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Essay Examples on Postpartum Depression
Postpartum depression and anxiety disorders in women, suffering in silence: the development of postpartum depression, jane's postpartum depression in the yellow wallpaper by charlotte perkins gilman.
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The Factors of Postpartum Depression
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Free Postpartum Depression Essays and Papers
Postpartum depression is a serious mood disorder experienced by women after giving birth. This complex disorder can shatter mothers mind, body and spirit and end their dreams of what they expected motherhood to be. Health professionals estimate that between 15 and 20 percent of women who have recently given birth will be affected by postpartum depression (Stone, 2008). 700,000 new moms each year develops postpartum depression (Veng & Mcloskey, 2007). Postpartum depression affects more than just
- 4 Works Cited
Postpartum Depression In 2001, Andrea Yates, a Texas mother, was accused of drowning her five children, (aged seven, five, three, two, and six months) in her bathtub. The idea of a mother drowning all of her children puzzled the nation. Her attorney argued that it was Andrea Yates' untreated postpartum depression, which evolved into postpartum psychosis that caused her horrific actions (1) . He also argued that Andrea Yates suffered from postpartum depression after the birth of her fourth child
Postpartum Depression Works Cited Not Included Introduction What is Postpartum Depression Having a baby should be one of the happiest and most important events in a woman?s life. However, although life with a new baby can be both thrilling and rewarding, it can also be a difficult and quite stressful task. Most women make the transition without great difficulty, yet some women experience considerable complexity that may manifest itself as a postpartum psychiatric disorder (O?hara, Hoffman
Baby Blues And Postpartum Depression
symptoms linger or your depression increases after a few weeks to a month than the mother most likely has postpartum depression. It is very important for the mother to get help so she can give her full attention, support, and comfort to her child. A few symptoms that mothers have during this time period are sadness, moodiness, concentration problems, appetite changes, and many more. Hormonal changes that happen are the cause of the baby blues, and postpartum depression. Once the mothers hormone
An Investigation of Postpartum Depression
- 1 Works Cited
An Investigation of Postpartum Depression Missing Works Cited The recent Andrea Yates murder trial brought a firestorm of controversy as the issue of postpartum depression (PPD) became a debated topic throughout the country. Did Andrea truly suffer from psychosis as she drowned her five children in the bathtub or was such defense a scheme to avoid the death sentence? Prosecutors suggested the spousal-revenge theory as a motive for the killings. Could she have committed murder to get back at
- 3 Works Cited
“Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major form of depression and is less common than postpartum blues. PPD includes all the symptoms of depression but occurs only following childbirth.” stated by William Beardslee, MD is the Academic Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Children’s Hospital in Boston and Gardner Monks Professor of Child Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. After reviewing and seeing what many mothers and young teenage mothers go through on what seems like an everyday basis one
Postpartum Depression Impact
Postpartum Depression’s Impact On Marriages In order to understand what is postpartum depression first is important to know what is the meaning of depression in general. This paper will focus on postpartum depression (PPD) and how affects marriage base on the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Perkins Gilman. Depression is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts and that affects the way a person eats, sleeps, feels about himself or herself, and thinks about things. Depression is not the
Postpartum Depression In Nursing
Postpartum depression is a mental health issue that affects women in the days, weeks, and months after giving birth to a baby. (Yawn, Bertram, Kurland, & Wollan, 2015, p. 228) Symptoms of postpartum depression can occur up to a year after delivery. Lavoie (2015) explained that postpartum depression is such a high priority concern because of the lifetime influence it can have on the mother; as well as the newborn’s quality of life and the potential for life threatening events if it remains undiagnosed
Postpartum Depression Case Study
Postpartum depression, a depressive state that can begin in four weeks, and in some cases up to 12 months, after childbirth (postpartum), is the most prevalent complication arising from childbirth affecting at least 15 percent of postpartum women (Del Rosario, G. A., Chang, A., & Lee, E. D., 2013). Although it is generally a very mild complication (many call the most mild type ‘baby blues’ which has an incidence rate of 80 percent), it can become a more serious problem, as in Andrea Yates case (Del
