legal writing

Primary tabs, legal writing: an overview.

In many legal settings specialized forms of written communication are required. In many others, writing is the medium in which a lawyer must express their analysis of an issue and seek to persuade others on their clients' behalf. Any legal document must be concise, clear, and conform to the objective standards that have evolved in the legal profession.

There are generally two types of legal writing. The first type requires a balanced analysis of a legal problem or issue. Examples of the first type are inter-office memoranda and letters to clients. To be effective in this form of writing, the lawyer must be sensitive to the needs, level of interest and background of the parties to whom it is addressed. A memorandum to a partner in the same firm that details definitions of basic legal concepts would be inefficient and an annoyance. In contrast, their absence from a letter to a client with no legal background could serve to confuse and complicate a simple situation.

The second type of legal writing is persuasive. Examples of this type are appellate briefs and negotiation letters written on a clients behalf. The lawyer must persuade his or her audience without provoking a hostile response through disrespect or by wasting the recipient's time with unnecessary information. In presenting documents to a court or administrative agency he or she must conform to the required document style.

The drafting of legal documents, such as contracts and wills , is yet another type of legal writing. Guides are available to aid a lawyer in preparing the documents but a unique application of the "form" to the facts of the situation is often required. Poor drafting can lead to unnecessary litigation and otherwise injure the interests of a client.

The legal profession has its own unique system of citation . While it serves to provide the experienced reader with enough information to evaluate and retrieve the cited authorities, it may, at first, seem daunting to the lay reader. Court rules generally specify the citation format required of all memoranda or briefs filed with the court. These rules have not kept up with the changing technology of legal research. Within recent years, online and disk-based law collections have become primary research tools for many lawyers and judges. Because of these changes, there has been growing pressure on those ultimately responsible for citation norms, namely the courts, to establish new rules that no longer presuppose thata publisher's print volume (created over a year after a decision is handed down) is the key reference. (See the reports of the Wisconsin Bar and the AALL .) Several jurisdictions have responded and many more are sure to follow.

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Category: Legal Education & Practice

11 Legal Writing Tips for Powerful, Persuasive Legal Writing

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Whether or not you’re a confident writer, legal writing is an important skill for any lawyer, in any practice area. From court documents like motions, discovery documents, briefs, and memoranda, to in-office communication like letters, client emails, internal memos, and more—there’s a whole lot of writing.

Lawyers also need to ensure their writing style, tone, and voice in legal documents and communication are appropriate for a wide range of audiences such as courts, judges, and clients.

Documents filed at court, including briefs and memoranda, involve researching facts and cases, analyzing situations, presenting information, and making an argument. To be a skilled legal writer, lawyers need to be authoritative, credible, and persuasive in their writing. The following legal writing tips will help you improve your writing.

What is legal writing?

Legal writing is the type of writing used for documents that relate to legal matters. This includes briefs, contracts, memorandums, motions, and more. 

The purpose of legal writing is usually to persuade—the tone and style you’ll use depends on who you’re writing for. As a legal writer, you should be able to switch between the legalese required for officials such as a judge and plain language required for a client.

Whether you consider yourself a writer or not, legal writing is a necessary and important skill required for all legal professionals. From paralegals to lawyers to secretaries, legal writing is applicable to every legal professional (see, for example, our guide on communication and writing for paralegals ). 

Legal writing tips to help you get started


Tip 1: Understand your purpose

What is the first and arguably most important legal writing tip? Understand the purpose of your writing. 

Ask yourself: Why are you writing this? What are you hoping to accomplish? What is the outcome you wish to achieve?

Writing a contract may serve to inform, while court documentation may serve to persuade, and client intake documentation may serve to evaluate. The structure, tone, and voice of the document will change depending on the purpose of your legal writing. Understanding that purpose will help you write better.

Tip 2: Understand your audience

Knowing who you’re writing for will help shape the structure and tone of your piece. A judge, another attorney (including an opposing attorney), or client will have different experiences and expectations that inform how they read your work.

When it comes to your audience, keep the following in mind: their role and relationship to you, age, income, economic status, level of education, values, and how much they already know about what you’re writing about. This will help you determine the tone, style, and level of detail to include in your writing.

Tip 3: Do your research

legal writing tips research

Good legal writing requires researching and incorporating relevant legal precedents into your documents. Before you start writing, thoroughly read any material provided to better understand the legal issues. 

Every case and document is different, but keeping some basic rules for legal research in mind will set you up for success. Some helpful legal research tools include FastCase , Legal Information Institute (LII), and CourtListener .

Depending on the piece you’re writing, you may also find secondary sources such as legal dictionaries , law reports, and academic journals helpful in your research. For example, you’ll need both the primary and secondary sources to establish mandatory and persuasive authority .

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Legal document formats: everything you need to know, lawyer domain names: a guide to finding and buying the right one, how to calculate utilization rate and why you need to track it, tips for the legal writing process, tip 4: create an outline.

One of the most helpful legal writing tips to improve your legal writing skills is organizing your research into an outline. Starting with an outline will help keep your writing organized and focused.

A good outline starts by detailing the topic, putting the most important information at the top. Then, flush out the main points with the supporting details while making sure the transitions between points make sense.

Legal writing becomes much easier and less intimidating once you have an outline to help organize your ideas and guide your writing process.

Tip 5: Put words on the page

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Even with a detailed outline, getting started can be difficult. Writer’s block is a real thing that even the most seasoned legal writers suffer from. But don’t worry about getting it perfect on the first try—that’s what editing and proofing are for.

On your first draft, focus on capturing the right information. Make sure the information is complete and sufficient, and the content flows nicely from one section to the next. Give yourself as many drafts as you need before your deadline. Also, give your writing some room to breathe by taking a break and coming back to it with fresh eyes.

Always remember that you can clean your writing up in the editing stage—you don’t have to get the formatting perfect on your first try.

Tip 6: Be aware of content structure

The best way to structure any piece is by writing from the top down. Start by showing the reader what you’re writing about and why, then provide the arguments to support your case.

Pick your best or most persuasive arguments to focus your writing on, then filter additional, supporting arguments thereafter. Use headings to break up sections and transition from one argument to the next, and start new sections with summary sentences. Where appropriate, it also may be helpful to use lists and bullets to make your writing scannable for the reader.

Tips to help you write better

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Tip 7: Be clear

When writing any type of legal document, state your point directly and clearly within the first few sentences to help guide the reader along. Assume the reader has very little time or patience, that they hate to read, and that they’re only going to read the first 200 words. What you say in those 200 words will help them decide to continue reading.

A few other legal writing tips to keep in mind:

Tip 8: Use jargon only when appropriate

Using jargon, including legal terms, is only appropriate in some contexts. For example, using too much “legalese” with a client who is not well-versed in specific legal matters may end up confusing them and muddling the conversation with unnecessary questions. 

While in court documents, it’s completely appropriate (and sometimes even necessary) to use the correct jargon and terminology, since another attorney, judge, or magistrate will be your reader.

When appropriate, strive to use plain language in your legal writing while showing that you understand jargon and can present it in easy-to-understand ways for the reader.

Tip 9: Edit and proofread

The legal writing process doesn’t just stop when the piece is finished. One of the most common mistakes writers make is not budgeting for the editing phase—a thorough editing and review process takes time.

It’s always helpful to have somebody else edit and proofread your work, but you should be able to take care of the basics yourself. Master spelling and grammar basics—lawyers who present documents with spelling and grammatical errors will be seen as less credible and lacking in attention to detail.

