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6. an argument.
A: John, I was talking to the travel agent about where we might be taking our vacation this year. B: I am going fishing in Alaska with my friend, Mark. A: What are you talking about? B: What's wrong with heading out with Mark for vacation? A: You and I have been together for a whole year, and our vacation time should be about the two of us! B: Really? Who made that rule up? A: With that attitude, I don't really think we have much more to discuss here. B: That works for me!
A: John, I was looking through some magazines for ideas about where we might go on vacation this year. B: I've already told my buddy, Mark, that I am going hunting with him in Alaska. A: You can't be serious! B: Hey, I've always gone hunting or fishing on vacation. I am sorry that bothers you. A: After a year together, I thought it pretty safe to assume that we would automatically spend our vacation together. B: Says who? I don't think that is necessarily the case. A: You know, now that I think about it, I really don't have much more to say to you at all! B: Whatever you say!
A: Brian and Christina were mentioning that maybe it would be fun to go on vacation together this year, John. B: I thought that I already told you that I am going with Mark to Alaska. A: Are you kidding me? B: You know what? You and I had no plans, so I made plans with Mark. What's the problem? A: We have been together for a year and usually, people who've been together a year, take their vacation together. B: I don't think that I ever heard of that rule before. Any more rules that you would like to tell me about? A: Go on your vacation with Mark and when you come back, why don't you just move in with him as well! B: I am really looking forward to getting away from you. Far away from you!
Practice the Conversations of This Topic with Mike
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Digital words from another white guy @folkinhoosier, father-son argument (dialogue only 1200 word challenge).
Day 12 – 1200 words (dialogue-only skit b/t two people in argument)
Dad: Did you do it yet? Son: Do what? Dad: You know what I’m talking— Son: In a minute, okay? Dad: No, son. Now. Please. Son: Why does it have to be this moment? Dad: Because I… Son Nope. You can’t! Remember? Dad: Wait…What? Remember what? Son: Probably like…ten years ago. I remember! You sat me down one night. I was probably like seven or ten or something. Dad: That math tutor sure was worth it. Son: You said, “Ahem, well, uh…listen son. I want to do things differently…If you ever hear me begin to say ‘Because I said so’ you gotta just slap me and remind me how much I hated hearing it growing up.” Dad: That voice…that was supposed to be what I sound like? Son: Seriously though. Dad: I am serious. I need you to do it…now. Soon. Your mother will be here any time. Son: And that’s my problem because… Dad: C’mon, man. I can’t do this right now. You’re almost a grown man. It’s time to start taking… Son: Care of myself. Yeah. I get it. You and Mom are ready for me to be out. Dad: Well, you’ve already finished one year of coll– Son: Save it, Dad! I know! Dad: Whoa! What’s with that shit? Son: I’ll do it! I mean…Jesus! Why does it matter so much? Dad: It just does. I guess you’ll… Son: Oh shit…lemme guess. understand better when I’m a father? Dad: I, uh..wasn’t going to say that. Son: Right. Dad: Okay, fine. Just…please do it. Like I said, she’ll be here soon. Son: Have you always been afraid of her? Dad: What did you just say? Son: I said, ‘Have you always been afraid of her?’ Dad: What the fuck, man? Son: Touch a nerve? Dad: I’m about to… Son: Hey! Dad: College is changing you, son. In ways I didn’t expect. Son: Wait. Come back. Dad! Dad: What. Son: I’ m sorry. That was…out of line, I guess. Dad: Oh, you guess? Son: It was. I’m sorry. Dad: I’m…sorry too. Son: What do you have to be sorry fo?. I deserved it. Dad: No. You really didn’t. Not now. Defnitely not when you were younger. Son: I’d…actually disagree. It made me who I am. Dad: But you gotta understand, son. It’s not something dads want at the top of their parenting resume. Son: What’s the big deal? You spanked your kids when they acted up. Who doesn’t do that? Dad: Well, your mother for one. Son: I meant dads. Dad: Well…mine didn’t. Son: But he wasn’t in your life. Dad: Uh-huh. Son: Okay. Here’s my thing. I mean, kids are going to test you. Shit, Dad. I just did not two seconds ago. At least when they’re a certain age, you gotta set ‘em straight, right? Dad: Can I sit on that thing? Son: What, the bookshelf? Dad: No. That? Son: Oh. Sure. Lemme just….here ya go. Dad: Thanks. Huh. More comfy than I woulda imagined. Son: We got it worn in this past year, my roommate and I. Dad: I’d say so. Wait. Son: What? Dad: Um…did you, ya know…with anyone on this? Son: Um… Dad: I’ll get a chair. Son: Sorry, Dad. Dad: It’s fine. Glad I asked, at least. Son: Why don’t we just go get some coffee. Dad: That’d be nice…except you didn’t do what I came in here for in the first place. Son: Shit. Okay. I’m willing to do it. Dad: That’s remarkable. Son: Okay, okay. I get it. Dad: Do you? Son: Ha! Not really. But I feel guilty now. You know…your back, or whatever. Dad: Just don’t be in a rush to get older, son. Son: You kiddin’? I’m never gettin’ old. Dad: Don’t let your mother hear you say that. Son: Ugh…she takes everything I say the wrong way. Dad: Son…she’s a mother. She just cares. Son: I know, Dad. I know. But I’ll bet she only tells you part of the story. Dad: Are you suggesting that your mother would not be completely open with me? Son: What? What’s that mean? Dad: I was just being a dick. Son: Ha! Dad: Okay. I’m gonna get a chair. I’d prefer not to sit on that bed…for obvious reasons. In the meantime, please do it. Begin it. Do something to exhibit you heard her earlier and want to make her happy. She likes that. Son: Being happy? Dad: You know what I mean. Son: Okay….Dad! Don’t!! Dad: Why’d that happen? Son: I forgot those were there. Dad: You couldn’t even finish it? Son: Shit. I forgot I put it down last night. Dad: Now we’re both in it. She’s going to get here any second and we’ll be sopping up warm beer off that new carpet. Son: Shit. Dad: Dammit! It was one of the imports too! Son: Yeah. Lemme get some cleaning stuff. Didn’t know you liked those fancy beers. Dad: I splurge from time to time. Didn’t know you thought it was okay to drink in this house. You forget you’re only nineteen? Son: No. That’s impossible. Dad: Well, now we’re both in it. The room’s not clean. There’s beer on that new carpet. She’s going to be triple-pissed. So much for a fun weekend. Son: Dad! Relax! Dad: Shit! Son: What’s wrong? Dad: Oh, no!! Son: Is it your back? Dad: Yeah, son! I’m a grown man crouched on the fucking floor! Son: What can I do? Dad: Oh my god! Goddammit! Son: Dad! Relax! Dad: Shut up! Son: I mean, don’t let it tense up! Here…sort of fall into this beanbag. Dad: But you… Son: Just do it, Dad! Dad: I don’t want to think about what’s rubbed up against this fucking thing! Son: Then don’t! Dad: She’d better have been worth it is all I’m saying. This is torture. Son: Do you have any…pills or anything you need? Dad: In my…I mean…wait. Lemme think. I uh..put them… Son: Dad! Think! Where were you the last time you took them? Dad: Yelling at me isn’t going to speed up my memory! Son: Okay! I’m sorry! I’ve just never seen you… Dad: Nightstand. Son: What? Dad: For God’s sake…I took them a couple nights ago right before I went to sleep. They must be next to my bed. Son: Okay. Just…breathe… Dad: I’m not having a baby, son. Son: I mean…relax. I’ll be right back. Dad: Check around the floor if they aren’t on there! Son: Dad? Dad: Did you find them? Son: Sort of. Dad: What? Jesus. Either you did or you didn’t. Son: Well, you were right. They were next to your bed. Dad: Gimme two. And some water from your bathroom will be fine. Son: The bottle’s empty. Dad: What?! Son: All I found was the empty bottle. Dad: How can that be? I just filled it….lemme see…when did we go… Son: It says a refill is allowed but with doctor’s approval. Dad: Shit. It’s Saturday. Son: So it can’t be filled until Monday? Dad: Fuck it. I’ll just lay here face down in….ugh…whatever’s been on this beanbag until Monday. Son: Wait! I hear Mom. Dad: We’re both fucked now. Son: What does that mean? Dad: I was kidding. Go get the door for her. Son: Hey, mom! Is that dad’s prescription? When did you get that purse?
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Writing Exercise: Ten Lines of Argument Between Two People in Love
- Jul. 30th, 2013 at 5:05 PM
Write ten lines of dialogue which is an argument between two people. It must be a genuine argument, but it must also be clear that they are in love. No descriptions or direction, just dialogue.
- writing exercise
- 15 comments
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- (Anonymous) 4 Feb 2021, 03:59 Zutara vs. The Canon Pairings: Which is Better? (Zutara vs. The Canon Pairings, 3/3) It is ludicrous though. Aang did value family, which would be for him, his people. He didn't constantly think of them or literally "replace" his love for them with his love for Katara for no reason.…
- (Anonymous) 4 Feb 2021, 03:32 Zutara vs. The Canon Pairings: Which is Better? (Zutara vs. The Canon Pairings, 3/3) Ah yes..back here again. To reaffirm (not that I needed to) why Kataang is a top tier ship.
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Combining explanation and argumentation in dialogue
Issue title: Computational models of natural argument
Guest editors: Floriana Grasso, Floris Bex and Nancy Green
Article type: Research Article
Authors: Bex, Floris a ; * | Walton, Douglas b
Affiliations: [ a ] Department of Information and Computing Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.089, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands | [ b ] Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric, Philosophy Department, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4, Canada
Correspondence: [*] Corresponding author. E-mail: [email protected] .