Manifestation and clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression The common symptoms include mood swings, mild elation, tearfulness, irritability, fatigue, and confusion (Pearlstein 2009). As a clinical diagnosis a study proposes the diagnostic criteria for a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) which verify a constant depression for a period of 2 weeks or anhedonia, also 4 of the following aspects need to happen such as change in appetite, sleep problems, psychomotor agitation or retardation, feelings of
Depression And Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression Pregnancies are often correlated with the assumption that it will bring happiness to the household and ignite feelings of love between the couple. What remains invisible is how the new responsibilities of caring and communicating with the baby affects the mother; and thus, many women experience a temporary clinical depression after giving birth which is called postpartum depression (commonly known as postnatal depression) (Aktaş & Terzioğlu, 2013). The article, Occurrence of
- 6 Works Cited
pregnancy, a major concern that requires attention is a period of expected feelings of depression that a woman may encounter known as baby blues. Although normal, and expected baby blues can lead into post partum depression that involves a myriad of emotions and mood swings. If not addressed postpartum depression can lead to a more severe form of baby blues known in the clinical world as postpartum non-psychotic depression that requires professional intervention. The therapeutic goal during this time is
Postpartum Depression Having a child can be the happiest moment of a person’s life. A sweet little baby usually gives new parents tremendous joy. That joy can be accompanied with anxiety about the baby and the responsibility the new parents are faced with. The anxiety, in most cases, fades and joy is what remains. For some new mothers, however, the joy is replaced with a condition known as postpartum depression. “Postpartum depression is a serious disorder that until recently was not discussed
Post-partum depression is characterized as a depressive mood disorder occurring within the post-partum period (RNAO). Research has demonstrated that women are significantly more likely to be admitted into a psychiatric care facility within four weeks post-partum than any other period in her life, 12.5% of all admissions of women into psychiatric hospitals take place within the duration of the post-partum period (RNAO). The objective of this paper is to provide a current literary review of post-partum
Postpartum Depression Essay
Postpartum depression is a depression suffered by a mother following childbirth. Postpartum psychosis is a worse form of postpartum depression. It is postpartum depression with psychotic symptoms. There are many different symptoms and risk factors that come with postpartum depression. This paper talks about postpartum depression and psychosis, and the effects it has on women. History The earliest documentation of postpartum psychosis was in 400 B.C. by Hippocrates. Up until recently there was not
year my curiosity was fixed on a common yet highly misunderstood disorder known as Postpartum Depression. Extremely common in the United Stated, postpartum depression is single handedly the most common disorder that many women tend to have in their life and can often lead to suicide. Throughout this paper we will explore the causes, the symptoms, and the recovery of the deadly disorder known as Postpartum depression. “At first I thought what I was feeling was just exhaustion, but with it came an overriding
Essay On Postpartum Depression
been detected of females from approximately ages nineteen to forty to suffer from postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a mix of physical, emotional and behavioral changes that new or previous mothers experience following the delivery of their babies. Symptoms of this condition can range from mild to severe, and the exact cause for this types of depressions are unknown. Mothers with postpartum depression need more treatment so that they can be physically, emotionally, and behaviorally stable
Postpartum Major Depression
Postpartum Major Depression Postpartum major depression is a type of depression that affecting as many as eighty percent of new mothers at some point in their childs first few weeks of infancy. Scientists have categorized their findings on postpartum depression into three basic categories. These include: the conditions surrounding the birth of the child, diagonosis and treatment of the disease, and the the long term affects of postpartum depression on the mother`s child. Postpartum major depression
Recognizing Postpartum Depression for New Moms Alissa Clark Denver School of Nursing Lasting Effects of Postpartum Depression on Mom and Baby M.V is 41-year-old G3P3002 having a vaginal delivery of a baby boy. She was alone in her labor and delivery room for the entire length of her stay, and even alone with just the new baby for her postpartum stay. She has a two-year-old daughter and said her new son was unexpected. Her oldest son was murdered at 16 years old, four years ago. At her March 2014
Diagnosis of Postpartum Depression
a doctor, do not believe her, “You see he does not believe I am sick!’’ (Gilman 103). As I continued to read the story I came to the conclusion that her sickness goes beyond hysteria and that she may have postpartum depression. I would like to thoroughly explain what exactly postpartum depression is before explaining what makes me ...