Understandably, it can be difficult to catch spelling and grammatical errors immediately. Once you’ve read your document several times, you’ll usually glaze over your own mistakes. Some other helpful legal writing tips for the editing process include reading your writing aloud or reading it backward to help hone your focus and spot errors you’d otherwise miss.

Tips to level up your legal writing

Tip 10: use helpful tools and apps.

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No matter what medium or document you’re writing, all good writers should always use spell check at a minimum. Advances in writing technology have also made legal writing much easier. For example, writing apps like Grammarly and Ginger can help you catch grammar, spelling, and other language mistakes.

If you don’t have an editor always available to help proofread your legal writing (which most usually don’t), text-to-speech apps such as Linguatec and Natural Reader can help read your documents out loud. This will help spot errors and awkward passages.

While some of these services are free, many of them will have a paid version to unlock extra features. Consider investing in some of these paid versions if your job requires a lot of writing—it’s worth it to bring your legal writing skills to the next level.

Tip 11: Read other writers’ work

The most common piece of advice writers give to those looking to improve their writing skills is to read—this rings true for any kind of writing. To improve your legal writing skills specifically, find good legal and business writers and read their work. This could be legal documents, but also books , blogs , and articles . 

By studying and understanding how others write and structure their pieces, you’ll get a feel for the general format of a legal document. You can then incorporate your unique ideas and writing style. You could also ask colleagues for examples of their work or join communities and forums .

Routinely review legal writing examples

Beyond reviewing others’ work, you can further your legal writing skills by reading writing examples. Below are some legal writing examples to support you: 

Utilizing a legal document template is another way to maintain consistency and have a blueprint for your writing.   

Legal writing is an ongoing journey

As you embark on this legal writing journey, remember, no one becomes a great legal writer overnight. Like with any craft, good legal writing is a skill and ongoing process that you build the foundation for and improve on. 

The writing process is complex and extends beyond just putting words to paper. Researching, writing, and editing are all important skills for good legal writing. The more you practice writing, the easier it gets and the better your work will be over time.

Use the above writing tips as your starting point. Remember, always be open to and use feedback and constructive criticism.

What makes a good legal writer?

The best legal writers know their audience and craft their words for the reader. Sometimes, the reader is a judge; other times, it’s your client. Understanding your audience and striving to write in their preferred style will serve one well in their career.

What are the three steps of legal writing?

In its most basic form, legal writing involves three steps: drafting, rewriting, and revising. Though, it’s common to add additional editing and revision stages depending on the document and writer’s experience/preferred working style.

We published this blog post in April 2021. Last updated: February 2, 2023 .

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Types Of Legal Writing 8 min read

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Legal writing is a form of writing that is used in a legal setting. There are various types of legal writing, and each type has a specific purpose.

One type of legal writing is a legal memorandum. A legal memorandum is a document that is used to provide legal advice. It is typically written by a lawyer to a client, and it outlines the legal issues that are relevant to a specific case.

Another type of legal writing is a legal brief. A legal brief is a document that is used to argue a legal point. It is typically written by a lawyer to a court, and it outlines the legal arguments that support a particular position.

Another type of legal writing is a contract. A contract is a document that is used to establish the terms of an agreement between two or more parties. It is typically signed by all of the parties involved, and it is legally binding.

Another type of legal writing is a will. A will is a document that is used to designate how a person’s property should be distributed after they die. It is typically signed by the person who is making the will, and it is legally binding.

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Table of Contents

What are the three steps of legal writing?

The three steps of legal writing are analyzing the question, researching the law, and drafting a memorandum or brief. 

The first step is to analyze the question. Lawyers need to understand the question being asked in order to determine what law to research. 

The second step is to research the law. Lawyers need to find the relevant cases and statutes to support their argument. 

The third step is to draft a memorandum or brief. Lawyers need to present their argument in a clear and concise manner.

What writing style is used in law?

When it comes to legal writing, there is a specific style that is often used. This style is typically formal and objective, and it is meant to be clear and concise. In order to ensure that legal documents are easy to understand, it is important to use language that is precise and to avoid any ambiguity.

One of the main goals of legal writing is to ensure that all of the relevant information is included in the document. This means that it is important to be specific and to avoid any unnecessary details. It is also important to be consistent throughout the document, and to use the same terminology throughout.

In order to ensure that legal writing is accurate, it is often necessary to cite references. This can be done by using footnotes or by including a bibliography. It is also important to be aware of the rules of legal citation, which can vary depending on the jurisdiction.

When it comes to legal writing, it is important to remember that the goal is to communicate effectively. This means that the language should be clear and easy to understand, and that the document should be formatted in a way that is easy to read.

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What format are legal papers written?

Legal papers are typically written in a specific format, which is often mandated by the court system in which the papers will be filed. This format is designed to ensure that all relevant information is included in a clear and concise manner, making it easier for the court to review and process the documents.

The typical format for legal papers includes a cover sheet, table of contents, body of the document, and signature page. The cover sheet typically includes the name of the document, the name of the parties involved, the court where the case will be heard, and the case number. The table of contents lists the headings and page numbers of each section of the document. The body of the document includes the relevant facts and legal arguments of the case, and the signature page is signed by the person filing the papers.

There are variations to this format depending on the type of legal document being filed, but the above is the most common layout. Lawyers and court staff are typically familiar with the specific format requirements of the court in which they are practicing.

What is the purpose of legal writing?

The purpose of legal writing is to communicate legal arguments and reasoning in a clear, concise, and effective manner. Legal writing is often used in court proceedings to argue a legal case, and it is also used in legal documents such as pleadings, briefs, and contracts.

Legal writing is different from other types of writing in that it must be clear and concise, and it must be technically accurate. In order to communicate effectively, a lawyer must use legal terminology correctly and make sure that all of their arguments are well-supported by case law and other legal authority.

Legal writing is also often persuasive in nature, and a good legal writer must be able to make a strong argument in favor of their client or position. In order to be persuasive, a lawyer must be able to clearly state their case and back it up with evidence.

Legal writing is an important tool for lawyers, and it is essential for communicating effectively in the legal profession. By learning how to write well, a lawyer can improve their chances of success in court and make sure that their legal arguments are well-reasoned and persuasive.

What are the basic rules of legal writing?

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Legal writing is a specialized form of writing that is used in the legal profession. It is important to follow the basic rules of legal writing to ensure that your writing is clear and concise.

The most important rule of legal writing is to be clear and concise. Your writing should be easy to understand, and you should avoid using legal jargon. You should also be careful to use the correct spelling and grammar.

Another important rule of legal writing is to be organized. Your writing should be well-organized and easy to follow. You should also use headings and subheadings to help readers follow your argument.

Finally, you should always proofread your writing. Typos and errors can be very distracting, and they can make your writing difficult to understand.

What are the two goals of legal writing?

There are two primary goals of legal writing: to persuade and to inform. Persuasion is the goal of argumentation, which is the main form of legal writing. Argumentation is the process of reasoning from premises to a conclusion in order to persuade someone of something. In order to be persuasive, your writing must be clear, concise, and logical.

Informative legal writing is designed to provide the reader with accurate information. This type of writing may be used to explain the law to a judge or jury, to provide a legal opinion, or to draft a contract. It is important to be accurate and clear when writing for a legal audience, as mistakes can be costly.

What is good legal writing?

Legal writing is a very specific and important form of writing. It is used in a variety of settings, including legal documents, contracts, and court filings. Good legal writing is clear, concise, and accurate.

Legal documents must be clear and concise so that they are easy to read and understand. They must also be accurate, so that any misunderstandings can be avoided. In order to ensure accuracy, legal writers must research the law and the facts of the case.

Legal writing requires a specific tone of voice. It is formal and professional, and must always be respectful. In order to ensure that the tone of voice is maintained, legal writers should avoid using contractions and colloquialisms.