Keywords: Argumentation, explanation, dialogue
Journal: Argument & Computation , vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 55-68, 2016
Explanation and argumentation can be used together in such a way that evidence, in the form of arguments, is used to support explanations. In a hybrid system, the interlocking of argument and explanation compounds the problem of how to differentiate between them. The distinction is imperative if we want to avoid the mistake of treating something as fallacious while it is not. Furthermore, the two forms of reasoning may influence dialogue protocol and strategy. In this paper a basis for solving the problem is proposed using a dialogue model where the context of the dialogue is used to distinguish argument from explanation.
The hybrid model of [ 2 , 6 ] combines arguments and explanations in such a way that an argument can support an explanation. The idea of argumentation and explanation being combined is also familiar in the notion of inference to the best explanation. But in general, there is a difference between argument and explanation, and as we will show in this paper, it would be a fundamental error to criticize an argument as falling short of standards for a rational argument, when what was put forward was actually an explanation.
A problem is that in many cases of natural language discourse, the same piece of discourse can reasonably be interpreted as either an explanation or an argument. Similarly, a question ‘Why?’ can be interpreted as either asking for a reason that supports some claim of the speaker or as asking for an explanation for some observed anomaly. So here we have a pervasive problem, which can only be solved if we can find some clear and useful method of distinguishing between explanations and arguments. It is not only a problem for logic and discourse analysis, but also for explanation systems in computing [ 7 ], and particularly for hybrid models that combine argument with explanation [ 6 , 18 ].
Our solution to the problem of distinguishing argument and explanation lies in dialogue, more specifically, in speech act theory [ 25 ]. According to this view, it is the illocutionary force of the speech act in a dialogue that determines whether reasoning is argumentation or explanation [ 4 ]. Illocutionary force can be seen as the intention of uttering some locution: one can say p with an intention of explaining p , arguing for p , challenging p , promising p and so on. We thus argue that the distinction between argument and explanation is not a logical one but rather that the only correct way of making this distinction is to look at the dialogical context.
The question is then how to determine the purpose or intention of uttering a locution. In other words, how do we know whether some assertion is meant to explain a proposition or argue for it? The solution lies in the different purposes of explanation and argumentation. Argumentation is meant to convince someone else, explanation is aimed at helping them understand. Hence, the rules for argumentation and explanation are different.
There are various reasons for wanting to properly distinguish between argumentation and explanation. For example, we might want to be able to handle situations in which argumentation is fallacious whilst explanation is not. Furthermore, confusion of argumentation and explanation may lead to undesirable misunderstandings and unwanted behaviour in multi-agent dialogue, as the use of either argumentative or explanatory techniques may influence dialogue protocol and strategy. Finally, the distinction is important in the analysis of natural language texts.
In this paper, we discuss argumentation and explanation and how to distinguish between them. We also discuss an example of the fallacy of begging the question, which in a case of an argument is a fallacy but for explanation it may not be. In Section 3 we then show how argument and explanation can be combined in a dialogical setting and how the rules for arguing differ from the rules for explaining.
2. Argumentation and explanation
How can one determine, in a given text of discourse where it is said that one event occurred because of another event, the text should be taken as representing an argument or an explanation? The problem is that cases where a given text of discourse could be interpreted as expressing either an argument or an explanation are fairly common, as an instructor of an informal logic course can tell you. Another factor is that in artificial intelligence, something called a justification explanation been recognized [ 7 ], suggesting that argument and explanation are often combined and work together. Suffice it to say that abductive reasoning, also commonly called inference to the best explanation, is just such a species of argument. There is also a tendency among students who are learning to use argumentation techniques in introductory logic courses, once they have learned some tools to analyze and evaluate arguments, to see any text of discourse they are given as expressing an argument. This can be a problem. The student who treats an explanation as an erroneous argument committing a fallacy, for example the fallacy of arguing in a circle, when the argument is really an explanation, has committed an error by misapplying logic.
Logic textbooks attempt to solve this problem by offering a pragmatic test to determine, in a given case, whether a passage expresses an argument or an explanation, namely by looking at how the discourse is being used in the given case. If it is being used to prove something that is in doubt, it is an argument. If it is being used to convey understanding of something that does not make sense or is incomprehensible, it is an explanation. The focus of this way of drawing the distinction is on the proposition or event that is to be explained or proved. If it is not subject to doubt (e.g. it is generally accepted as true, or can be taken for granted as true), the bit of text in question should be taken as an explanation. If it is subject to doubt, that is, if it is unsettled whether it is true or not, then the bit of text in question should be taken as an argument.
Let’s look at two examples of explanations cited in the most widely used logic textbook [ 14 , p. 19]. Here is the first one: the Challenger spacecraft exploded after liftoff because an O-ring failed in one of the booster rockets. Classifying this assertion as an argument or an explanation depends on whether the statement that the Challenger spacecraft exploded after liftoff should be taken as a statement that is accepted as factual or whether it should be taken to be a statement that is subject to doubt and that requires proof, or at least some supporting evidence, before it is accepted. The statement that the O-ring failed is not being used to prove the statement that the spacecraft exploded. That the spacecraft exploded is not in doubt. Most of us graphically remember seeing the exploding spacecraft on TV. The passage quoted above is not trying to prove that statement by providing evidence or reasons that support or imply it. The passage assumes that it is an accepted matter of fact that the spacecraft exploded, and is trying to show why it exploded. So the passage contains an explanation, as opposed to an argument. Because it is generally taken as common knowledge that the Challenger spacecraft exploded after liftoff, the whole causal statement is taken as an explanation.
The same principle applies to the second example: cows can digest grass, while humans cannot, because their digestive systems contain enzymes not found in humans. Should we take it as an accepted fact that cows can digest grass while humans cannot, or should we take this statement as subject to doubt and something that needs to be proved before it can be accepted? Again, it seems fairly plausible that the statement that cows can digest grass while humans cannot is generally accepted as part of common knowledge. If so it does not need to be proved, and the compound statement joined by the causal ‘because’ connective should be taken as an explanation.
We need to be aware, however, that this distinction based on common knowledge is not the only criterion required to distinguish arguments from explanations in a natural language text of discourse. Another part of the evidence or the so-called indicator words, like ‘therefore’, ‘since’, ‘accordingly’, and so forth. The problem is that the same indicator words are often used with respect to both arguments and explanations. Hence in any individual case one has to look carefully at the details of the actual text of discourse in the given case.
In the context of argumentation, premises are offered as proof of a conclusion or a claim, often in order to persuade someone or settle an issue that is subject to doubt or disputation. A number of computational models of argumentation have emerged and matured in the past twenty-or-so years [ 20 ] and the computational aspects of the dialectics of argument and of the structure of argument are well understood (cf. [ 19 ]).
In the context of explanation, the explananda (facts to be explained) are explained by a coherent set of explanans (facts that explain). The usual purpose of explanation is not necessarily to convince someone but rather to help someone understand why the explananda are the case. Computational models for explanation are mainly based on the technique of abductive (model-based) reasoning, which has been studied in the context of medical and system diagnosis [ 9 ]; other examples of computational explanation are [ 8 ], which models explanatory dialogues, and [ 24 ], which uses explanations for natural language understanding.
Despite the interest in dialogue treatments of explanation, the formal dialectical systems deriving from the early work of Hamblin treat only arguments. In Hamblin’s ‘ Why-Because System with Questions ’ [ 12 , pp. 265–276], there are two participants who take turns making moves following syntactical rules (protocols). For example, when one party asks the question ‘Why A?’, the other party must reply with one of three speech acts: Assertion A; No commitment A; Statements B, B → A (where → represents the material conditional of propositional calculus). The language is that of propositional calculus, but it could be any other logical system with a finite set of atomic statements [ 12 , p. 265]. As each party moves, statements are either inserted into or retracted from its commitment set of the party who made the move. A record of each party’s commitments is kept and updated at each next move. On Hamblin’s account, “a speaker is committed to a statement when he makes it himself, or agrees to it as made by someone else, or if he makes or agrees to other statements from which it clearly follows” [ 13 , p. 136]. Interestingly, a why-question can only be a request for the other to present an argument, never an explanation.
Despite the important role explanations can play in argumentative dialogue, there have not been many attempts to combine argumentation and explanation into one formal model. Perhaps the most thorough work thus far is [ 2 , 6 ], in which arguments in the framework of [ 19 ] are combined with abductive-causal reasoning based on standard models of explanation [ 9 ] in one hybrid theory . The basic idea of this hybrid approach is as follows. A logical model of abductive-causal reasoning takes as input a causal theory (a set of causal rules) and a set of observations that has to be explained, the explananda, and produces as output a set of hypotheses that explain the explananda in terms of the causal theory. Arguments can be used to support and attack stories, and these arguments can themselves be attacked and defeated. Thus, it is possible to reason about, for example, the extent to which an explanation conforms to the evidence. This is important when comparing explanations: the explanation that is best supported and least falsified by arguments is, ceteris paribus, the best explanation.
2.1. Argumentation and explanation in dialogue
Dialogues consist of a series of locutions or utterances made by the participants. As a simple example of a dialogue, take the following exchange between Allen and Beth.
(1) Allen: The Evanston City Council should make it illegal to tear down the city’s old warehouses.
(2) Beth: What’s the justification for preserving them?
(3) Allen: The warehouses are valuable architecturally.
(4) Beth: Why are they so valuable?