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Postpartum Depression Essay
Essay Postpartum Depression
- 4 Works Cited
Postpartum Depression In 2001, Andrea Yates, a Texas mother, was accused of drowning her five children, (aged seven, five, three, two, and six months) in her bathtub. The idea of a mother drowning all of her children puzzled the nation. Her attorney argued that it was Andrea Yates' untreated postpartum depression, which evolved into postpartum psychosis that caused her horrific actions (1) . He also argued that Andrea Yates suffered from postpartum depression after the birth of her fourth
Postpartum Depression : Post Partum Depression
about what could cause a mother to murder her own children. Two words became a significant part of her legal team’s defense: “postpartum depression” (Cohen). A public dialogue was opened and the issue of postpartum depression saw a significant shift in awareness. This new era of enlightenment would be considerably different from the earlier history of post-partum depression and some of the shame that surrounded it. Beyond Andrea Yates, other women have increased the prominence of the mental disorder
Postpartum Depression On The Mother And Parenting
For this research paper, I decided to focus on postpartum depression. While being a listening ear, I was introduced to the reality that not every mother has the attachment to her child that almost every movie in Hollywood portrays. After hearing the story and not sure if it was a real thing, I began to search the web for information, stories, and news coverage related to the rarely-discussed category of depressed known as Postpartum Depression (PPD). I wanted to find solid proof that this was an
Postpartum Depression : Symptoms And Symptoms
birth of a baby leads to some complicated feelings that are unexpected. Up to 85% of postpartum woman experience a mild depression called “baby blues” (Lowdermilk, Perry, Cashion, & Alden, 2012). Though baby blues is hard on these mothers, another form of depression, postpartum depression, can be even more debilitating to postpartum woman. Postpartum depression affects about 15% (Lowdermilk et al., 2012) of postpartum woman. This disorder is not only distressing to the mother but to the whole family
The Effects Of Health Information Levels On Postpartum Depression
Title Evaluation The title of the journal article to be critically evaluated is Influence of health information levels on postpartum depression. This title is not sufficiently specific because the variables are not easily understood. What is meant by health information levels? The reader must examine the article further to understand if this health information is provided, or does the article refer to the level of health-related knowledge each participant already possessed from another source, such
Middle Range Theory Of Postpartum Depression Theory Essay
Middle Range Theory Paper: Analysis of Postpartum Depression Theory Description of Theory- In 1993, Beck published a middle range theory on postpartum depression, entitled Teetering on the Edge. Beck, (1993, p. 44) which describes “walking on a fine line between sanity and insanity”. Beck determined a limited amount of qualitative research available and few instruments for measurement of postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, and “maternity blues”. Beck interviewed 12 women for 18 months detailed
The Effects Of Maternal Postpartum Depression On The Language Development Of Children Essay
In the article “The impact of maternal postpartum depression on the language development of children at 12 months”, the authors, Quevedo, Silva, Godoy, Jansen, Matos, Tavares Pinheiro and Pinheiro, studied the relationship between some factors related to maternal depression during the first year of a child’s life and the child’s language development process (Quevedo et al.,2011). They hypothesized that a child whose mother presented maternal depression would have a lower performance than a child
- 3 Works Cited
“Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major form of depression and is less common than postpartum blues. PPD includes all the symptoms of depression but occurs only following childbirth.” stated by William Beardslee, MD is the Academic Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at Children’s Hospital in Boston and Gardner Monks Professor of Child Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. After reviewing and seeing what many mothers and young teenage mothers go through on what seems like an everyday basis
Postpartum Depression: A Literature Review
be admitted to a psychiatric hospital within the first four weeks postpartum than any other time in her life; roughly 75 percent of women experience a mild depression, or the “baby blues” (Perry et al., 2013, p. 593). Postpartum mood disorders can include depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and in rare cases, psychosis (Perry et al., 2013, p. 593). In this paper, the writers will focus solely on postpartum depression (PPD), also known as perinatal mood disorder. Mothers will often
Postpartum Depression: A Case Study
experience postpartum depression in the first three months following childbirth, making it the most common major medical complication of childbearing (Wisner, Logsdon, & Shanahan, 2008). Postpartum depression occurs globally and has an estimated prevalence rate of 10-15% in developed countries (Moshki, Beydokhti, & Cheravi, 2013). A study conducted at a Pittsburgh hospital screened 10,000 women for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at four to six weeks postpartum and found
