sports of all kinds. We should continue to try to prevent accidents and injuries. However, we should also ensure that sports are challenging, exciting, and, above all, fun.”
How to Conclude an Essay So It Wouldn’t Fail
With all of the above, you feel like a guru who writes cool persuasive essays and narratives , don’t you? The structure and strategies are clear, and nothing can stop you on the way toward high grades for college papers. Go for it!
But first, a warning :
When writing a strong essay conclusion, be sure to avoid these teeny-tiny pitfalls able to sink your paper despite it was legen… wait for it…dary!
- Don’t write any new information. Your essay conclusion is about summarizing the thesis and statements.
- Don’t share personal thoughts unless you write a first-person opinion piece.
- Don’t restate each and all the details. You have body paragraphs for that.
- Don’t just restate the thesis if you can provide some further – not new! – sophistication to original ideas.
- Don’t write lousy words in the conclusion, but use concise language instead.
Long Story Short…
Your essay needs a conclusion to drive the main points and give an understanding of why it matters. Writing a strong concluding sentence might be challenging, but a clear structure, together with several strategies to operate, provide you a room to work. Paying for a research paper can be a great way to ensure that your essay is well-written and properly structured, giving you the best chance of success.
To end an essay like a boss, consider its type and audience. A conclusion is your last chance to impress readers and give them something to think about, so do your best to summarize statements and answer a “So what?” question the audience might have after reading your paper.
So, now you’ve got the answer on how to write a conclusion. Ready to conclude an essay like a boss? If still in doubt, ask our writers for write my essay help . 😉
Our Writing Guides
34 thoughts on “ how to write a strong conclusion for your essay ”.
Your essay needs a conclusion to drive main points and give understanding why it matters. Writing a strong finishing paragraph might be challenging, but a clear structure, together with several strategies to operate, provide room to work.
Wowie!! This helped me so much! I have always struggled on conclusion’s, but man this really helped, anyone else??
Thanks for the great guide!
Thanks a lot for info!
whoah this blog is fantastic i love reading your articles. Stay up the great work!
You know, lots of persons are hunting round for this info, you can help them greatly.
Thanks a lot, had severe headache, reaching for this info, but happy to finally see it here.
Hi there! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I truly enjoy reading your posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same topics? Thank you!
Thank you soo much for such the helpful information. helped me alot!
Thank you very much. Helped me with my essay homework. Good info and keep it up.
It was informal about how to start a summary paragraph and how to end it.
Thanks for the comment, Tiff!
Could you please share a couple of formal words here on how to start and end a conclusion? I believe our readers would find it useful!
i really appreciate that
This really helped me to finish my essay 😉 thanks
Am i the only one without a monster profile pic?
Well, I can see a cute little monster in your pic. So, no worries 🙂
This guide was worth sharing. You know many students underestimate the importance of writing a strong and persuasive conclusion. This is the last point and it should sound really convincing.
Have you ever considered about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is fundamental and everything. But think about if you added some great photos or videos to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and videos, this website could certainly be one of the best in its field. Awesome blog!
Thanks for your comment! 🙂
Of course, we use images and videos on the blog. More than that, here you can find viral infographics , quizzes , and other interactive content.
And sure, we’ll do our best to create even more interesting content this year! 🙂
Thank you for your post.
This information was worth sharing, your content is very detailed and helpful. Thanks a lot.
people who created this just writing ”dogs are better pets than cats and they are the best pets in the world”. that is offensive to all CAT LOVERS and dogs are not the best pets in the world, I believe they are equal. Maybe next time don’t write something is the best in the world because there people who can find that offensive.
it was just an example
I want to learn more and get more knowledge on how to conclude an essay. But your post really helpful to me!
I had trouble writing a conclusion of an essay all the time and got help from the teacher, but now I wrote an awesome conclusion paragraph. Thanks!
Thanks! it helped me much as I’m a non-native English speaker and got troubled in essay writing and conclusion.
Wow, thank you sooo much! I struggled a LOT on writing a conclusion for my History essay, and I found this website. It helped me a lot, and now my essay is finally complete! 🙂 😁
It’s quite educative, Kindly introduce more samples for us in the next post. Thank so much.
This is very helpful. Thank you for the thorough explanation.
The blog was really helpful for students like me and we I’m grateful for the help that it offers. However, some students might be unable to grasp the skills or don’t have the required time. Therefore, personally, I would recommend them not to be shy to ask for professional paper help when needed.
This was really helpful. Thank you.
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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay
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- An effective conclusion paragraph is vital to writing a successful college essay.
- A strong conclusion restates the thesis, offers new insight, and forms a personal connection.
- Be sure the conclusion doesn't introduce new arguments or analyze points you didn't discuss.
The first steps for writing any college essay are coming up with a strong thesis statement and composing a rough introduction . Once you've done that, you can collect information that supports your thesis, outline your essay's main points, and start writing your body paragraphs . Before you can submit the essay, though, you'll also need to write a compelling conclusion paragraph.
Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper.