Legal writing is an important skill for lawyers and other legal professionals. By following the tips above, you can help ensure that your legal documents are clear, concise, and accurate.

5 types of legal writing

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Table of Contents

What Is Legal Writing?

What are the different types of legal writing.

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When you think of writing, what comes to mind? Perhaps it’s the kind of work you do every day or perhaps it’s something else. In this section, we’ll cover the basics of what legal writing is and how it differs from other types of writing.

How Does Legal Writing Differ From Other Types Of Writing?

The main difference between legal writing and other types of writing is that the former is more structured and formal than the latter. 

Why Is It So Important To Be Good At Legal Writing?

This makes sense when you consider how many tasks lawyers perform every day: they draft contracts and agreements; review financial statements; communicate with clients and colleagues via email; present oral arguments before judges; and write briefs and memoranda (legal documents explaining their positions on various cases). 

What Are Common Mistakes In Legal Writing?

The answer is that there isn’t one right answer; there are many different ways for lawyers to express themselves through their documents and each approach can be just as valid as another if done well.

What Are Some Tips For Improving Your Legal Writing Skills?

Use short sentences rather than long ones with multiple clauses that run on for paragraphs or pages at a time (unless the document is meant for legal analysis). Shorter sentences also help keep readers focused; they don’t have time to get bored with what they’re reading before moving on!

What Tools Can Help You With Legal Writing?

The third piece of equipment necessary for legal writing success is an excellent style manual such as The Bluebook: 

Legal Writing Is A Unique And Necessary Skill That’s Important To Master

As you can see from this list of tasks above (and there are many other examples), the work done by legal writers is essential for society at large.


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Types of Legal Writing

In the legal profession, writing is very important. It shows your legal prowess, your way with words and your command of both the English language and your knowledge of the law. Legal writing is a type of technical writing skill used by lawyers, judges, legislators, and others in the law profession. They use this technique to express legal analysis, legal rights, and duties. It is used by an advocate when expressing the resolution of a client’s legal matter. This is why it is very important to express yourself clearly and with suitable words when writing a legal statement.

During law school students are introduced to various ways of writing to express themselves appropriately. There is often a legal research and writing program to enlighten students on the way lawyers conduct legal research and the way they analyze and frame legal positions. This includes the way they present their work in writing and in an oral judgment. Usually the experienced is marked by a series of sequences, interrelated exercises which introduces students to legal writing.

To work as an example for legal writing, use a memo or brief you prepared while attending a legal seminar. To showcase your skills use an effective clear language. An interoffice memo or persuasive brief are both acceptable for demonstrating your writing and analysis abilities. There are many types of legal writing and among them include correspondence, motions and briefs or memoranda. These are the most common.

While writing is sensitive to the recipient of your letter or interoffice memoranda. For example, there is no need for excessive legal jargon with a client. It will most likely fly by and they will be left questioning. Be careful to put in the definition of legal terminology in a simple way. The bulk of the correspondence is letters and emails between attorneys or paralegals and clients. Correspondence with businesses, witnesses or agencies are also common.

Pleadings are documents that are generally fact-based and not law based. The writer prepares documents that lay out specific facts which support his or her position in litigation or a criminal proceeding. In order for a plea to succeed the law must eventually be proven to apply to the client’s situation. Discovery is another document that is also fact-based, not law based. The primary purpose of discovery is to expose facts that are relevant to the litigation. To showcase what really happened or what the witness intends to say during trial.

When it comes to briefs and memoranda, these documents argue for legal issues and hence they are law based. Memoranda tend to be objective and it requires the lawyer to look at both sides of the legal question with an open mind. The external memoranda, which can be trial briefs for example. These attempt to persuade the reader, and therefore they may only be in favor of the client who is being represented by the lawyer who wrote it.

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The Fundamental Principles of Legal Writing


Whether you are new to legal writing or an old pro, keeping in mind some essential fundamentals is important. Without structure, clarity, proper grammar, and coherence, you are presenting a position that is less easily defended and supported. If you are presenting a case to a judge, they will expect to understand your position right away. Legal writing is not the time to put your personal voice and style into a document. Legal rhetoric includes specific style guidelines and requirements to be successful. Without following those principles, you could experience some problems with credibility and success.

Here are some of the top, fundamental principles of legal writing.


First and foremost, stay organized. This principle comes first because it starts with creating an outline of what you need to write. Organize your thoughts and then elaborate on them. When you create an outline first, you are able to see if the progression of your argument makes logical sense before getting into the details of each aspect. Using Microsoft Word's® numbering feature can be a big help in knowing which sections you are referring to the further down the outline you get in your final document. Put a focus on identifying the key points in your argument and develop smaller sections from there to assure clarity throughout your document.

Short sentences

Write shorter sentences with plain language. As you will see a little further down this list, being clear makes a difference in writing a successful legal paper or brief. Attention spans have gotten shorter over time as society has increased usage of television, streaming services, apps, smartphones, and instant messaging. Using long sentences of old legal jargon no longer serve a positive purpose. Keep each of your ideas short and sweet. Steven Stark, author of Writing to Win , says the more complex the material, the shorter the sentences should be. That holds true for legal writing as well.

Accuracy and honesty

When you are writing a legal document, staying accurate and honest is important to the success of your argument or position. Write the facts only. Do not get into the habit of adding in hyperbole to make a point, and do not insert your personal feelings about a situation where there are hard facts and evidence to present.

Furthermore, do not use vague reference words. For example, instead of saying something like, "The Defendant recently paid the Plaintiff for professional services," say, "The Defendant paid the Plaintiff $1,500 for professional consulting services on May 15, 2020 through a personal check." If you have dates, then use the dates. The more specific information you have, the clearer the case will be.

Conclusion first

Hearkening back to the organization principle listed above, present your position statement and conclusion first. By clearly identifying the concluding idea first, you are putting that idea in the reader's mind upfront before outlining what supports that position. After presenting all the evidence supporting that conclusion, bring the legal document to a close by restating that position.

In legal writing, citations require a balance. While you do not want to leave out specific information from a case, you also do not want to over-burden the document with so many citations that there is no new substance there to support the specific case at hand. Carefully consider what information is necessary to repeat verbatim with the legal citation versus what information can be summarized or paraphrased with an in-text citation for the reader to use if they want to explore more detail.

Plain English vs. legalese

In the section above on short sentences, we pointed out that the more complicated the topic is, the shorter the sentences should be. One simple way to do this is to opt for plain English over legalese. Long-winded sentences using extravagant legal terms are often needlessly technical. Though past legal cases and documents use legal language to its fullest, modern expected conventions of the legal community are centering around clear language.

One example of the importance of using plan English is in the insurance industry. In cases of insurance bad faith, for example, courts will rule in favor of the insured over the insurer when there is ambiguous or unclear policy language from the insurer. Everyone is not expected to understand technical language of the legal system, particularly when more plain, common wording is available to describe a situation. Consider the audience of your legal document, and write for them in plain language.

Oxford comma

The much-discussed Oxford comma is important in legal writing. Too often, legal documents have errors in clarity as the result of missing punctuation that would make a statement clear. Though many writers in other disciplines think the Oxford comma, or serial comma, is superfluous punctuation, the Oxford comma absolutely has a place in legal writing. Do not take a chance that your sentence will be unclear by leaving out this punctuation mark.

Proofread then proofread again

The last thing you want is to have typos, grammar mistakes, omissions, and punctuation errors in your legal filed documents. Not only could this harm a case you are working on, but it could also cause damage to your reputation as a legal representative if word gets around that you repeatedly have mistakes in your documents. Legal writing can have life or death consequences, so it seems obvious that taking the extra time to ensure correctness is mandatory.