with postpartum depression Introduction .Depression is one of the psychological disorders that influence 15-25 % of adults in United States every year. Women are twice as likely as men to experience symptoms of depression. In women, most common period of occurrence of depression is between 18-44 years and this happens to be the prime childbearing years. Women who are at risk for depression are very vulnerable during pregnancy and after child birth because of hormonal fluctuations. Postpartum depression
Postpartum Depression Research Paper
like women, men are affected by postpartum depression. Postpartum depression also called postnatal depression (PPD) is a depression that occur in a women after she gave birth but also in men after 3-6 weeks. Symptoms such as fatigue, exhaustion, sadness, memory loss and others may go unrecognized until it compromised the father’s daily functioning. From experience, I can say that “Dads get postpartum depression, too” is accurate about postpartum in fathers. Depression is unrelated to childbirth while
Postpartum Depression : Symptoms And Treatments Essay
Depression Postpartum in United States According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, depression is “a psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendencies.” According to the definition of the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), postpartum depression
Postpartum Depression Screening Depression, a disorder of the brain, is known to be a common but serious illness that interferes with one’s life. Although MRI scans have shown a difference in the brain activity of individuals suffering depression, it cannot solely be used to diagnose depression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) states that “with postpartum onset” to episode of depression with the onset being within 4 weeks of delivery of a neonate
The Progressive Stages Of Postpartum Depression
by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Depression: a state of feeling sad. Simple, right? Dead wrong. Clinical depression is one of the leading psychological disorders in the US, affecting over 17.5 million Americans.(Washington) Amongst the many forms of depression, there is postpartum depression, a more uncommon one. Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Gilman, is a paper in which Charlotte Gilman tells a fictionalized version of her experience with postpartum depression. The purpose of her writing this was
Postpartum Depression And The Depression
The postpartum time period is depicted as a joyful time for mothers, but in some cases it can be a time of calamity (Jevitt, Groer, Crist, Gonzalez, & Wagner, 2012). Postpartum Depression (PPD) in women after childbirth is a common occurrence. It happens in all races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic statuses. PPD is a severe depression that affects mothers after childbirth. It involves serious depression, sadness, and loneliness. Cheryl Tatano Beck is a nursing theorist who is known for her work
Depression And Postpartum Depression
Postpartum depression: What is it, how long does it last, and does it affect children on the long run? Postpartum depression is a depression that affects woman usually during the first months after giving birth. Postpartum depression affects 1 in 5 woman. It can also affect fathers. In most cases, postpartum depression can last many years. There are 3 types of postpartum psychiatric disorders: postpartum blues, postpartum psychosis and postpartum depression. According to Health Facty, there are 10
symptoms of postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is a severe mental disorder that some time will occur after giving birth or after being pregnant. According to research postpartum depression usually will occur within a year after giving birth. According to the Centers for Disease Control, 11 to 20% of women who give birth each year have postpartum depression symptoms. ). Although researchers have not been able to determine one main
Postpartum Depression among Teenage Mothers Introduction Postpartum depression is a category of depression that can occur when a mother has a baby. The symptoms of postpartum depression are similar to the symptoms of major depression. Postpartum depression is often experienced during the first month that the baby is born (Bolyn 2017). Some women experience postpartum depression during pregnancy (Bolyn 2017). A few symptoms of postpartum depression are excessive crying, loss of appetite, feelings
for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number of women suffer from postpartum depression; an illness which is often overlooked, misdiagnosed and untreated. Postpartum depression (PPD) has been defined as an emotional disorder that occurs in
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Postpartum Depression: An Important Issue In Women’s Health
Info: 2066 words (8 pages) Nursing Essay Published: 29th May 2020
Tagged: mental health depression PPD
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- Hantsoo, Liisa, et al. “A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial of Sertraline for Postpartum Depression.” SpringerLink , Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 31 Oct. 2014, link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-013-3316-1.
- Hyland, Kristina. “Postpartum Depression Research Paper.” LinkedIn SlideShare , 15 Nov. 2015, www.slideshare.net/KristinaHyland/postpartum-depression-research-paper-55121451.
- National Institute of Mental Health, www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/postpartum-depression-facts/index.shtmlTables.
- “Postnatal Depression Has Life-Long Impact on Mother-Child Relations.” ScienceDaily , ScienceDaily, 20 Feb. 2018, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/02/180220122917.htm.
- “Postpartum Depression.” Mayo Clinic , Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 1 Sept. 2018, www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/postpartum-depression/symptoms-causes/syc-20376617.