(5) Allen: The older buildings lend the town its distinctive character.
During a dialogue, the participants construct and navigate an underlying reasoning structure [ 23 ], a static rendition of the claims, arguments and explanations proposed. For example, in the above dialogue one of the arguments made is ‘The warehouses are architecturally valuable therefore the Evanston city council should make it illegal to tear them down’. The link between a dialogue and this underlying structure can be explained by combining speech act theory [ 25 ] with Hamblin-style dialogue theory. A speech act can be analyzed as a locutionary act (the actual utterance, e.g. ‘What’s the justification for preserving them?’), but also as an illocutionary act which consists of the illocutionary force, meaning that it functions a kind of move in a dialogue. For example, one may include p in different kinds of moves like asserting p , asking p , challenging p , promising p and so on. In our example, speech acts (1) and (2) have the same propositional content, namely ‘The Evanston City Council should make it illegal to tear down the city’s old warehouses’. The illocutionary force, however, differs between (1) and (2): where (1) is uttered with the intention of asserting ‘The Evanston City Council should make it illegal to tear down the city’s old warehouses’, (2) can be seen as an instance of requesting an argument for this sentence. Figure 1 shows the example dialogue at the top, which is connected to the underlying reasoning structure via illocutionary relations.
Argumentation and explanation in dialogue.
There are different types of dialogue [ 28 ], each with a different goal. In persuasion dialogues, for example, one of the players makes a claim which he has to defend, while the other player’s goal is to dispute this claim. Another example of a dialogue type is inquiry dialogue , the aim of which is to increase knowledge. The participants in such a dialogue collectively gather, organize and assess hypothetical explanations and evidence for and against these explanations. Hence, Walton [ 30 ] identifies both explanation and argumentation as functions of an inquiry dialogue. Aleven [ 1 ] has defined an inquiry dialogue based on the hybrid theory in which the participants build explanations and then support and critically analyze these explanations using arguments. In this type of dialogue, the participants collectively build a hybrid theory of explanations and arguments.
2.2. The problem of distinguishing argumentation and explanation
The very first problem in attempting to analyze the concept of an explanation is to attempt to provide criteria to determine when some piece of discourse that looks like it could be either an explanation or an argument should be taken to fit into one category or the other. One possible way of distinguishing between argumentation and explanation might be to look at the product of our reasoning, that is, the underlying reasoning structure. At first sight, it often seems an explanation is abductive and causal whilst an argument is modus-ponens style, non-causal reasoning. The basic idea of causal abductive inference is that if we have a general rule p → c q , meaning p causes q , and we observe q , we are allowed to infer p as a possible explanation of q . In contrast, argumentation is often seen as reasoning from a premise p to a conclusion q through an inference rule p → c q , where this rule need not necessarily be causal. However, as it turns out it is also possible to give abductive or causal arguments (cf. [ 29 ]; causal argument). Similarly, one may perform explanatory reasoning by taking a rule q → c p , meaning q is evidence for p (see [ 6 ] for a discussion on evidential and causal reasoning).
As was previously argued in [ 4 ], argument and explanation can only be properly distinguished by looking at the dialogical context of reasoning. In order to determine this context, we need not just look at the original intention of the speaker (i.e. the illocutionary force of a speech act) but also at the broader dialogical context, such as the utterance that was replied to by the speaker and the intentions of the other participants. Consider the example in Fig. 1 . Allen makes his first move by asserting that the old warehouses should be preserved, and then Beth asks for a justification for this claim. Here it is clear that Beth is requesting an argument to justify Allen’s claim. Allen then provides this, but then Beth asks him the why-question: why are they so valuable? The speech act could be interpreted as requesting either an argument (challenging) or an explanation (Fig. 1 ). Allen’s first reply to a challenge constitutes an argument but Allen’s second reply is ambiguous.
Circular arguments and explanations. Circular reasoning has long been a concern in logic. The fallacy of arguing in a circle has been included under the heading of informal fallacies in logic textbooks since the time of Aristotle [ 12 ]. But circularity is not been concerned exclusively with respect to arguments. Circular explanations are often condemned by the logic textbooks as unhelpful and confusing. But the reasons for condemning circular explanations are different from those for condemning circular argumentation [ 26 ].
The fallacy of arguing in a circle, or begging the question, is committed by an instance of circular reasoning that fails to work as an argument supposed to prove the conclusion that is in doubt. A standard textbook example is provided by the following short dialogue between a man, Smith, and his bank manager.
(1) Manager: Can you give me a credit reference?
(2) Smith: My friend Jones will vouch for me.
(3) Manager: How do we know he can be trusted?
(4) Smith: Oh, I assure you he can.
Here we can detect a sequence of circular reasoning. The trustworthiness of Smith is supposed to depend on the testimony of his friend Jones, but the trustworthiness of Jones depends on the testimony of his friend Smith. This obviously will not work because of the circularity in the procedure of providing evidence to support a claim in an argument. If Jones’s trustworthiness can be vouched for by some source independent of Smith, then the argument would work, and would no longer commit the fallacy of begging the question. In this kind of case, we cannot prove claim q by relying on premise p and then try prove p by backing it up by using q as a premise. It does not follow, however, that all circular arguments are fallacious as we now indicate.
Circular reasoning in the credit reference example.
To extend the example a bit further, suppose that a third-party could vouch for Jones, and that the trustworthiness of this third party is not dependent on the trustworthiness of either Smith or Jones. Then there would still be a circle in the argumentation structure, as shown in Fig. 2 , but the two text boxes on the right function as premises in a linked argument supporting the trustworthiness of Jones. This new argument gives us a way of breaking out of the circle that we were locked into in the previous argument represented by the dialogue above. The argumentation as a whole shown in Fig. 2 has a circle in it, but when evaluated a whole it does not commit the fallacy of begging the question.
The problem with real cases where the fallacy of begging the question is a serious danger is that the circle is embedded in a text where it may be mixed in with much other discourse. This danger becomes even more serious when the discourse combines argumentation with explanation. But if you can find such a circle in an argument, it represents quite a serious criticism of that argument. A rational argument used to persuade a respondent to accept its conclusion must not be based on premises that can only be accepted if part of the evidence for one of these premises depends on the prior acceptance of the conclusion itself. If, so the argument is useless to prove the conclusion. The argument lacks what has been called a probative function [ 26 ].
The situation is different for explanations. They need to be evaluated in a different way. When a circular explanation is fallacious it is because it is uninformative or useless in transferring understanding. As with arguments, however, an explanation can be circular, but still be useful as an explanation. One reason is that there are feedback processes in nature, and to explain what is happening, the account given needs to go in a circle. For example, the more overweight a diabetic gets, the more insulin is produced in his blood, but the more insulin there is in his blood, the more he eats, and the more he becomes overweight. In this vicious circle, the problem becomes worse and worse by a continual process of feedback that escalates it. To understand that the process is circular helps to explain the whole picture of what is going on.
Mixed version of the warehouse example.
Let us return to our warehouse dialogue from Section 2.1 . First, let us assume that Allen’s reply (5) is a speech act of arguing that creates an argument ‘ the older buildings lend the town its distinctive character so the warehouses are valuable architecturally ’ (Fig. 3 ). Now extend the dialogue as follows:
(6) Beth: OK agreed. But why do the older buildings lend the town its distinctive character?
(7) Allen: The warehouses are valuable architecturally.
When examining this dialogue we might be suspicious about the possibility that it contains the fallacy of begging the question. After all, when Allen is asked by Beth about the justification for preserving the old warehouses (4), Allen replies that the warehouses are valuable architecturally (5). But then later, at his last move in the dialogue (7), he reverts back to making the same statement again. It definitely appears that the dialogue is circular. The question then is whether the circularity is benign or vicious.
Let’s interpret Beth’s question (6) as a request for explanation. Now the reasoning in the dialogue is no longer just a sequence of argumentation, but a mixture of argumentation and explanation (Fig. 3 ). In order to prove his claim that the warehouses are valuable architecturally, Allen has used the premise that the older buildings lend the town its distinctive character. But then he has used the former as an explanation to help Beth understand the latter. The sequence of replies is then circular but not fallacious. Allen is merely explaining why the older buildings lend the town its distinctive character. Since Beth has agreed to this proposition, Allen does not need to prove it, and so there is no interdependency in the sequence of argumentation of the kind required for the committing of the fallacy of begging the question. There is no failure to fulfill the probative function of the kind that signals circular reasoning of a kind associated with committing the fallacy of begging the question. Allen is not using premise p to prove conclusion q and then using q as a premise required to prove p .
This is an unusually subtle case to disentangle. There is a circularity there, but it is benign one where the explanation fits into the argumentation in a way that is not an obstruction to the dialogue. The circularity could help Beth to understand the situation. So it does have a legitimate function. There is circular reasoning, but no circular argumentation.
3. Defining explanation in dialogue
How then, given the text of discourse, are we to determine whether the text is better taken to represent an argument or an explanation? The test widely adopted in logic textbooks uses the distinction between an accepted fact and a disputed claim was discussed in Section 2 . But we need to go even beyond that and look more broadly at how arguments and explanations function as different kinds of moves in a dialogue. An argument is a speech act used to convince the hearer of some unsettled claim and an explanation is a speech act used to help the hearer to understand something. This distinction can be drawn as one of a difference of purpose of discourse. Since the distinction is drawn this way, it can be seen to be based on a dialogue model of communication in which two parties take turns in putting forward speech acts. As argued above, in order to then determine whether something is an argument or an explanation, we need not just look at the original intention of the speaker (i.e. the illocutionary force of a speech act) but also at the broader dialogical context.