There are services available online that can help you find and fix mistakes in documents of all kinds. In addition to those services, some techniques you can use on your own to proofread your documents include reading the text backwards word by word, reading it out loud by yourself or with a partner, and speaking the punctuation marks out loud to ensure they are the right ones for you. Reading text out loud makes mistakes stand out. Find all those little mistakes, fix them, then read the document again. You should read through your legal documents at least three times before submitting them or sending them to clients.

Active voice

There are generally two types of voice one can write in: active voice and passive voice. Passive voice often requires the reader to fill in gaps, make assumptions, and do extra work to figure out what you are trying to say. In legal writing, this presents an issue with accuracy and honesty in your argument. By using active voice, you can stay clear, concise, and coherent, which is the next principle on the list. Active voice means that you say who is doing the action and what that action is. Do not leave the interpretation up to the reader, because that can leave your case or argument going in a direction you did not intend. Another aspect of using active voice is putting the modifying words as close as you can to the words you are modifying.

Clarity, concision, coherence

Legal writing is just a different form of technical writing. Some elements of technical writing are clarity, concision, and coherence. Without those three elements, your legal document will be unreadable and therefore unhelpful to your case. Even if you are writing for a legal class in law school, your document needs to be clear and understandable. If you are unable to clearly present your argument, then this will signal to the judge or course instructor that you do not fully understand or support your own position. By combining all the previous principles of legal writing above, you can ensure that you have a clear and concise legal document that is coherent enough for the toughest judge.

Legal writing can be intimidating if you think about all the steps you need to take to ensure success of your argument. Start out with an outline, use short sentences, and follow the other principles of legal writing to create success in your legal documents. These principles will take the intimidation out of legal writing. Consider your audience and present your hard facts in a logical order, and you will see success in your legal writing.

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5 types of legal writing

Online Master of Legal Studies » Resources

Legal Writing Tips and Resources

December 16, 2020 

5 types of legal writing

Understanding legal writing is vital for all legal professionals. The ability to write in a concise, compelling manner is a skill that will be leveraged often for those interested in  becoming a paralegal  or  becoming a lawyer . Legal briefs, memos and other legal documents require following certain style conventions and implementing legal reasoning skills. 

This guide includes tips for improving your legal writing skills and additional resources on the subject. 

Why Is Legal Writing Important?

Legal writing is used throughout all practices of law for a variety of documents. These can include:

Predictive writing (e.g., objective legal memoranda)

Legal correspondence (e.g., client advice and demand letters)

Persuasive writing (e.g., motions and briefs)

“Legal writing is an important and integral skill,” said John Flynn, associate professor of law at Elon University School of Law.

Effective legal writing is especially vital for first-year law students as the rest of their courses are doctrine-focused.  

“You need to learn what the law is and how it came to be, but in the first year, the only opportunity you really get to put any of that into action as a skill is legal writing,” Flynn said.

How to Improve Legal Writing Skills

There are a variety of resources available to individuals who are learning legal writing. Practicing the right techniques can also help students improve their skills in this area. Flynn and other resources recommended the following tips.

5 types of legal writing

Talk to Your Legal Writing Instructors

Professors are a great resource for those enrolled in legal writing courses. They might be able to recommend reference books, practice activities and other helpful resources. 

“Most legal writing professors, in my experience, are very accessible and very willing to help you with your writing,” Flynn said.

5 types of legal writing

Reference Legal Writing Examples

According to Flynn, an easy way to learn more about writing certain legal documents is to look at relevant examples. 

“If you’re trying to write a loan agreement or an employment agreement, you need to spend a lot of time looking at what has been done before that’s been tested, it’s been tried, and it works,” he said. 

However, Flynn advised that students, particularly in the first year, should verify their professor’s policy on using materials and examples that are not provided in the course before they use outside references for assignments.

5 types of legal writing

Don’t Procrastinate Legal Writing Projects

It’s important to allot an adequate amount of time when drafting a legal document because the process works best when there is time for revisions. 

“[Legal documents] require drafting and redrafting, putting it down and coming back to it. You cannot throw something together the night before,” Flynn said.

5 types of legal writing

Follow the Formula of Legal Writing

Legal writing can be formulaic, which may be a struggle for some. Flynn explained the  IRAC method , which is used to compose legal documents:

1. Issue: Identify the issue. 

2. Rule: Research the rule/law.

3. Application: Apply the law to the set of facts.

4. Conclusion: Reach a conclusion based on that application.

5 types of legal writing

Summarize Your Conclusions First and Use Clear Headers

Readers may get fatigued, especially while reading a lengthy legal document. To ensure your point comes through, try summarizing your conclusions early on while you may still have the reader’s attention.

Using clear headings and topic sentences also allows readers to identify the topics you are addressing. Within each section, start each paragraph with a clear topic sentence to help readers understand what will follow.

5 types of legal writing

Avoid “Legalese” When Drafting Documents

Flynn says there has been a shift in legal writing to make documents clearer and easier to understand for the layperson. When practicing legal writing, consider making some of the following language considerations: 

“for the duration of”

“for the purpose of holding”

“the reason that”



Eugene Volokh teaches a First Amendment amicus brief clinic at UCLA School of Law and has taught other courses on copyright law, tort law, criminal law and other subjects. He is also the author of the textbook  Academic Legal Writing . Here,  Volokh runs through common “legalese” clunkers to avoid  and their simpler, more readable replacements. According to Volokh, “the replacements aren’t always perfect synonyms, but 90% of the time they’re better than the original.” also offers additional information about using  plain language in the legal profession .

5 types of legal writing

Know Your Audience

According to the late Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, knowing your audience (and connecting with them) is  the key to good legal writing : “There is, however, a certain quality possessed by the really great writer—legal or otherwise—that has nothing to do with brainpower…the ability to place oneself in the shoe’s of one’s audience; to assume only what they assume; to anticipate what they anticipate; to explain what they need explained; to think what they must be thinking; to feel what they must be feeling.”

5 types of legal writing

Avoid Adverbs and Passive Voice

Adverbs are words that modify an adjective, verb or adverb. In legal writing, consider whether the adverbs you use are unnecessary. Eliminating adverbs is one way to make legal writing more concise.

Active voice tells the reader who did what, and it may be more effective than writing in the passive voice. For example, you might want to rewrite “the lease was broken” as “the landlord broke the lease.” The University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Writing Center offers  more information about passive versus active voice .

5 types of legal writing

Edit, Edit, Edit

Spelling, punctuation or grammatical errors may undermine your credibility as a legal expert or professional. Ruthlessly edit your own work, and ask a colleague or trusted friend for a second set of eyes on any important documents.

Resources for Legal Writing 

There are many resources available for those who are looking for additional guidance on improving their legal writing skills. In addition to the resources below, view this helpful  list of legal writing books.

Click the links below to jump to sections with more information about different types of legal writing resources.

Legal Writing Books and Articles

ABA for Law Students: 10 Top Tips for Legal Writing

This article provides a variety of tips on how to improve your legal writing, focusing primarily on structure and word use. Hosted on the ABA for Law Students website, this resource was originally published in Temple ESQ, a publication of Temple University Beasley School of Law. 

ABA Journal : 10 Tips for Better Legal Writing 

Written by Bryan A. Garner, president of LawProse Inc., this entry from the American Bar Association’s  ABA Journal  includes strategies for effective revision of drafted documents, language choices, the research process and more. 