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Postpartum Depression Research Paper
Below you can find one of perfectly structured and flawlessly written research papers on postpartum depression and its effects on child development. Remarkably, while working on this paper, our degreed expert provided an A-to-Z creative writing help : first, offered a customer several topics to choose from; then, composed and approved a thesis statement and an outline; after that, crafted the text; and finally, came up with a short informative speech to be used at paper's presentation in the class (not included in this sample). Another impressive feature of this piece is the number of works cited – 23 sources were processed and properly referenced.
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CHAPTER I: POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION RESEARCH PAPER INTRODUCTION
Postpartum depression refers to a kind of depression that some women experience after childbirth (Miller, 2002). Carrying a pregnancy for nine months is not a simple task, given the changes and complications that the individual is likely to face. Likewise, giving birth is neither a simple task. Giving birth is one of the things that stress pregnant women. However, the main challenge is providing becoming a mother. Many women are confused or even depressed about the idea of being a mother (Field, 2010). Others feel that they are not ready to be moms at all. In this paper, we will mainly focus on major depression, postpartum depression that is usually triggered by childbirth. Many people tend to confuse a condition that is commonly known as baby blues with postpartum depression. In as where baby blues last for a few weeks before disappearing, the postpartum depression may last for several months (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014).
Postpartum depression is a severe condition that few months after childbirth. The same condition can also occur after the pregnant mother has experienced stillbirth or a miscarriage (Miller, 2002). Women experiencing postpartum depression have feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. They always have a problem caring or even bonding with their babies (Cohn et al., 2009). Consequently, postpartum depression can progress to a severe form of depression known as postpartum psychosis. When a woman experiences postpartum psychosis, she can be dangerous to herself, the baby, or even other people around her. Hence, mothers are advised to seek medical help whenever they are faced with feelings of postpartum depression. This can help them feel better and even enjoy caring for their baby (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Postpartum depression is believed to develop as a result of changes in the level of hormones that occur during a period of pregnancy. Therefore, any woman can develop postpartum depression within the first few weeks or months after birth, stillbirth or even miscarriage. Several factors put a woman at risk of postpartum pregnancy. If a female had depression or even postpartum depression before, she is likely to suffer from postpartum depression (Rutter, 2009). Support is also very crucial when it comes to postpartum depression. If a woman receives inadequate support from family, her partner, or friends, she has a high chance of developing postpartum depression (Field, 2010). The fact that a woman has a sick or colicky child is capable of transitioning a woman into a state of postpartum depression. Lastly, women who experience some stresses in life are prone to postpartum depression. For instance, a woman who has financial problems may be depressed due to fears of the funds to raise her child (McCoy et al., 2006). Women that are experiencing postpartum depression show symptoms such as feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and emptiness. In addition, some women may experience restless, loss of enjoyment in doing the things they previously enjoyed doing, and some can hardly concentrate on anything (Miller, 2002).
Apparently, raising a child with such a condition is problematic. Therefore, we can all agree that postpartum depression has significant impacts on child development. The results are brought about by the difficulty to care or even bond with the child (Rutter, 2009). Mothers suffering from postpartum depression have a problem with caring and even bonding with their children. Hence, such babies grow while they insecurely attached. For instance, in a study conducted to investigate the effects of postnatal depression on the emotional development of infants, children who are raised by postpartum depressed mothers show sociability to strangers, a phenomenon that is attributed to avoidant attachment (Murray, 2008). Still, on emotional development, infants brought up by mothers suffering postpartum depression are faced with behavioral problems such as sleeping, eating, and temper tantrums. They also show the low quality of interaction with the mother due to feelings of insecure attachment. Eventually, these children end up exhibiting a number of behavioral, emotional and psychiatric problems. For instance, majority of children raised by mothers suffering postpartum depression are diagnosed with mental disorders, such as hyperactivity, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (Laursen et al., 2011).
On cognitive development, children born to mothers who are suffering from postnatal depression have poor mental development. Investigative studies done using the Bayley scale for children eighteen months old show that children of male sex have a problem of interacting with the mother (Field, 2010). In other words, infant-maternal interaction is poor. Based on Piaget’s Stage V of development, children reared by postnatally depressed mothers rarely succeed in object permanence, which examines the child’s capacity for mental representation (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006). Hence, children cared for by postnatally depressed mothers have poorly developed cognitive abilities. This phenomenon may be attributed to the fact that the mother forms the primary environment for interaction with the infant. Hence, the child is very sensitive to the interactions from the main caregiver within the first months of development (Rutter, 2009).