Defining explanation as a speech act put forward with the aim of transferring understanding from an explainer to an explainee raises further questions. What is understanding, and how can it be transferred from one party to another? Research in AI and cognitive science shows that communicative agents understand the actions of other agents because they share “common knowledge” of the way things can normally be expected to proceed in familiar situations in everyday life. This common knowledge can be modeled as explanation schemes or scripts [ 24 ]. An explanation scheme is a generic scenario, an abstract rendering of a sequence of actions or events of a kind. For example, the restaurant-script contains information about the standard sequence(s) of events that take place when somebody goes to dine in a restaurant.
Explanation schemes can be instantiated by particular explanations and thus the scheme provides the conditions for the explanation’s coherence [ 2 ]. Take, for example, a man who enters a restaurant, orders a hamburger and then removes his pants and offers the waiter his pants. This particular story is incoherent, because it does not adhere to the typical restaurant scheme. But if this story fits another explanation scheme it can still be coherent. Suppose information is added that the waiter spilled hot soup on the man’s legs. This new information would fill out the story in such a way that it hangs together as a coherent script about what happens when someone spills hot liquid on one’s clothes. Thus, an explanation may be causal, motivational, teleological, and so on.
A dialogue model of explanation can then be constructed by building it around the notion of the mutual comprehensibility of a story, or connected sequence of events or actions that both parties can at least partially grasp in virtue of their common knowledge about the ways things can be generally expected to happen in situations they are both familiar with. This is the route taken by Schank and his colleagues in cognitive science (cf. [ 24 ]). According to them, explanation is a transfer of understanding from one party to another in a dialogue, where understanding is clarified scripts, “frozen inference chains stored in memory”. On Schank’s theory, failures of understanding of kinds that trigger a need for an explanation occur because of an anomaly, a gap in a story that contains a part where it fails to make sense, or even where the whole story fails to make sense because it does not “add up”. An explanation, on this approach, is a repair process used to help someone account for the anomaly by using scripts that could be taken from script libraries.
3.1. A dialogue system for argument and explanation
We now propose an example of a dialogue system for argumentation and explanation, based on the protocols presented by [ 5 , 27 ]. Our dialogue system consists of a communication language that defines the possible speech acts in a dialogue, a protocol that specifies the allowed moves at any point in the dialogue and commitment rules , which specify the effects of a speech act on the propositional commitments of the dialogue participants. Furthermore, we assume that both players have their own separate knowledge bases containing argumentation schemes and explanation schemes, which form the basis of arguments and explanations proposed in the dialogue [ 21 ].
In a game for argumentation and explanation, essentially two types of dialogue are combined: explanation dialogue [ 8 , 17 , 27 ] and examination dialogue [ 10 ]. In a pure explanation dialogue the explainer is trying to transfer understanding to the explainee; an examination dialogue can be used to test (evaluate) an explanation. Examination dialogues are more adversarial. For example, the answerer’s inconsistency in previous replies can be attacked using probing counter-arguments to test his trustworthiness (for example, as a witness). Figure 4 shows the combination of explanation and examination dialogues as a process.
Explanation and examination dialogues combined.
The speech acts of a game for explanation and argumentation are presented in the typical format F p , where F is the illocutionary force and p is the propositional content.
(1) claim φ . The player claims a proposition φ .
(2) argue ψ because φ . The player states an argument ψ because φ based on an argumentation scheme S A from the player’s knowledge base.
(3) challenge φ . The player asks for an argument for φ .
(4) concede φ . The player admits that proposition φ is the case.
(5) retract φ . The player declares that he is not committed (any more) to φ .
These speech acts are standard in systems for argumentative dialogue (cf. [ 16 ]). Now, for explanation we need other speech acts, as defined by [ 5 , 27 ].
(6) explain ψ because φ . The player provides an explanation ψ because φ based on an explanation scheme S E from the player’s knowledge base.
(7) explanation request φ . The player asks for an explanation of φ .
(8) inability to explain φ . The player indicates that he cannot explain φ .
(9) positive response : The player indicates that he understands an explanation.
(10) negative response : The player indicates that he does not understand an explanation.
Note that with explanation, the issue is not whether a player is convinced (i.e. wants to be committed to a proposition) but rather whether he understands a proposition.
Commitment rules specify the effect of moving with one of the speech acts. A player becomes committed to any claim, argument or explanation he puts forward, and also to any claim he concedes to. Commitments can be retracted by the retract speech act.
The following standard protocol rules are part of the dialogue system (cf. [ 30 ]).
(1) The players each take their turn.
(2) The players cannot move the exact same speech act twice.
(3) Players cannot commit to propositions which would make their commitments inconsistent.
(4) Players are only allowed to argue for propositions to which they are committed but the other player is not.
(5) Players are only allowed to argue against propositions to which the other player is committed and they are not.
(6) A challenge φ move may only follow either a claim φ move or an argue ψ because φ move.
(7) A challenge φ move can only be responded to by either an argue φ because ψ move or a retract φ move.
(8) Players are only allowed to challenge propositions to which the other player is committed and they are not.
(9) Players can only concede to propositions to which the other player is committed.
(10) Players can only retract propositions to which they are committed.
The above rules capture the basics of argumentative dialogue. The rules encapsulate the idea that argumentation is an activity aimed at proving (or disproving) some claim: once both parties are committed to a claim, there is no point in arguing any further.
For explanation the rules are different, as explanation is aimed at improving understanding. Both parties can be committed to a claim, but one of the two may not fully understand it.
(11) Players are only allowed to request explanations of propositions to which both players are committed.
(12) Players are only allowed to request explanations of propositions for which they themselves do not have an explanation scheme in their knowledge base.
(13) A request explanation φ move can only be responded to by an explain φ because ψ move or an inability to explain φ move.
(14) Players are only allowed to explain propositions to which both players are committed.
(15) Players are only allowed to explain propositions for which they have an explanation scheme in their knowledge base and the other party does not.
(16) An explain move is always followed by either a positive response or a negative response .
Note how explaining is in a sense analogous to arguing but with a different aim, namely making someone understand a proposition instead of committing them to it.
The system can be applied to the two examples taken from the logic textbook [ 14 ], the Challenger spacecraft example and the example about the digestive system of a cow. These are classified as explanations because of the rules stating that players are only allowed to argue for or against propositions to which the other player is not committed. In the one example it is taken as common knowledge that the Challenger spacecraft exploded after liftoff. In the other example, it is taken to be common knowledge that cows can digest grass while humans cannot. Therefore both parties can be taken to be committed to both these propositions. Hence in both examples, it would be inappropriate for either party to argue either for or against these propositions. However it would be appropriate for either party to offer an explanation.
Briefly, it can be shown how a script is involved in the spacecraft example as follows. To make the explanation successful the party to whom it was directed must have enough general knowledge about how rockets work, how a rocket can explode, and to connect an O-ring failure to a leakage of fuel. There must also be knowledge about what might normally be expected to happen when a fuel leak occurs during the operation of the rocket motor. The receiver of the explanation must also know that the booster rockets are attached to the spacecraft in such a way that if the booster rocket explodes, the whole spacecraft that is attached to it will also explode. To connect all these events into a coherent script that explains how the spacecraft exploded after liftoff the receiver of the explanation must already have the common knowledge required to understand how this series of events and objects is connected up into a coherent story.
How the system applies to the example dialogue about the warehouses is indicated in Fig. 1 in the account given of the illocutionary relations in that figure. The evidence for classifying moves as arguments or explanations is indecisive in the instance where Beth asks Allen the question ‘Why are the warehouses so valuable?’. As noted, the speech act could be interpreted as requesting either an argument or an explanation. There was another ambiguous speech act when Beth asks Allen why the warehouses are so valuable. This speech act could be interpreted as requesting either an argument or an explanation, as noted in the discussion of the case in Section 2.2 . The system manages these cases by analyzing them as instances where the evidence given in the dialogue exchange is insufficient to classify the speech act as either an argument or an explanation. The system needs to then follow up by shifting to an examination dialogue where the dialogue participant who asked the question needs to be examined and must indicate whether he or she is putting forward the speech act as an argument on explanation. In many instances, especially the short ones like those found in the logic textbooks, the text of the case is merely given, and there is no possibility of examining the questioner. In such cases we need to make a determination based on the given textual and contextual evidence. It is our contention that this determination needs to be made in the framework provided by our hybrid system of dialogue for argument and explanation.
4. Related research
We have presented only relatively simple examples, or at any rate short ones, that can fit the space confines of this paper. However, we would suggest as a project for further research applying the dialogue system comprising both arguments and explanations to longer examples of dialogues of the kind that can already be found in the literature. This literature is about explanation systems, but it could be helpful to re-examine the examples used in them, as well as other longer texts containing explanations, using this new system. In some instances of applying our system to problematic cases where there are ambiguous instances of questions that could be requests for either explanations or arguments, participants will need to extend the dialogue by having a clarification dialogue used to deal with ambiguity.
In addition to the dialogue systems that combine argumentation and explanation as proposed in [ 5 , 27 ], there are numerous explanations systems that incorporate the ideas about transferring understanding through explanations. For example, ACCEPTER [ 15 ] is a computational system for story understanding, anomaly detection and explanation evaluation. In this system, explanations are directed towards filling knowledge gaps revealed by anomalies. Examples of explanations processed by ACCEPTER along the lines of the dialogue sequence above, include the death of a race horse, the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger, the recall of Audi 5000 cars for transmission problems, and an airliner that leaves from the wrong departure gate [ 15 , p. 38].