American Bar Association:  10 Tips for Better Legal Writing

This blog post from the American Bar Association recaps a legal writing webinar featuring David Howard Spratt, professor of legal rhetoric at American University Washington College of Law, in the form of a list of tips for improving legal writing skills. 

Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute:  Introduction to Basic Legal Citation

This introduction to basic legal citation was written by Peter W. Martin, the Jane M.G. Foster Professor of Law, Emeritus, former dean of Cornell Law School and co-founder of the Legal Information Institute. The website offers a series of video tutorials on citing major categories of legal sources, including judicial opinions, constitutional and statutory provisions, and agency material.

Lawyers Mutual Inc.:  10 Easy Tips for Powerful Legal Writing

The author of this article, Jay Reeves, touts more than 35 years of experience as a lawyer. Within his list of tips, he includes a variety of strategies for managing the legal writing process and creating engaging, effective documents. 

Legal Talk Network:  Tips for Exceptional Writing Skills  

In an interview to discuss his book,  Legal Writing  Nerd: Be One , author Wayne Schiess offers readers recommendations for advancing their legal writing skills. The interview was originally recorded for a podcast, but the transcript is also provided, allowing visitors to the website to listen to or read Schiess’ advice on drafting legal documents. 

The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law

Encyclopedic in scope,  The   Oxford Handbook of Language and Law  outlines the role of linguistics across the range of legal areas and describes the tools and approaches used by linguists and lawyers in this field. This is a useful primer for non-lawyers interested in the relationship between language and law. The introduction (available for free) explains the aspects of legal language and the ways in which language and law interact.

The Balance Careers:  7 Ways To Improve Your Legal Drafting Skills

This resource is straight to the point and covers some of the basic foundations of effective legal writing. The Balance Careers website also provides other resources for aspiring legal professionals. 

The Indigo Book

The Indigo Book  was compiled by a team of students at the New York University School of Law, working under the direction of professor Christopher Jon Sprigman. The book covers legal citation for U.S. legal materials, as well as books, periodicals and electronic resources. According to Sprigman, “anyone using  The Indigo Book  will produce briefs, memoranda, law review articles and other legal documents with citations that are compatible with the Uniform System of Citation.”

Typography for Lawyers: Essential Tools for Polished & Persuasive Documents

Typography is the style and appearance of printed matter. According to Matthew Butterick, author of  Typography for Lawyers , legal documents are professionally published material and “thus should be held to the same typographic standards.” Excerpts from the book are available for free online and include topics such as type composition, text formatting and page layout.

Back to Top

Legal Writing Online Tools and Resources 

BriefCatch is a computer plug-in specifically developed for legal writing. The editing tool is designed to spot potential issues while drafting a document, including inconsistencies in spelling and punctuation and repetitive word use. 

Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute: Wex

Wex is a free legal dictionary and encyclopedia sponsored and hosted by the Legal Information Institute at the Cornell Law School. Wex entries are collaboratively created and edited by legal experts.


Grammarly is a free browser extension that helps writers assess their grammar, spelling, style and tone. While the tool is for general use, its editing functions can help keep the user’s writing clean and limit errors. Legal Dictionary

Anyone interested in improving their legal vocabulary can search legal terms and definitions on’s free online legal dictionary.

National Archives:  Federal Register: Drafting Legal Documents

The Office of the Federal Register, a division of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, presents this free guide to legal writing to help agencies produce clear, enforceable regulatory documents. Although this resource is intended for federal agencies, others can access the guide to learn how to draft a set of regulations. Helpful topics include principles of clear writing, arrangement of legal documents and format requirements for regulatory documents.


NaturalReader converts text to audio automatically, allowing the user to listen to documents they have drafted. Hearing your writing out loud can make it easier to spot mistakes that might go undetected when re-reading copy. 

WordRake is writing software that uses algorithmic rules to provide targeted feedback based on the writer’s needs. This digital resource can be helpful in writing more precise copy and avoiding spelling and grammatical errors. 

Legal Writing Research Resources


CourtListener is a free legal research website containing legal opinions from federal and state courts. With CourtListener, lawyers, journalists, academics and the public can research an important case, stay up to date with new opinions as they are filed or do deep analysis using raw data. CourtListener is a project of the  Free Law Project , a non-profit public benefit corporation that seeks to provide free access to primary legal materials.

Florida A&M University Libraries: Basic Legal Research

Legal research is one factor of competent law practice. This comprehensive guide from Florida A&M University Libraries explains the components of legal research, including issue spotting, jurisdiction, making a research plan and performing research in print and online.

Law Technology Today: Free Full-Text Online Law Review/Journal Search

This search engine searches for free full text from over 300 online law reviews and law journals, as well as document repositories hosting academic papers and related publications.

Supreme Court of the United States: Oral Arguments

Arguments are an opportunity for Supreme Court Justices to ask questions directly of the attorneys representing the parties to the case and for the attorneys to highlight arguments that they view as particularly important. The Supreme Court maintains argument transcripts and audio as far back as 2010.

UCLA School of Law, Hugh & Hazel Darling Law Library: Legal Research: An Overview: Mandatory v. Persuasive Authority 

When performing legal research, it’s important to understand the differences between mandatory and persuasive authority (or law). The UCLA School of Law explains the different types of authority and how to use them to find cases that support your position or argument.

University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law: Thurgood Marshall Law Library Guide to Legal Research

As part of its mission to assist library users with legal research, the Thurgood Marshall Law Library at the University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law prepares guides to both general legal research and specialized courses. The Guide to Legal Research is a helpful primer on performing legal research using electronic research databases, legal periodicals, legal encyclopedias and other sources.

University of Washington School of Law: Gallagher Law Library Guides

The Gallagher Law Library at the University of Washington School of Law maintains a collection of free legal research guides spanning a wide range of topics, including administrative law, constitutional law, employment law, labor law, trademark law and more. Each guide includes free and commercial resources for conducting legal research.

U.S. Department of Justice: Supreme Court Briefs

A brief is a written argument that a lawyer or party to a case submits to the court before presenting oral arguments; it summarizes the facts of the case as well as the legal reasoning behind the arguments. The U.S. Department of Justice maintains an online database of more than 9,000 Supreme Court briefs spanning from 1985 to present.

Legal Writing Organizations and Blogs

A Lawyer’s Guide to Writing: Marie Buckley’s Blog

Marie Buckley is a lawyer, writing coach and author of  The Lawyer’s Essential Guide to Writing: Proven Tools and Techniques . In addition to specific categories about different types of legal writing (e.g., letters, memos and briefs), the blog also provides tips on proofreading, research, grammar, design and efficient work habits.

Association of Legal Writing Directors (ALWD)

The Association of Legal Writing Directors is a nonprofit professional association of directors of legal reasoning, research, writing, analysis and advocacy programs from law schools throughout the United States. In addition to helpful resources such as the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation and  Legal Communication & Rhetoric , a peer-edited journal dedicated to the substance and practice of professional legal writing, the ALWD also provides information on upper-level writing requirements at numerous U.S. law schools.

LawProse Blog

LawProse claims to be “America’s foremost provider of [Continuing Legal Education] training in legal writing, editing and drafting.” Its blog has hundreds of posts covering a wide range of topics designed to improve legal communications.

Legal Writing Institute

The Legal Writing Institute (LWI) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to “improving legal communication by supporting the development of teaching and scholarly resources and establishing forums to discuss the study, teaching and practice of professional legal writing.”

Legal Writing Pro

Ross Guberman is the author of  Point Made: How To Write Like the Nation’s Top Advocates  and  Point Taken: How To Write Like the World’s Greatest Judges  and was the 2016 recipient of the Legal Writing Institute’s Golden Pen award for making “an extraordinary contribution to the cause of good legal writing.” His blog, Legal Writing Pro, is full of insights, tips and resources for lawyers and non-lawyers alike who want to improve their written communication.