Postpartum depression is described as one of the world’s increasing epidemics, and currently, the global statistics state it affects approximately 11-42 % of postpartum women globally (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). However, the prevalence rates tend to vary from one region to another depending on socioeconomic status and other determinants of health such access to quality care. Narrowing down to the African continent, the incidence rate is estimated at 10% and 32%. Focusing on Ghana, the prevalence is approximately 27%. These prevalence figures show you that postpartum depression is quite a challenge in all parts of the world (Field, 2010).
Accordingly, the National Institute of Mental Health acknowledges that mothers that have given birth are more likely to suffer from postpartum depression during childbirth once in their lifetime, and for women who have already experienced PPD in their previous pregnancies, the incidence rate may go as high as 41%. Compared to women, the rate of postpartum depression among fathers is not documented (Field, 2010).
Statement of the Problem
Therefore, postpartum depression has enormous impacts on child development (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Hence, this research study is aimed at determining the level of knowledge regarding the effects of “postpartum depression on child development” among women attending antenatal clinic at Dodowa Hospital. In order to do so, the following questions will be posed to the women included in the study:
- What do you understand by postpartum depression?
- What are the symptoms of postpartum depression?
- What are the risk factors for postpartum depression?
- What are the impacts of postpartum depression on child development?
- How is postpartum depression managed and prevented?
Purpose of the Study
PPD is a common problem that affects many women. All women are considered to be at risk of depression. This is because this condition is caused by variations in hormone levels after pregnancy (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). In addition, a number of other factors, such as poor social support and lack of resources are hypothesized as the possible causative factors of postpartum depression. Consequently, postnatal depression has significant impacts on child development. It impairs the cognitive and emotional development of children. Infants born of mothers suffering PPD are insecurely attached to their caregivers (mothers) show behavioral problems, such as temper tantrums and sleeping and eating disturbances. Cognitively, they rarely succeed the Piaget Stage V of object permanence (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Hence, this research study aims at determining the level of knowledge regarding postpartum depression among women attending antenatal clinic at Dodowa Hospital. It is paramount to determine what the mothers know and what they do not know in order to develop proper postpartum depression prevention strategies. Determining the level of knowledge will include areas such as risk factors for PPD, symptoms of PPD and treatment modalities for postpartum depression. In addition, the research study will aim at developing strategies that will help in reducing incidences of PPD among women (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Significance of the Topic
One of the main goals of the nursing profession is to improve the health standards in society. One of the ways of achieving this goal is through identifying common health problems that negatively impact the health of the community and develop proper strategies to remedy the situation (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem among women and even men. Studies in this area show that women have a prevalence to postpartum depression of 5-25%. The lack of an exact figure has been however due to the methodologies applied by the researchers. Importantly, postpartum depression affects the mother, the child, and other people around them. It affects the care or bonding between the other and the child. This phenomenon has vast impacts on the development of the child (Field, 2010).
In order to make sure this proposed research study is focused on achieving its set objectives and obtain relevant result findings concerning the issue of postpartum depression, it will be essential to formulate a set of hypotheses that will be confirmed by the research findings. Therefore, this proposed study will test the following hypotheses:
- Women who attend the antenatal clinic at Dodowa Hospital lack sufficient knowledge of postpartum depression and its effects on child development.
- Postpartum depression significantly affects child development
The general objective of this study is to identify the knowledge levels of women in regard to postpartum depression attending the antenatal clinic at Dodowa Hospital.
- To establish the prevalence of postpartum depression in Dodowa Hospital
- To establish the available treatment and management interventions for postpartum depression
- To elucidate the effects of postpartum depression and how it affects child development
At the end of the study, it is expected that the study will be able to confirm the knowledge levels of mothers suffering from postpartum depression and in turn, establish the most effective strategies for addressing the problem.
Limitations of the study
The following factors have been identified as the prospective limiting factors in this proposed research study.
- The levels of knowledge vary with time place. Hence, it will be difficult to generalize the information for the entire population.
- The study will include participants who can communicate well in English. Hence, women speaking others languages apart from English will be excluded from the study.
- The study will mainly focus on postpartum depression on women. It is worth mentioning that even men suffer from postpartum depression, although their prevalence rates are lower than those of women.