The schemas in ACCEPTER’s memory are represented as MOPS (memory organization packages) representing stereotyped sequences of events. MOPS help an agent understand by providing expectations on how things can normally be expected to go in a familiar situation. MOPS are comparable to the stories used in the hybrid theory. A simplified version of the explanation of the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger modeled by Leake [ 15 , pp. 39–53] can be used to show how this example fits nicely into the way of treating explanations in the hybrid theory.
This version of the explanation [ 15 , p. 39] can be summed up as follows. The boosters burned through, allowing flames to reach the main fuel tank, causing an explosion. According to the engineers, the explosion was caused by the booster seals being brittle and the cold weather. The explanation given is that the Challenger’s explosion was caused by the flame in the booster rockets, and prior to that by the cold weather which was the cause of the brittleness of the O-rings which enabled the flames to leak out through the seals. This causal sequence can be displayed in the hybrid theory as shown in Fig. 5 . The arrows with filled heads represent causal relations, while the arrows with white heads represent arguments.
Explanation supported by evidence.
The explanation given in the example in Section 2 explained the Challenger explosion by presenting the story that the spacecraft exploded because the O-ring failed in one of the booster rockets. This story leaves out intervening causal steps made explicit in the fuller story represented in Fig. 5 . Also, we see at the bottom left of Fig. 5 , there was additional information given by testimony of the engineers. This testimony can be seen as an argument supporting the two initial items in the causal story sequence along the top and right. This supplemented explanation expands the story of what happened, yielding better understanding of why the Challenger explosion happened. It does this by filling further information in the causal sequence in the story and by adding in evidence supporting part of the story.
Cawsey’s work [ 8 ] on computational generation of explanatory dialogue and Moore’s dialogue-based analysis of explanation for advice-giving in expert systems [ 17 ] also took a dialogue approach. Moore defines explanation as an inherently incremental and interactive process that requires a dialogue between an explanation presenter who is trying to explain something and a questioner who has asked for an explanation.
An interesting piece of related research is [ 3 ], which uses scripts or story schemes to model cases about the facts. These cases can then be argued with using the argumentative moves of CATO [ 1 ], which were originally developed for reasoning with legal cases. What this means is that [ 3 ] have a skeleton dialogue system that uses scripts to perform argumentation instead of explanation. This conforms with our findings: it is not the logical structure of the reasoning or the schemes used in reasoning that determines whether something is explanation or argumentation but the context of the dialogue in which the reasoning is performed and the schemes are used.
In this paper, we have discussed the problem of distinguishing between argumentation and explanation. In many cases, the same piece of discourse can reasonably be interpreted as either an explanation or an argument, and the logical structure of the reasoning proposed also does not conclusively distinguish between the two. The distinction is important for several reasons. First, there are situations in which argumentation may be fallacious whilst explanation is not, as illustrated by our examples of circular reasoning in Section 2.2 . Second, explanation and argumentation serve different aims and it is important that there is no confusion in multi-agent dialogue; if a request for explanation is interpreted as a request for argumentation, this may lead to undesirable misunderstandings and unwanted behaviour by agents. We have shown that such confusions can easily lead to the committing of logical fallacies. The illustration we have used to make this point is the specific fallacy of begging the question, also known as arguing in a circle. Finally, the distinction is important for the connection between argumentation, story-based explanation and discourse analysis, as argumentation schemes and explanation schemes can play important roles in the analysis of natural language texts [ 11 , 22 ].
Our solution involves looking at the context of dialogue to determine whether reasoning is argumentation or explanation. Whether something is argumentation or explanation is determined by the intention of uttering a locution, and this intention can be inferred from the context of the dialogue, such as the speech act that was replied to and the knowledge and intentions of the other players. This context of dialogue can be modeled as a dialogue system (Section 3 ). In this sense, our dialogue system for argumentation and explanation does not only provide normative rules for coherent dialogue (as is usual), but it also helps us describe the difference between argumentation and explanation in dialogue.
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- Oct 18, 2021
10 Best Tips for Writing Dialogue: Anger, Fights, & Arguments
A while back, I started a video series all about dialogue. We covered voice , tags , and formatting and you guys have asked for more. So that's what we're doing today! In this article, I’m breaking down the 10 best tips for writing angry dialogue. I'm talking about arguments, insults, clap backs, fights, all that good stuff. Some of you guys really suck at writing vitriol. You try so hard, but you fall so short. I'm here to fix that! And just a forewarning: the last tip is the trickiest to maneuver, so pay extra close attention.
Let's dive into my 10 best tips for writing angry, aggressive, argumentative dialogue!
The above video is sponsored by Skillshare . As always, all opinions are my own.
If you haven’t already, don’t forget to also subscribe to my YouTube channel for more writing tips, sarcasm, and of course, more of Princess Butters!
Number 1: Understand the motivation
Think about the character delivering the verbal blows. Why are they doing this? If they're angry, why are they angry? Is it jealousy? Is it frustration? Is it betrayal? You need to understand where this reaction is coming from because it will dictate the type of dialogue they deliver.
Say your character is fed up. They've been tolerating some bullshit for far too long and they finally snapped. A character who snaps is gonna be speaking completely differently than a character who is calm and collected. A snap is typically curt and explosive, whereas a calm character may be cruel or calculated. They've had time to think about and craft exactly what they're going to say. This is why the motivation behind the argument is key. It gives you an idea of how to perfect their verbal blows.
Number 2: Know your characters
Particularly, their baggage. This is pivotal for writing dialogue of any kind, but it’s especially the case when your characters are getting angry. People handle anger differently based on their personality, their experience, and most of all, their baggage.
Some characters have trust issues; their walls are up, their defenses are on. If that's the case, they are less likely to show vulnerability in an argument, and they might pull moves that put them in an offensive position. That means they may deal out low blows or cutting criticism. Anything that keeps the other person at a distance.
Sometimes fighting is triggering for a person, especially if they grew up in an explosive household. They may clam up in these situations. They may disassociate. They may go stone-faced, quiet, or numb.
And of course, there are people who get very vulnerable in angry situations. Sometimes they ramble. Sometimes they cry. Dialogue will always depend on your character’s background and personality. But in this case, baggage is especially important.
Number 3: Know your intention
This is when you need to take a step back from the characters and look at your plot. What is the intention behind this scene? What are you, the writer, trying to accomplish? Is this scene the character's breaking point? If that's the case, something needs to be said in this argument that breaks your character. Think about dialogue that cuts deep. That means tapping into your main character's deepest insecurities and fears and worries. We will elaborate on this in a later point.
What if your intention is to establish the villain? In that case, lots of bitter, cruel dialogue will make it clear to the reader that they need to watch out for this character, ‘cause they're an asshole. The intention of the scene will dictate the kind of dialogue you dish out, and you need to make sure that the argument you’re writing serves its purpose.
Number 4: How does it end?
If you're establishing the intention of the scene, you also need to establish where the scene is headed. How is this argument going to move the characters and the plot forward? Sometimes an argument instigates a breakup. This is especially relevant in romance novels, as well as romantic subplots. Sometimes arguments are stepping stones toward betrayal, murder, or the climax of your novel. Every scene within your story needs to serve a purpose to the plot, and bitchy dialogue is no different. Knowing where the scene is headed is super important, because it will dictate how severe the dialogue needs to be. For example, if your characters are breaking up and you intend for them to get back together, then the dialogue needs to warrant a breakup but still be forgivable so that readers can continue rooting for the ship. Think about fighting words that are harsh enough for them to take a break from one another, but not too harsh to prevent a reconciliation.
Every scene within your story needs to serve a purpose to the plot, and bitchy dialogue is no different. Knowing where the scene is headed is super important, because it will dictate how severe the dialogue needs to be.
Number 5: How bad are we aiming for?
Not all angry dialogue is supposed to evoke rage. Sometimes you want the words to cut deep. Sometimes you just want readers to go, “Damn, that was good!” It sounds like common sense, but so many writers do not know where to set the bar. They'll either go way over the top at the wrong moment or barely scratch the surface when it counts. Know the depth of your character's anger and stick to it.
Say this is a life or death situation. Someone nearly died, and they are pissed the fuck off. This is gravely serious, so calling someone a turkey head isn't gonna cut it. That's what you call your kid after they forget to take out the trash! On the other hand, say your characters are simply auditioning for the same part in the school play. If one tells the other to “Eat shit and die,” well…that's a little extreme. Look at the scene and be honest with yourself. Hold back when it calls for it and go all in when shit gets dire.
Number 6: Hit the characters where it hurts
You've gone through step Number 5 and you've decided this argument needs to be intense. Your character is going for the jugular. In order to do this, you need to ask yourself two questions. First, look at the character on the receiving end. What is their greatest insecurity or fear? In The Savior's Champion , Tobias prides himself on his integrity and he begins to question that element of himself. So if you really wanna cut deep, you would probably call out his morality or humanity.
Second, look at the character delivering the blow. What is their greatest insecurity or fear? Flynn is a character with a fragile ego, so for him, emasculation is the biggest blow. This means that if Flynn and Tobias were in a heated argument, Flynn would likely insult Tobias’ masculinity. It's a big blow to him, so he assumes it’ll be a big blow to Tobias. However, as we already covered, that probably wouldn't matter much to Tobias. That means if we wanted Flynn to hit Tobias where it hurt, he would have to insult Tobias’ integrity. That would be a crushing blow.