Scribes: The American Society of Legal Writers

Scribes (the American Society of Legal Writers) is a national organization of legal writers. Members include practicing lawyers, state and federal judges, law-school deans and professors, and legal editors. Scribes hosts annual Continuing Legal Education (CLE) seminars, publishes  The Scribes Journal of Legal Writing  and offers tips on legal research, writing and grammar.

Best Local Lawyer Guide

Top 5 Legal Writing Tips for Paralegals

Strong writing skills are essential to your job as a paralegal . The legal industry relies on good communication; and written communication is one of the most commonly relied upon modes. Between emails and letters to clients, opposing counsel, and court officers and various pleadings and responses, paralegals play an important role in helping ensure that the law firm clearly transmits its message.

Yet, it’s not easy to learn to write well (particularly in the legal industry where getting your exact message across is important). Since I’ve taught Legal Research and Writing for paralegals, worked in the legal field for more than a decade, and now work as a professional writer, I thought it would be prudent to provide paralegals and paralegal students with my list of top 5 legal writing tips.

Minimize the Opposition with Passive Writing

Use short sentences and paragraphs, what happens in vagueness stays in vagueness, consider your audience, there you have it.

You can find a lot of great tutorials out there about how you can learn to write in active voice. I’ll give you the same advice I received in high school from my 11 th grade AP English teacher, Ms. Leigh. Do what you can to rid your writing of the following “be” verbs:

It can be difficult to do. You must spend time thinking about how you can reframe the sentence to eliminate those words (and their counterparts; i.e., “having”). However, it helps your writing. Look at a few of the sentences in this paragraph. Note the number of “be” verbs (outside of the example in the parenthesis in the second sentence). Notice that most of the verbs make a stronger sentence because of the lack of “be” verbs.

As a paralegal, you may draft responses on behalf of the firm. Of course, your supervising attorney reviews, approves, and submits the response with their signature. Very few clients truly fall under clean hands. That doesn’t mean your firm won’t successfully represent the client. It just means that sometimes you must admit to facts that are less than appealing about your client. You must also address the opposition’s claims in your response. In both instances, you want to embrace those very “be” verbs I told you to stop using. Why? Because you want to minimize less than flattering information about your client and you want to minimize the effect the opposition’s asserted claims. We don’t remember information as well when it is presented in a passive voice. Passive writing, unless the argument is really strong, is easier to gloss over.

Most paralegals (and lawyers) proudly display their ability to research and write a convincing argument. If you’ve ever looked up a case on Lexis, WestLaw, or any other legal research site, you’ve read pleadings, responses, and opinions with huge paragraphs and never-ending sentences. If you were a busy judge or law clerk working for the judge, how thrilled would you be? Long paragraphs and long sentences make it difficult on your reader. What if time constraints mean they can’t read the entire pleading or response in one sitting? Short sentences and paragraphs make it easier for your reader to find a natural place to stop.

When I taught Legal Research and Writing for paralegals, there was one concept that I wanted my students to hold onto (even if they felt they didn’t learn anything else. If you’re a student and you haven’t taken LRW I, please understand that at least the first half of it is a return visit to Grammar Island!). I wanted my students to understand the importance of fully defining or explaining what they meant because what happens in vagueness stays in vagueness. It also gives the opposing side the opportunity to define what you’re attempting to say. Write in a way that is clear.

Do you explain a complicated concept to a 50-year-old and a six-year-old in the same way? Of course not. You wouldn’t want to patronize a 50-year-old. You wouldn’t want to talk over the head of a child. In the legal industry, you must consider who will receive and read the document, the purpose of the document, and the experience the recipient has when it comes to legal concepts. Using Latin terms that clients may not understand because it’s the right term could make you look smart. However, it doesn’t help the client. You want to explain things in a way that your reader understands it.

There are so many other tips that I could give you to help you improve your legal writing. The above tips are the most important (in my humble opinion). Check out your Legal Research and Writing book. Most have an entire section devoted to tips. If your book doesn’t, just look at the table of contents. Make sure that you review areas where you struggle or where you’d simply like to improve. Happy writing!

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5 types of legal writing



Five Ways to Improve Your Legal Writing Skills

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If you were to take a guess on the most important skill lawyers should have, your guess should be “writing”. It is one of the skills that cannot be overrated in the profession and a fundamental skill for every practicing lawyer. Many people may suggest “speaking” or “oratory skills”, and “advocacy”, but that is just one aspect of legal practice. Having good oratory skills will come in most handy when lawyers are in court, or in negotiation situations. But let’s face it, only a fraction of lawyers will engage in those activities throughout their careers.

On the other hand, every lawyer must write.

Writing and the Legal Profession

Many articles and expert pieces exist on the internet regarding what should or should not be in a piece of legal writing.  Most of these materials contain one or two general pieces of advice that apply to almost every form of legal writing. However, one reason why most of these articles may not be reliable is that legal writing takes different forms. The rules that apply to writing a brief argument will not apply to a contract, and a contract will also appear different from a deed. Furthermore, when we consider the fact that there are various forms of contracts and transactions, and different forms of deeds (depending on the jurisdiction), we truly appreciate the diversity in legal writing.

Writing is so essential to the legal profession that it begins right from law school. Succeeding or failing at law school hugely depends on how well you are able to present points and arguments, to properly answer questions and problems presented to you in exams. It becomes even more necessary during job applications to different law firms, by writing the most enticing cover letters possible, in order to convince law firms to consider you for the vacant position.

The importance of writing will become more apparent to you as you progress in your years of practice. You will be required to handle tasks of higher priority, with more issues at stake. Your writing skills will have to develop as you move up the ladder, to maintain your level of productivity, and client satisfaction.

In this article, we explore useful tips for lawyers to adopt, in order to improve the quality of their writing. There is no “perfect” writing, which is why the quality of your written pieces can always be improved. What matters is that whatever document you are creating is done to the best of your ability. So, let’s improve these abilities!

The Use of Outlines

The most understandable pieces of writing are the ones with specific outlines. This also applies to other areas apart from the legal profession. For lawyers however, creating outlines may be a bit complicated. Some legal documents – like deeds and some other types of agreements – have specific outlines created under the law of their different jurisdictions. Some contracts also have ready made templates by some legal contract software programs. However, there are still many documents created by lawyers that will require creating new outlines by the writer to make the document more understandable. The most relatable example is a brief of argument or a counsel’s written address. When a document is aimed at convincing the court to rule in favor of a party, it is only reasonable that the arguments should be well arranged and presented in a convincing manner. Having an outline helps in achieving this. It guides the reader’s train of thought in understanding the contents of the document and gives the lawyer a good chance at winning the case.

Writing Concisely

Even the best of lawyers find themselves breaking this rule sometimes. Lawyers have the tendency to over explain themselves when trying to make a point, which kind of comes with the territory – your job as a lawyer, most times, is to make a point. Many lawyers take this habit to their writing, using long and complicated sentences in forming their documents. This method of writing is heavily counterproductive. It makes the sentences and paragraphs difficult to follow by the reader and renders the document entirely boring. Using short and concise sentences is a better way to present sentences and points. They are easier to read, more understandable, and most importantly, less boring.

Proper Topic Sentences

Topic sentences are the sentences that begin your paragraphs. They set the tone for the entire paragraph, and sometimes, the rest of the document. Topic sentences are more important when it comes to shorter documents. The impression given to the reader by the topic sentence is likely to last the entire document. The impression of a good topic sentence is left on the subconscious of the reader. It keeps the reader interested in what comes ahead, and provides a context for the rest of the paragraph. For some documents, the topic sentence of each paragraph already completes half the job, if properly written. It serves the dual purpose of introducing the paragraph to the reader, and briefly summarising the subsequent sentences.