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Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.
The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph
A conclusion paragraph does :
- Check Circle Summarize the essay's thesis and evidence to further convince the reader
- Check Circle Elevate your essay by adding new insight or something extra to impress the reader
- Check Circle Leave a personal impression that connects you more closely to the reader
A conclusion paragraph does not :
- X Circle Summarize something the paper does not discuss
- X Circle Introduce a new argument
How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps
Step 1: restate your thesis claim and evidence.
The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how." In that sense, these two paragraphs should closely mirror each other, with the conclusion restating the thesis introduced at the beginning of the essay.
In order to restate your thesis effectively, you'll need to do the following:
- Check Circle Reread your introduction carefully to identify your paper's main claim
- Check Circle Pay attention to the evidence you used to support your thesis throughout the essay
- Check Circle In your conclusion, reword the thesis and summarize the supporting evidence
- Check Circle Use phrases in the past tense, like "as demonstrated" and "this paper established"
Here's an example of an introduction and a conclusion paragraph, with the conclusion restating the paper's primary claim and evidence:
It is a known fact that archaic civilizations with clearly defined social classes often survived longer than those without. One anomaly is seventh-century Civilization X. Close analysis of the cultural artifacts of the Civilization X region reveals that a social system that operates on exploitation, rather than sharing, will always fail. This lack of inclusion actually leads to a society's downfall. Excavated military objects, remnants of tapestries and clay pots, and the poetry of the era all demonstrate the clash between exploitation and sharing, with the former leading to loss and the latter leading to success.
In the 600s C.E., Civilization X survived because it believed in inclusion and sharing rather than exploitation. As demonstrated, the civilization was often aware of the choice between sharing with others and taking from them. The cultural artifacts from the era, namely military items, household objects, and verbal art, all indicate that Civilization X believed sharing ensured survival for all, while taking allowed only a few to survive for a shorter time.
Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight
In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis. One intriguing insight at the end can leave your professor pondering your paper well after they finish reading it — and that's a good sign you turned in a well-written essay.
Note that the conclusion paragraph must only mention that this new idea exists and deserves some focus in the future; it shouldn't discuss the idea in detail or try to propose a new argument.
The new insight you raise in your conclusion should ideally come from the research you already conducted. Should a new idea come to you while writing the body paragraphs, go ahead and make a note to remind you to allude to it in your conclusion.
Here are some typical starting points for these new insights:
- Check Circle A new idea that would have prompted you to redesign your thesis if you had the time
- Check Circle A new angle that would further prove your thesis
- Check Circle Evidence you found that refutes your claim but that you can justify anyway
- Check Circle A different topic to which you can apply the same thesis and/or angles
Step 3: Form a Personal Connection With the Reader
The final step when writing a conclusion paragraph is to include a small detail about yourself. This information will help you build a more intimate bond with your reader and help them remember you better. Think of this step as an opportunity to connect the academic research to your and your reader's personal lives — to forge a human bond between the lines.
Formal essay-writing typically avoids first- and second-person pronouns such as "I" and "you." There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, and these are the introduction and conclusion paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader.
In the introduction, you may use the words "I" or "me" just once to clarify that the essay's claim is your own. In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader, as long as this connection is related in some way to the overarching claim.
Here's an example of a conclusion paragraph that uses both first- and second-person pronouns to connect the thesis statement (provided above) to the student's own perspective on stealing:
Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security, especially in times of scarcity. I would certainly never consider taking the belongings of a neighbor, nor, I expect, would you. Yet we must consider the Civilization X artifacts that justify "taking" as signs of more than simple bloodthirst — they are also revelations of the basic human need for security. Perhaps if we had lived during the 600s C.E., you and I would have also taken from others, even while commanding others not to take from us.
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Essay conclusion 5 — You're having dinner with your favorite author. What happens? Describe the scene. ... Harper Lee puts down her cup of coffee
Ending the Essay: Conclusions · Don't simply summarize your essay. · Avoid phrases like "in conclusion," "to conclude," "in summary," and "to sum up." These
The conclusion might include minor pieces of new information—for example, a sentence or two discussing broader implications, or a quotation that
Less Formal Conclusion Starter Examples · after all has been said and done · as I see things · at the end of the day · beyond a shadow of a doubt · in a nutshell · in
To end an essay, start your conclusion with a phrase that makes it clear your essay is coming to a close, like "In summary," or "All things considered." Then
A conclusion's job is to reiterate the arguments and thesis of the essay. In other words, it provides a sense of closure and suggests that
Learn about the elements of a successful essay conclusion. · Restate your thesis · Synthesize or summarize your major points · Make the context of your argument
“Society would be healthier if more people took part in sports of all kinds. We should continue to try to prevent accidents and injuries.
End the essay on a positive note. · Communicate the importance of your ideas and the subject matter. · Provide the reader with a sense of closure. · Reiterate and
Step 1: Restate Your Thesis Claim and Evidence · Reread your introduction carefully to identify your paper's main claim · Pay attention to the