Definition of Key Terms
- Postpartum Depression. Also called postnatal depression or abbreviated as PPD. It refers to a type of clinical depression that affects women after childbirth. Women suffering from postpartum depression feel sad, hopeless, empty, or even anxious.
- Peripartum Onset. It refers to the period in which symptoms of depression manifests before the child is born.
- Postpartum Psychosis. This is the worst case of postpartum depression. It characterized by psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, thought disturbances and disorganized behavior or speech.
- Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. It is a “standardized self-reported” questionnaire that is used for screening women of postpartum depression.
- Baby Blues. A postnatal condition that resembles postpartum depression. However, baby blues disappear within few weeks after appearance.
- Cognitive Development. It refers to the child’s ability in terms of processing information, conceptualizing resources, language learning, perceptual skill and other areas of brain development.
- Emotional Development. It refers to the growth in the ability of the child to differentiate between and express the appropriate emotions.
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW
Definition of postpartum depression.
Postpartum depression is described as a chronic and debilitating psychological condition that is highly characterized by reduced quality life, the heavy burden in regard to its treatment and management, and increased risks to a myriad of life-threatening adverse events and complications (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). From a nursing point of view, postpartum disorder is defined as “a type of clinical depression that affects women after childbirth” that occurs immediately after birth or up to one year after birth, and it is in most occasions identified as a complication of childbirth rather than character or psychological flaw (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014).
Although the exact cause of postpartum depression is not well known, it is believed that this condition is brought about changes in hormone after pregnancy. Postpartum depression has significant emotional impacts on the mother. These effects include a lack of support from a sexual partner, feelings of loss of control over one’s life, identity crisis, and anxiety about motherhood and sleep deprivation (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). Importantly, medication, counseling, and support groups can be very helpful under such circumstances. In the previous research studies conducted, the prevalence rates among women range between 5% and 25%. The vast differences, in this case, are brought about differences in the methodology applied by the researchers. On the other hand, men reported a lower prevalence rate compared to women, being between 1% and 25% (Goodman, 2004).
Clinical Manifestation of Postpartum Depression
It is important to note that signs and symptoms of PPD can appear at any time within the first year after childbirth (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Some of these symptoms include a feeling of guilt, emptiness, exhaustion, depression, low self-worth, desperation, and feelings of being overwhelmed, social withdrawal, inability to be comforted, inability to find pleasure in activities that once used to be enjoyable, sleep and eating disturbances, and decreased sex drive. Other common symptoms include irritability, crying episodes, low energy or fatigue, sadness, and anxiety among others. In addition, and the affected mother may also experience low or lack of energy. Nevertheless, some women may experience baby blues, a condition that exhibits similar symptoms almost the same as postpartum depression. However, baby blues last for a few weeks, unlike postpartum depression, which takes a couple of months or even years (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Onset and Duration
The signs of postpartum depression begin to appear between two to four weeks after childbirth. However, some past studies have shown that postpartum depression in some women begins before birth (Field, 2010). For precise diagnosis, the symptoms must manifest themselves at least two weeks following birth. For some patients, the symptoms may be manifested earlier than expected and this attributed to increased hormonal levels and extent of fluctuations. Hence, PPD in this context can be diagnosed as “depressive disorder with peripartum onset” in DSM-5. Here, the peripartum onset is regarded as the period before childbirth, and it prolongs for the first four weeks after birth (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). In addition, the symptoms can be manifested in women who have experienced a miscarriage or undergone an abortion.
As earlier mentioned, it is without a doubt that various research studies, including the meta-analysis of studies on early interaction between mother and their infants, show that postpartum depression affects interactions between the mother and the infant. According to Lovejoy et al. (2000), PPD can interfere with the normal maternal-infant bonding in situations where the mother is less engaged and may feel insufficient or incapable of taking care of the baby. Such mothers’ are also in most cases inconsistent when it comes to childcare (Cohn et al., 2009). In most situations, this kind of interference has serious adverse effects on child development and mainly such children may suffer from many emotional, psychiatric, and behavioral problems in the future that interfere with the child’s ability to interact normally with others r even have a normal emotional life (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Such children also suffer from a myriad of other psychological problems that influence their emotional, cognitive, and behavioral patterns. For example, such children are later diagnosed with hyperactivity, and antisocial behaviors such as Conduct Disorder (CD) that is characterized with a rhythmic and importunate pattern of behavior in and Oppositional Defiant Disorder that is characterized by patterns of irritable behavior and lack of expect of authority (Laursen, et al., 2011).