Writing in Active Voice

This is closely related to the concise writing tip, which we addressed earlier. Simply put, sentences are better when written in an active voice. Speaking in a passive voice may sound elegant and sophisticated, but that is not the aim of writing. Writing is supposed to be clear, simple, and easy to understand. That is where the sophistication of any piece of writing comes from. For example, “the defendant took a trip” is a simpler and clearer sentence than “a trip was taken by the defendant”, even if they both mean the same thing. Again, the aim of writing is to pass a message to the reader, without going through any deal of stress before understanding the written text. Consistently writing in passive voice , rather than active, will make it increasingly difficult to achieve that.

Editing, Proofreading, and Reviewing

Ernest Hemingway, one of the most revered writers in history, was particularly vocal about the absolute lack of quality in any first draft. Every document should be reread, edited, and rewritten as many times as possible. It is more possible for a document to be underwritten than overwritten.

After you complete your first draft, go over the document all over again. Edit your sentences by rewriting them and making them look better. Look out for sentences that look too complex and simplify them as best as possible. Replace sentences in the passive voice with active voice and find simpler synonyms for heavy vocabularies. Upon completing the second or third draft, proofread for grammatical errors. Software like Grammarly could come in handy at this point. Finally, share your document(s) with teammates or other colleagues to review. A second perspective may be more beneficial than you think.

Finally, like any other endeavour, you get better at writing by writing. Practice your writing as much as possible, especially at the early stages of your career. Volunteer to write less delicate documents on behalf of your firm, and look to your superiors for comments and corrections. At some point in your career, your client’s life or business will depend on what you write, and how well you write it. You want to be fully prepared when that time comes!

Kateryna Pidhaina

About the Author

Kateryna Pidhaina is a member of the marketing team in a product IT company.

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Academic Writing Services: 5 Companies with Professional Academic Writers in the US

Academic writing services are available to help students with written assignments. Find out what you should know before you choose one.

Los Angeles, CA --News Direct-- Academic Observer

Writing isn't something everyone is good at. So many styles exist and there are rules to follow. These are the reasons behind the development of academic writing services.

Academic writing companies employ professional academic writers to help students of all levels develop their writing skills and produce essays, research papers, and other written assignments. These companies help ensure students get the help they need to achieve high grades on all kinds of academic writing projects.

In this article, we're exploring five companies with professional academic writers in the U.S. Keep reading to see which academic essay writing services make the cut and how we made our picks.

Academic Writing Service Reviews

Now let's dive into some of the companies out there providing the best academic writing services online. We'll tell you what we like, what we don't like, and what you should know before choosing an essay service for your needs.

#1. EssayPro

EssayPro is an academic writing website that helps students as much or as little as they desire. You can get everything from a quick proofreading all the way to an entire paper written with this company. They promise high quality, originality, and quick turnaround.

Quality: EssayPro has been in business for more than 10 years and part of the online market for more than seven. Their website boasts more than 1.5 million happy customers. You don't get that without high quality work. There is also a fairly generous refund policy in place so customers know there is recourse if something goes wrong.

Prices: Pricing for services is determined by what you need done. EssayPro provides professional academic writing help for less than many of the other reputable writing companies. Full essays start at a price of $11.80 per page. Average prices hover closer to $20 per page.

Reputation: EssayPro has a good reputation. One of the aspects many users like is that they have the option to vet professional paper writers and choose the one they want. EssayPro is highly transparent about how they do things and who is writing the papers. They're known for good responsiveness, good value, and timeliness.

Writers: This company has amassed a team of writers of more than 1,400. That means, if you're looking for a specific type of writer, you'll find it. Customers can see what expertise each professional writer has, their credentials, reviews from prior customers, and more. EssayPro also puts their qualified academic writers through a series of test projects before deciding to bring them on.

In terms of the four categories we just mentioned, EssayPro is one of the best companies in the business. They have a great reputation with the majority of their customers coming back. They produce high quality work for reasonable prices. And they have a wide variety of essay writers for any type of project.

#2. PaperHelp

PaperHelp is another popular academic writing service that works on a smaller scale than EssayPro. The company has built a reputation for writers who are great with time management. PaperHelp hires highly qualified writers who have more than just a degree behind them.

Quality: Users of this company have many good things to say about their services. They have a quality rating of 90%+ in terms of happy customers. 88% of their users are repeat customers. If you don't like something about your finished college essay, you will get free revisions until it's to your liking. Also, all writing is 100% original.

Prices: Pricing for PaperHelp is based on the type of paper, the level of the writer, the turnaround time, the number of pages, and any additions, such as abstracts. High school papers start as low as $10 per page. However, the higher level papers could cost upwards of $30 per page.

Reputation: PaperHelp has an excellent reputation. They're one of the leaders in the industry. They've been around for quite a while and have many customers that come back for more. They offer plagiarism reports, free revisions, and proofreading/editing services that are cheap and quick.

Writers: This company requires their writers to provide samples of their work. They test them and only hire pro academic writers who've proven themselves to be highly skilled and good with time management. They place essay writers in different categories based on their levels of skill so users can choose the best fit for their academic writing needs.

Overall, PaperHelp is a good option for almost any type of writing assignment and at any level. You will likely end up paying more for the higher level writing with them than you would with other companies, but you'll get what you pay for. They produce high quality work that college students can trust.

#3. JustDoMyEssay

JustDoMyEssay is an academic writing company that puts strong emphasis on putting the customer at the center of everything. They strive to provide original and high quality work but also to give each customer an extraordinary experience. They offer all levels of papers from basic to advanced and even business writing.

Quality: Users rave about the originality of the work they get back. There are no pre-written papers handed out by JustDoMyEssay. Professional academic writers take in all the information you give them and craft an academic paper that's well written and researched.

Prices: This platform is a bit costlier than many of the others. Papers start at $17 per page. Proofreading is about $10 per every 300 words. Though the prices start higher, most user reviews reflect the end product is worth it.

Reputation: JustDoMyEssay has been around for about a decade. They've built a solid reputation in this industry. Not only are they known for high quality work, they also have a highly responsive customer support team. In the event you're not happy with the paper, your writer will make necessary revisions and there's a money-back guarantee in place, as well.

Writers: The writers are all college educated and have plenty of experience. The company has about 500 of them. Before your project gets started, you have the opportunity to speak to your online paper writer privately. It allows you to vet your writer on a deeper level.

JustDoMyEssay is a popular custom essay writing service. The company employs experienced writers in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada. They are rated high for quality and timeliness. They meet deadlines and the customer service team responds to inquiries quickly, so students don't need to worry about having assignments completed in time.

#4. SpeedyPaper

SpeedyPaper is another essay writing company, especially if you're working on a tight deadline. This company promises to get you the paper you need even if you only have hours left until turn in time.

Quality: SpeedyPaper writers work until you're happy with your paper. If something isn't quite right, they will revise it. The company also offers a money-back guarantee, so you get peace of mind knowing you have options. This company has nearly 100,000 reviews from happy customers.

Prices: SpeedyPaper bases prices largely on turnaround time. They have tiers of pricing based on how quickly you need the paper back and what level the assignment is. The more time you have to wait for your paper, the cheaper your order will be. High school papers with 20+ days until they're due start at $9 per page.

Reputation: This company hasn't been around as long as some of the others in this list but they've built a solid, positive reputation. They employ thousands of writers to make good on their deadlines without compromising quality or customer service.