Number 7: Keep it brief
Not all fights end quickly, but I guarantee that if you go on for pages and pages, you will lose the reader. The best blows are quick and to the point. That's why the phrase is “Go to hell,” and not “Be gone to the darkest lairs of the fierce and maddening underworld.” A lot of newbies find long, rambling rants fun and cathartic. They think readers are going to eat ‘em up, but they usually come off as cheesy and self indulgent. Plus, they're not that realistic. People don't regularly go off on long diatribes. They usually stick with a good ole “Fuck you.” Long rants lack impact. What hurts more? A single heavy blow to the gut, or a bunch of teeny tiny pokes in rapid succession? Go for the blow and learn when to shut the fuck up.
Long rants lack impact. What hurts more? A single heavy blow to the gut, or a bunch of teeny tiny pokes in rapid succession? Go for the blow and learn when to shut the fuck up.
Number 8: Calm down on the descriptors
“You good for nothing, yellow belly, pea brained mama's boy!”
“You soft, fragile, sissy, blubbering mess of a princess!”
This shit doesn't work. No one is hurt by a laundry list of adjectives. Writers go this route because they think the more descriptors, the bigger the impact. And descriptors do help…to a point. When you go on and on, it doesn't make the burn harsher. It just makes it cheesier, and a little embarrassing. A general rule is to choose one effective descriptor, maybe two, and leave it at that. For example, “You dumb fuck.” Or, “You miserable, worthless shit.” Those statements pack power. They sound angry. But if you extend it on and on, it loses its oomph.
Number 9: Curse
I'm gonna preface this with the fact that not all people curse. I mean, I've never said a swear word in my life. It’s just not classy at all! If you have a character who would absolutely never swear in any situation, by all means, honor that trait. You also have to take your target audience into consideration. If you're writing a Children's book or a Middle Grade book, maybe don't use cuss words. But for a majority of Adult, New Adult, and Young Adult fiction, it's realistic for people to swear from time to time, especially if they're pissed off. No one is gonna say “Fudge!” when they're battling their lifelong nemesis.
“But Jenna, what if my mom reads this book?”
She knows swear words exist, I promise. Also, you're not writing this book for your mom, you're writing it for your audience. Sorry, mom! Cursing is realistic, especially in anger. Utilize it where it fits.
Number 10: Punch down with caution!
This is by far the trickiest part about writing anger and cruelty, particularly if you're writing a villain. One of the easiest ways to showcase an evil character is for them to punch down. This is basically when someone in a more powerful position insults a character that is in a more repressed position. For example, if a rich person makes fun of someone for being poor, that is considered punching down.
As I said, this is a very easy way to establish a villain or showcase that a character is an asshole. However, it gets messy when writers take it too far, especially if they're writing insults about a group of people they do not belong to. Sure, the character is the one ‘saying’ these things, but you–the writer–are writing them. And if you get excessive, it can come across as gratuitous and self indulgent.
A few words of advice. First, never write slurs about a real world group of people that you do not belong to. Readers are gonna be uncomfortable and rightfully pissed. Second, ask yourself if the punching down is necessary. Can you create conflict in a different way? For example, does your character have to say something racist, or can they instead say something classist? Which is still terrible and still considered punching down, but it's going to make your readers less uncomfortable. And third, have you created a completely fictional world? If yes, you can create your own unique hierarchies. You can create your own version of punching down that does not alienate or offend your readers. If Elves are more powerful than Pixies, you can create a ton of really powerful insults that will absolutely showcase how awful your characters are.
So that's all I've got for you today!
If you really want to write some vitriol that’ll have your readers rushing to the ice box to cool off a sick burn, remember that in most cases, less is more. Understanding the characters, your own intention, and what you want the end result to be will help you really hit ‘em where it hurts while also remaining faithful to your story. Above all, remember to never write slurs or hateful speech about a real world group of people that you do not belong to. Instead, consider creating conflict in a different way, and don’t be unnecessarily excessive. At the end of the day, what’s closest and most personal to your character will often pack the strongest punch; make sure to do the background work so you can deliver the proper cutting blows.
How do you write vicious dialogue? Share your top tip in the comments below!
#writingtips #CyborgQueen #JennaMoreci
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- Writing Tips
Examples Of Dialogue: Argumentative Dialogue
Meghan Flanagan Professor Green English 1302 11 February 2016 Argumentative Dialogue: Minor Writing Project #1 The starting of this scene begins with an older couple, Justin (45) and Emily (44) engaging in conversation in their lovely home in California. It’s an ordinary Saturday morning in the Anderson household and their oldest daughter Hannah (19) is sitting at the table enjoying breakfast with thick stack of fresh chocolate chips pancakes, drenched in maple syrup and a nice glass of freshly squeezed orange juice with her family. She has recently returned home from College where she attends University of California, Santa Barbra. Justin works in environmental law while Hannah is in Marketing. Both are from upper Manhattan and settled …show more content…
In this essay, the author
- Narrates how justin and emily engage in conversation in their california home. their oldest daughter hannah enjoys breakfast with maple syrup and orange juice. justin works in environmental law and hannah in marketing.
- Explains that the supreme court has temporarily blocked the obama administration's rules on limiting greenhouse gas emissions from power plants.
- Opines that something must be done to stop global warming from continuing at such an astronomical rate.
- Opines that the data is false right of the bat. global warming is taking place from the unprecedented amount of glaciers that are almost completely gone due to rising global temperatures.
- Explains that recent studies from climate researchers and the intergovernmental panel on climate change (ipcc) state that emissions of heat trapping gases are from humans and not environmentally caused.
- Opines that climate change is just a natural cycle. warmer earth history came before rises in co2 levels and the industrial revolution proving that human activities of burning fossil fuels have not contributed as heavily as scientists have reported.
- Opines that the greenhouse effect is a natural occurrence and keeps the earth's surface temperature at something that can be manageable for humans to survive.
- Opines that humans have to have a role in global warming. the science of what determines the earth's temperature is far from being settled.
- Explains that carbon dioxide (co2) has the highest influence on climate. methane produces more greenhouse gas emissions than all exhaust of the transportation sector combined and is responsible for 51% of human caused climate change.
Hannah: I’ve come prepared to stop you from turning me into one of those ridiculous environmentalist you are, and have researched a little bit myself from my studies. Periods of warmer Earth history came around several hundred years before rises in CO2 levels and the industrial revolution proving that human activities of burning fossil fuels have not contributed as heavily as scientist have reported. Rather significant changes in climate have continually occurred throughout geologic time, or in other words climate change is just a natural cycle. Justin: I don’t think that its true that human activities are not playing a role in this, if population was not exploding the Earth would have gone one the way it should, but rather it’s the destructive factors such as gases released into the atmosphere making the plant unhealthy are almost entirely man-made. Forest and oceans are disappearing because of the purposes for human life. And the greenhouse effect is fairly a natural occurrence and has been around since the Earth’s creation and is what keeps the Earth’s surface temperature at something that can be manageable for humans to survive, this same process can be enhanced negatively when pollutants and gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane get trapped in the atmosphere heat planet Earth up. All these things state a presence of human’s
- Opines that people should be more open-minded and start doing changes in our planet to have a good climate change in their lives.
- Explains that climate change is affecting people, animals, and the environment. the increase of the oceans could disappear coastal cities like new york if the thaw continues.
- Explains that everyone knows about climate change, but no one knows who is causing it. humans are responsible for the increase of the temperature, oceans levels, and the extinction of some animals.
- Opines that climate change is responsible for social conflict, and migrations around the world. people could be using their car less because they burn a lot of fossil fuel
- Opines that people need to stop destroying the planet, since it is the only planet that humans can live in.
- Opines that humans are provoking climate change on their own, and it is affecting everything in this world.
- Explains that climate change occurs when there is a significant variance in the climate which last for several decades or longer and not for short periods.
- Explains that the term climate change is being given the same meaning as anthropogenic global warming.
- Explains that by observing the climate system, it has become very strong and clear that changes are taking place. changes in climate from the last 60 years have never been experienced by the population.
- Explains that in the northern hemisphere the last 30 years (1983-2012) were the warmest in 1400 years. ocean warming accounted for 90% of the energy accumulated between 1971 and 2010.
- Explains how climate change affects the arctic sea ice and northern hemisphere spring as their snow cover decreases as time passes. sea level has been rising since the mid-19th century with an increasing rate.
- Explains the increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, which has never happened in the last 800,000 years.
- Explains that humans have had a huge impact on climate change by releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere over the past hundred years.
- Explains that climate change has an impact on all of us. extreme weather conditions have become more frequent and intense.
- Explains that a british study found that severe damage could be made to global food crops if the issue of climate change is not addressed.
- Opines that everyone can make their own contribution to make a difference by reducing greenhouse gas emissions at home, at the office, on the road and anywhere else.
- Argues that people should take more responsibility for the planet because deforestation of land and the burning of fossil fuels is the principle cause of climate change.
- Explains that global warming is caused by too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which acts like a blanket, trapping heat and warming the planet.
- Explains that climate change affects ecosystems, not just through increases in the mean, but also through changes in extremes.
- Explains that the surface temperature of the earth has been increasing at a rate of 0.17 degrees celsius per decade.
- Explains that scientists have concluded that most of the observed warming is likely due to the burning of coal, oil, and gas.
- Explains that the atmospheric greenhouse effect keeps our planet warm enough to be livable.
- Explains that human activity, such as burning fossil fuels, causes more greenhouse gases to build up in the atmosphere.
- Opines that deforestation is caused by human and natural factors, such as wildfires and overgrazing, which prevents the growth of young trees.
- Argues that the earth's climate is getting warmer due to humans' actions, but this isn't true. the fault of climate change falls on the earth as well.
- Opines that people are not the only ones contributing to climate change and releasing carbon dioxide. the earth has the ability to change its climate for far longer than people probably realize and has done so before.
- Acknowledges that people have played a large part in speeding up climate change by the amount of carbon that we do indeed release.
- Explains how people can reduce the amount of carbon that is emitted through their daily actions, such as driving non-gas-efficient cars or taking the bus or riding a bike.
- Analyzes michael pollan's essay that he believes that our actions are the leading factor in climate change.
- Describes climate change as a change in the statistical properties of the climate system that persists for several decades or longer.
- Explains that climate change is natural, but human influence has caused gases to rise significantly.
- Explains that the melting of the earth's polar ice caps is the third issue that gore used to support his argument.
- Opines that al gore has a better argument based on the information provided by other scientists and studies. he has done more extensive research compared to john coleman.
- Analyzes how al gore's spokesman claims that global warming is near future and it is up to us to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
- Asks whether co2 is a significant climate change factor or opposing the danger of global warming.
- Explains that human contribution to the earth's atmosphere is going up. the environmental extremist believes that this will cause a significant rise in the global temperature and result in earth catastrophic consequence.
- Explains that the global climate has gone back to the 1900's and erased the rise in temperature that has risen the last century.
- Explains that they do not believe in the theory that is known as global warming, since the increase in carbon dioxide and the enlarged level of co2 has nothing to do with climate change.
- Argues that humans are the main source of global warming, but nature produces most of the carbon dioxide into our atmosphere.
- Explains that climate change is an important issue of concern in the twenty-first century. the rate and amount of warming that is happening on this planet are unprecedented.
- Explains that climate has changed in the past, but it has been a gradual change over millions of years. climate change is caused by natural factors such as solar variability and human factors.
- Explains that the rapid warming in the last few years is mostly due to human-induced activities and we continue to warm the planet.
- Argues that the debate over whether climate change is real or not is over. the u.s national academy of sciences states that record-breaking temperatures, rising sea levels, retreating glaciers, and extreme weather events show that global warming is occurring.
- Explains that earth's temperature is increasing due to increased levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide released into the air from burning fossil fuels.
- Explains that oceans absorb heat and become warmer as the temperature of the air rises. global warming will cause ocean warming.
- Explains that climate change has happened throughout earth's history and at present, evidence points to the roles that humans play in altering earth systems.
- Explains the theory of plate tectonics and how it affects the earth's climate system through three major mechanisms: altering continental elevations, modifying the distribution of continental land masses, and affecting variability in atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.
- Explains that volcanic activity influences climate change through the emissions of carbon and sulphur dioxide during eruptions.
- Explains that the volcanic eruption of mount pinatubo in the philippines in 1991 emitted 42 million tonnes of co2 and 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide. the strongest eruption over the last 50 years amounted to 0.2% of human co2.
- Explains that people are responsible for higher carbon dioxide atmosphere emissions, while the earth is now into the little ice age, or just behind it.
- Explains that the earth is experiencing higher rates of rising temperatures due to greenhouse gases that are being produced by human activities rather than because of environmental reasons.
- Explains that while revkin and stott use ice melting as basics of their opinions, there are other reasons for such events, such as deforestation.
- Explains that there is no contradiction in possible warm and cold effects of current global temperature changes for various locations.
- Explains that global warming is caused by human activity combined with natural factors. deforestation has an impact on melting of some glaciers, which can be a reason for warming and cooling in different areas.
- Opines that climate change is directly affecting the human population. the ice caps are melting slowly, causing ocean levels to increase, and the fungi species is still thriving and cleaning up the mess.
- Greenhouse gas
Stories of Conversations Including
Two Buckets - Impact Report - Sept. 2017 - Tammy Cook
A Popsicle Poll (and a Conversation) - January 2017 - Tammy Cook
When Compassion Kills - November 2016 - Rebecca Haschke
"What Do You Mean?" - The Question that Saved My Conversation - September 2016 - Rebecca Haschke
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (Alex) - March 2016 - Catherine Wurts
"You totally changed my perspective!" (Nina) - Dec. 2015 - Jeremy Gorr
#MindBlown - Nov. 2015 - Rebecca Haschke
Walking Away - Oct. 2015 - Jordan Newhouse
A Cornerstone of Women's Freedom - April 2015 - Joanna Wagner
“Wait! I Think I Can Help You!” (Common Ground to the Rescue… ) - Mar. 2015 - Steve Wagner
Let's Talk about the Same Thing - Feb. 2015 - CK Wisner
Charity on the Metro - Impact Report - Jan. 2015 - Steve Wagner / Charity Boaz
Time Travel, Dishwashing, and Biology - Jan. 2015 - Tammy Cook
The Power of a Picture - January 2015 - Rebecca Haschke
Why Do Human Beings Matter - Oct. 2014 - Joanna Wagner
Out of the Mouths of Babies - August 2014 - Jordan Newhouse
West - June 2014 - Jacob Burow (now with ADA )
Do All Humans Have an Equal Right to Life? - April 2014 - Joanna Wagner
A Transient, a Teenager, and a Cup of Tea - Dec. 2013 - Joanna Wagner
A Good Conversation Is...a Window - Nov./Dec. 2013 - Steve Wagner
A Good Conversation Is…a Mirror - July 2013 - Steve Wagner
Go to the Zoo (The Equal Rights Argument, Part II) - July 2013 - Timothy Brahm
Greenpeace - June 2013 - Jacob Burow (now with ADA )
We're Going to Go Tell Everyone! - May 2013 - Catherine Wurts
Stopped in His Tracks (The Equal Rights Argument, Part I) - April 2013 - Timothy Brahm
What Is the Unborn? - April 2013 - Joanna Wagner
One Central Question Helps Change a Mind - March 2013 - Joanna Wagner
What Kind of "Wrong" Is "Right"? - Oct. 2012 - Joanna Wagner
Bryndan Gets the Picture - June 2012 - Steve Wagner
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (Sammy) - February 2011 - Catherine Wurts
A Philosophy of Re-humanization - October 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (Melissa) - September 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Toddlers Win Them Over - August 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Abortion is a Man's Issue - July 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (Jake) - June 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (James) - May 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Don't Debate - Dialogue! (Kayla) - March 2010 - Catherine Wurts
Repeat Work in Science Class - "The Conversation" - Laura Beeson
Facing Abortion - Collection - Four Conversation Stories Illustrating the Importance of Pictures
Three Essential Skills - Collection - Four Conversation Stories Featuring Listening, Asking Questions, and Finding Common Ground
Trot Out the Toddler - Collection - Four Conversation Stories Teaching Readers to Refocus the Conversation
Living Human Organism - Collection - Three Conversation Stories Teaching Readers to Defend the Unborn as a Human Being, Biologically Speaking
Equal Rights Argument - Collection - Five Conversations Stories Illustrating the Equal Rights Argument
A Living Room Conversation - Collection - A Story in Three Parts by Grace Fontenot: Part 1) Morality and Legality; Part 2) The Unborn – A Living Human Organism; Part 3) Human Equality and Women’s Rights
Aug 12, 2020
Writing Fictional Arguments
Write believable arguments that pack a punch with these top tips.
You’ve finally reached the moment you’ve been waiting for. Your characters, and you, have been itching for a fight and now the time has come to unleash some feisty dialogue. But how do you make sure your character’s argument packs a punch? Here are some tips to write arguments that get readers fired up.
- Don’t Listen to Aggressive Music Whilst Writing Arguments Let’s get this one out of the way first. While music with a fast tempo and punchy lyrics can be just what you need to write out a fiery argument, it can lessen the impact of the argument itself. Scenes which, initially, may seem hard-hitting may be fuelled by the music rather than the brutality of the exchange and can lack the emotional sucker-punches that will keep readers interested. For best results, write arguments in silence or whilst listening to a softer playlist to make sure you hit the emotional notes you’re trying to invoke.
- Know The End Result Put simply, why is this argument happening and what do the characters, readers or plot gain from it? By knowing the purpose of the argument, and what the consequences of it are, you can avoid rambling and create a more meaningful result. Here are some things to consider: What will happen at the end of this argument? Will a relationship end? Will a physical fight break out? What are the consequences of this argument on the rest of the story? For example, does it create a rift that stops characters from being honest with each other which makes their situation worse? Does the villain get an upper hand and do something that might have been stopped? If you’re sharing information with the reader, are you sharing it in a way that feels authentic? Are you telling readers something that can be shown another way? Taking into account all of the above will help produce more guided and fruitful arguments.