Writers: SpeedyPaper finds their writers on platforms such as LinkedIn. They have a process that allows them to vet writers on their backgrounds and lets them see what kind of writing they're experienced in. The best essay writers on the platform are also paid well based on their levels of experience and writing skills. The philosophy is that well-paid writers produce high quality work.

SpeedyPaper lives up to its name in that they deliver on the promise that you will get your paper in a timely manner every time. The prices are reasonable and this company has so many writers that you can order any type of paper there is and they have someone who's skills can accommodate.

#5. GradeMiners

GradeMiners has built their reputation off a strong promise of quality work. They have many processes in place that all lend to getting customers the high level of quality writing they're looking for. This company has one of the largest teams of writers in the industry who are all dedicated to helping people achieve their goals.

Quality: GradeMiners promises you won't have to accept a paper you're not happy with. The writers don't stop revising until you're satisfied or you decide you want a refund. They provide professional level writing in many categories. You can order for all levels of education, as well as business needs. This company also provides high level editing and proofreading services.

Prices: The pricing is in line with many of their competitors. Your price will go up based on the turnaround time, the length of the assignment, and the level of expertise needed to write it. A basic essay starts at around $8 per page and it goes up from there.

Reputation: GradeMiners has a good reputation in this area. Many of their customers come back for more orders once they see the good grades generated by their original purchases. This company is known for original writing and they prove it through plagiarism checks. They have professional editors that review every paper before it goes out. You can also opt into a double edit-check.

Writers: All of GradeMiners' writers have 3 years professional writing experience, at a minimum. They're all college graduates and most have graduate degrees, as well. The writers will revise anything you don't like, so you walk away with a paper you're proud of.

GradeMiners has the largest team of the best academic writers out of all the companies we've discussed above. They've also been around longer than many similar companies. They were established in 2009. Though the business has evolved along the way, the goal to help students be successful in their educational journeys has remained the same.

What Are Academic Paper Writing Services?

Let's start with a broad overview of what online academic writing services are. These aren't just services that take the work off the student. These are meant to make the student a better writer, too, if that's what they're looking for.

Writing companies hire professional writers that help students fine tune their writing. They can assist with development of a research paper, help with a thesis, outlining an essay, structuring a paper, understanding of writing styles, grammar and spelling, and more.

These writing services can also provide full written assignments for those who wish to pay for that. Not all websites that prove academic writing assistance are good quality, though. So, you'll want to do your research when you're planning to trust a company to write for you.

Here's How We Evaluated These Companies

We used four areas of consideration to evaluate these academic writing services. They are:

Looking at each company with regards to the same factors allows for easier comparisons. You can choose the right academic service for you based on specific needs. For instance, if you need a service that is able to produce assignments within hours, SpeedyPaper has some of the fastest turnaround times on the market.

You shouldn't choose a company based on just one factor, though. Look at all of the areas, together. You may find the cheapest service on the internet, but if the company lacks quality writers and has a bad reputation for timeliness, it will be a waste of money. Price is important but it's not the only important factor.

The following are questions that come up quite often in discussions about academic writing services. Read on for more useful information about these kinds of companies.

What Is an Academic Writing Service and How Does It Work?

Academic essay writing services help students who struggle with writing assignments by providing an option to order what they need. Whether it be an entire paper that needs ordering or some good editing, these companies provide their services in whatever capacity is needed.

Generally, you go into the order form for the website. You select the level you need and the turnaround time. Usually, the faster the turnaround is, the more it will cost you. You'll provide all the information you have for the assignment and any research or notes you have of your own.

Some companies allow customers to have time to talk to their writers for a better understanding of what you are looking for.

Once the paper is completed, it's usually sent through editing before it's delivered to you. You may have the option to have multiple revisions, if needed, as well.

What Is the Best Academic Writing Service?

The best essay writing site for you may not be the same as someone else would say. This is because we don't all have the same needs. We're writing at different levels and have all sorts of different assignments covering various topics.

That being said, there is one that fits the bill for an overall best service. PaperHelp is our overall winner for best academic writing service. The company has a great reputation and most of its customers are repeat buyers.

There is a loyalty program offered, a satisfaction guarantee, an expert editing team, and much more for users to rave about. This is our pick for the best combination of benefits provided.

How Much Does an Academic Writing Page Cost?

The price per page of your order depends on what you're having written. A basic essay page isn't going to cost nearly as much as a page for a thesis. This is how a typical paper writing service breaks its prices down, though. You'll find a per page price for each level.

The level isn't the only determining factor of the price, however. If you need a paper written by the next day, you will pay more than for a paper due in three weeks. You pay more for a shorter timeline.

Specialized topics will also cost more per page. Let's say you have a highly technical paper that needs writing. Not all writers are skilled in writing technical essays. This type of specialized writing may raise the price you pay per page, as well.

Many services start their prices around $8 to $10 per page for basic, high school level essays.

Can You Get Caught Using Essay Writing Services?

There is a risk involved with using an essay writing service. You can minimize your risk, though, by being diligent in your quest to choose a reputable one.

When you search academic writing services, you'll find some that are extremely inexpensive. You may think you've found an incredible deal, but the truth is, if it's too good to be true, it most likely is.

Cheap services exist all over the Internet. The problem with these is they're not usually selling original work. Most of these companies are working with a limited bank of stored papers plagiarized from several different sources. They choose papers to deliver to you based on what information you give them but don't actually write anything themselves.

Other services hire inexperienced writers or people who's native language is something other than English. They do this so they can pay them little and work them a lot. They do not have any type of revision plan, nor do they offer refunds.

Should you get caught by your school, the penalty is usually quite severe. Many schools use detection software to scan for plagiarism and errors. If you use a reputable academic writing help service like the ones in this article, you won't have to worry about getting caught.

What Types of Papers Do Academic Writing Companies Provide?

Different companies may offer different types of papers. Generally, there are some basic academic papers that most of these companies offer. They include:

Opinion papers


Some services break away from the basics, though, and get into more specialized paper writing. You can order Ph.D level assignments. You can get help with your thesis, dissertations, college entrance papers, and more.

There are also companies that offer writing for beyond school. If you do your research, you can find some professional academic writing services that provide business writing, as well.

Are Essay Writing Companies Legal?

Companies providing academic essay writing services are legal. There are some ethical guidelines they must follow. There are also laws governing plagiarism and content ownership that these companies must abide by to operate legally.

Services selling plagiarized content are not operating legally. This is why it's so important that you research companies before you order anything from them.

Reputable essay writing companies abide by all laws and have strict ethical guidelines in place so they may continue to assist students in their academic careers.

How Much Do Academic Writers Make?

The answer to this question depends highly on the writers themselves. Academic writers may be employed by writing services like the companies in this article, or they may find work as freelance writers.

Some academic writers only do their writing as a side gig to supplement income alongside their full time jobs. They make anywhere from a few hundred dollars to a couple thousand per month.

Full time academic writers often make much more. Some of the top earners make close to $80,000 a year. This is just an average, though. There are plenty of academic writers making well above the average and some who don't make as much.

Academic Writing Assistance: Final Thoughts

Professional writing services evolved out of a need for help. Many students struggle with writing assignments even if they are good with the class subject. All these companies help students, who otherwise have impressive grades, sustain them even when they're not good writers.

Legit writing services provide high quality original work in a timely manner. You can get your papers edited, proofread, revised, and rewritten, as well.

Many reputable companies provide academic writing services of high quality, at a decent price. Beware, though, of other websites selling plagiarized and duplicated papers to students in need. Be diligent in selecting the right service for your needs.

Contact Details

Liam Holland

[email protected]

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