- Know the Relationship Between the Arguing Characters Are your characters friends, siblings or romantic partners? Do they argue often or is this heated exchange rare? A pair who are used to arguing are likely to bring up, or allude to, old arguments. A sibling may refer to a childhood grievance such as a stolen toy or when their brother/ sister told their parents something they shouldn’t have. Here’s a quick example: Henry sighed deeply, his fingers twitching around his wine glass. “Problem?” Beth asked. “Why would there be a problem?” He gestured to the room with his drink. “All of this is just… perfect. ” “Don’t start.” “Don’t start what?” “You know exactly what I’m talking about. You always do this.” He masked a scowl with a smirk as their parents fawned over Ashley’s graduation photo, barely visible through the balloons and flowers that choked the entranceway. “Oh no, wouldn’t want to ruin Ashley’s special day.” “It’s not her fault.” “It never is.” Beth gritted her teeth then snagged a glass of her own from a passing waiter. “Can you just play nice for once? She’s worked hard for this.” “Yes, I imagine paying for all those essays would be very tiring.” “You don’t know that.” He shot her a look. “Alright, so she bought them, but I’m sure she still worked hard.” “Probably through the rugby team.” “Henry!” Their parents looked over. He gave them a brief salute, tried to ignore how their smiles wavered before they turned back to their neighbours. “Can you just,” She pinched the bridge of her nose. “Say hello to some people, say how proud you are and I’ll talk to Mummy and Daddy about upping your allowance.” He quirked a brow. “You really are desperate.” “Is that a yes?” He pretended to consider then shrugged. “Fine. I’ll be good and pretend that our darling sister is the pinnacle of academia.” “Thank you.” Ashley slipped into sight, crossing the room on wobbly heels. Her pupils were so blown he could see them from where he was hiding in the corner. Beth scowled, went to run interference. “Still trying to keep the peace, Beth?” He asked. “Someone around here has to.” From this exchange, we can see the Beth and Henry know each other well and appear to have known each other for a while, something we see from the discussion of their parents and shared looks. Beth is seen to be a responsible mediator whilst Henry is a cynical rebel. Throughout, there are references to previous grievances, ‘ Don’t start ’, and Ashley’s behaviour, ‘ It’s not her fault.’; ‘It never is .’
- Use Shorter Sentences When you’re fired up, you want to get your point across quickly before the other person has the chance to cut you off. It’s unlikely your characters will be eloquent and present carefully considered counter-arguments in the heat of a fight. Use shorter sentences between two characters to increase the tempo of the fight and allow the reader to take in the exchange quicker, mounting the scene’s tension.
- Think About What the Fight is Really About Often arguments are the result of a much bigger issue- if conflict is a boiling kettle, arguments are the froth that spills over. While the topic of the argument may seem superficial or the result of a hot-headed character, buried resentment, anger and fear can be rushing up to break free. Are your fictional roommates arguing about a dirty dish or about the fact that they’re fed up of each other’s behaviour? Is your couple arguing about someone’s suspected infidelity or that someone is working too much and the other person is insecure? Establish the real issue that has led to the argument and find a way to either bring it to the surface or to fuel your character’s exchange.
- Think About The Character’s Emotions Before and During the Fight Does one character feel angry and hurt? Is another lashing out because they’re scared? Show the internal conflict during the argument by showing how characters react to the words being exchanged. Do they flinch? Cry? Throw things? How do they approach the fight? Do they try to remain calm before losing their temper? Are they eager to leave? Trying to keep the peace? Think about a character’s emotions may fluctuate during an argument. While anger is expected, they may also feel frustration, panic, paranoia or offence.
- Think About Where Your Argument Takes Place Where is your argument taking place? Are they somewhere private or in a public place? Characters may forget where they are in the middle of a shouting match. Alternatively, one or both characters may be trying to keep their voice down or insisting the other calm down lest they cause a scene. Think about how characters interact with their environment during an uncomfortable situation. Do they watch people passing by during a painful pause or a break in the conversation? Do they gaze deep into a coffee cup or pace across kitchen tiles as they try to navigate another character’s short fuse?
- Think About How Long the Argument Goes on For The longer the argument, the more likely your characters will start to lose their voices or become tired. People are unlikely to shout at each other for hours- likely someone will walk away or they will make digs at each other after a heated exchange that lasts across several scenes. If a couple is having a spat before they arrive at a dinner party, the exchange is likely to be brief and bitter before they go into someone’s home. If a character has discovered their friend has been lying to them for years, the argument is likely to drag on as they rehash every lie or half-truth that has been told.
What is your favourite fictional argument? How do you prepare to write a fictional argument? Let me know.
More from Mary Fletcher
Writer, reader and tea-enthusiast. Follow my profile to enjoy content that discusses writing tips and tricks, life-hacks, as well as the odd dash of philosophy.
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Argument Writing as Dialogue in the Common Core
Four years ago, when I taught first-year composition at Portland Community College, I remember working hard to focus my class on topics I felt would interest my students: how experts achieve excellence in their chosen fields, for example, and how to balance work, school, and personal life. My students read and discussed popular magazine and newspaper articles on these topics, analyzing the ideas and evidence contained in them and then formulating and supporting their own claims.
I remember one female student, recently out of high school, who found me after class to discuss a concern.
“This isn’t a writing class!” she said, pointing to my syllabus.
“It isn’t?” I asked, surprised. “Why not?”
“Because we’re doing all this reading.”
As we talked, it became clear that her writing background as a student focused on expressing her ideas: her life experiences, her views, etc. She did not yet recognize that academic writing typically requires reading or listening and then responding to the ideas of others.
This is something the authors of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) tackle head on. It is what I appreciate most about all of the rigorous college- and career-readiness standards states are using: the emphasis on evaluating and making arguments in writing—often in response to complex texts.
This focus on argumentation reflects the fact that most of the high-stakes writing we do—in academia or a democracy—represents a conversation, not a monologue. Our positions are usually strengthened when placed against others. To take a stand, we don’t write in a vacuum; we must first understand the positions placed in front of us. Whether we’re preparing to vote or comparison shop for an expensive product, we must know how to distinguish strong from weak evidence and reasoning. Whether we’re writing a college essay or a cover letter, we must know how to use these tools effectively.
To develop students’ skills in writing arguments in response to texts, secondary teachers are encouraged to ask (or have their students generate) text-dependent questions. Unfortunately, overuse of the phrase “text-dependent questions” in educational circles makes it sound like a gimmick, but text-dependent questions are a powerful tool for generating the raw material for a written argument. Text-dependent questions are answered solely through reference to what the text says or implies, without information from outside the text. For example, students can examine how shifts in the direction of an argument or explanation are achieved, and the impact of those shifts. These questions encourage students to analyze what an author is and is not saying—to “read like a detective,” to borrow another CCSS-worn phrase. But, underlying this is an undeniable truth: We’re right to insist our students learn to struggle more with their assigned readings.
Just as important, the CCSS ask students to read and write about complex topics and texts: “What is freedom of speech, and when should it be limited?” for example, or “How could we let the Holocaust happen?” These standards are clear on the need to raise the level of thinking in our classrooms, particularly by allowing students to struggle with difficult readings and assignments.
One of the challenges for teachers is helping our students see themselves as worthy of wrestling with important ideas, and with texts written by major writers such as Martin Luther King, Jr. How can we build their confidence to dissect major ideas in history, politics, and science? This work requires teaching students that these texts and ideas were created for them, not for their teachers to assign. They are worthy. Ideally, it means bringing students to the library (electronic or otherwise) and showing them that much of the information and inspiration they need to achieve their dreams is contained there. Finally, it demands teaching students that they have a right to agree, disagree, or both—but that worthy responses are rarely black and white and take time and effort to pin down.
This kind of teaching isn’t passive, like watching TV. It’s active and challenging, which is why text-dependent questions and close reading are so important. At the same time, we need fewer teacher-led class discussions that do the hard work for students and more of… something else.
To evaluate and write academic arguments, students need to know “the moves,” as Graff and Birkenstein write in They Say/I Say , a college-level book on argument that high school teachers should read . To “demystify academic writing,” say the authors, our teachers need to guide students into these conversations about complex ideas. Together with their students, they must study academic arguments, demonstrating and providing opportunities for students to practice structuring them. Intensive study of high-quality writing—breaking it down and imitating its structure, paragraph by paragraph, even sentence by sentence—helps students internalize those “moves.” When used with a variety of models, close reading, text-dependent questions, and other scaffolds help students understand how to make their own arguments.
Writing instruction shouldn’t be neglected any longer in secondary schools. On the most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress , only 24 percent of students in grades 8 and 12 scored at or above proficient level, lower than our students’ performance in reading and mathematics. With standards such as the Common Core raising expectations, it seems possible that writing may get as much attention as reading and mathematics.
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A central argument is the cornerstone of any good paper. It is either what the writer wants to persuade the readers to think or the purpose of the essay. It can be summed up in one or two sentences, and should always be concise and straight...
A good example of centralization is the establishment of the Common Core State Standards Initiative in the United States. Centralization is a process by which planning and decision-making of an organization are concentrated in one group or ...
A deliberative argument addresses a controversial or contested issue or unsolved problem with the intent of moving others to agreement regarding the issue or problem being discussed.
A: John, I was looking through some magazines for ideas about where we might go on vacation this year. B: I've already told my buddy, Mark, that I am going
Dad: I'd say so. Wait. Son: What?
“Always been there with a disappointed sigh. “ “That's not me, that's you putting your insecurity on me.” “So it's still all my fault?” “I don't
For example, the more overweight a diabetic gets, the more insulin is produced in his blood, but the more insulin there is in his blood, the
If you're establishing the intention of the scene, you also need to establish where the scene is headed. How is this argument going to move the
the increase of the oceans could disappear coastal cities like new york if the thaw continues. Explains that everyone knows about climate change, but no one
http://centerforinterculturaldialogue.org. Center for Intercultural Dialogue. Key Concepts in Intercultural Dialogue. Argumentative Dialogue. Sara Greco.
Go to the Zoo (The Equal Rights Argument, Part II) - July 2013 - Timothy Brahm.
Here's a quick example: Henry sighed deeply, his fingers twitching around his wine glass. “Problem?” Beth asked. “Why would there be a problem
For example, students can examine how shifts in the direction of an argument or explanation are achieved, and the impact of those shifts. These questions
out argumentation-based dialogues, giving examples, ... example where the audience will be reporting back on the dialogue to some.