Psychologist perceives postpartum depression has a homeostatic mechanism that determines motherly instincts and ability to cater to the infant (Field, 2010). Essentially, human infants are very vulnerable and hence they need a high degree of care. Hence, incidents of postpartum depression may be indicative of an unwanted child. Finally, we can all agree that postpartum depression is not a mental illness but rather a kind of psychological problem caused by lack of support from loved ones. Hence, the treatment of postpartum depression should comprehensively focus on addressing the kind of ‘lack’ the mother is experiencing (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Causes of Postpartum Depression
As stated earlier, the exact causes of postpartum depression are not clearly extrapolated or established. However, it is assumed that a myriad of physical, emotional/ cognitive, and lifestyle/environmental factors play a significant role in its pathophysiological mechanisms (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). From a nursing perspective, genetical predisposition of the mother, changes in the level of the hormones during the pregnancy, and considerable occurrences in the life of the mother such as difficulties in breast-feeding, lack of support from the mother’s partner and her immediate family members, and financial problems (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). In addition, changes in blood volume and pressure, and changes in the functions of various body systems such as the gastrointestinal, immune, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems also heightens the risk of postpartum depression. In respect to hormones, a significant drop in the level of hormones, most specifically estrogen and progesterone in their standard form, is believed to play a prominent role in the development of postpartum depression. One of the studies carried out by Miller (2002) in relation to the causes of PPD found out that the severity of the condition is determined by the amount or levels of estrogen and progesterone changes (decline) following birth (Miller, 2002). In another study conducted by researcher from University of California, it was found out that the concentration levels of “Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone” (CRH) in the placenta during the gestational can be used to predict effectively the woman's chances of developing postpartum depression (Rich-Edwards et al., 2008). Importantly, fathers can also suffer from PPD. However, the etiology for fathers might be a little different.
The changes in lifestyle that are brought about by the care of the baby are also assumed as one of the major causes of postpartum depression. However, not all researchers agree on this factor since there is very little evidence to support its assertion. For instance, it assumed that depressing situations such as difficulties in breast-feeding, lack of support from the mother’s partner and her immediate family members, and financial problems could heighten the risk of postpartum depression (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014).
Factors/ Elements That Increase the Risk of Postpartum Depression
Previously, we stated that the causes of postpartum depression are not well known. However, there are a couple of risk factors that have been closely linked to the development of PPD. (Nielsen et al., 2000). The presence of one or more of these risk factors tends to increase the likelihood of the mother suffering from postpartum depression and its related complications. According to McCoy et al. (2006), postpartum depression can occur immediately after the birth of any child, and the risk is increased by history of postpartum depression in previous childbirths, prenatal depression, issues related childcare or life stress, birth-related psychological trauma, difficulties in breast-feeding, and history of stress and depression during pregnancy.
Other risk factors include previous miscarriages or abortions, depression in oxytocin levels, high prolactin levels, and unplanned pregnancy, low self-esteem, and life events such as lack of support from the mother’s partner and her immediate family members, and financial problems (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
It is important to mention that some of these predisposing factors, such as lack of or weak social support can cause PPD. Interestingly, other risk factors, such as unhealthy lifestyle behaviors like alcohol consumption and smoking have been shown to have addictive effects (Howell et al., 2006). Women who are well off financially or have enough resources for the upkeep of their baby have shown or exhibited fewer cases of postpartum depression compared to their counterparts with limited resources. Statistically, the rates of postpartum depression tend the decrease with an increase in income level and social status. In addition, women from low socioeconomic backgrounds are prone to risks of unwanted pregnancies that heighten the risk of postpartum depression. Similarly, single mothers without support of their baby’s father and those that are economically unstable are at high likelihood of developing postpartum depression due to stress for child upkeep (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Some studies have also conducted various research studies to investigate the correlation between postpartum depression and the ethnic background of the mother (Howell et al., 2006). In this study, demographic characteristics such as age, the health status of the baby after birth, level of education, socioeconomic status were shown to influence the development of PPD. From the research study, it was revealed that the risk for the condition is low among Caucasians and significantly high among women of African heritage or descent (Howell et al., 2006). Apart from the influence of ethnic background, other socio-cultural elements such as sexual orientation and sexual preferences also influenced the development of PPD. According to Ross et al. (2007), the incidence of PPD is high among lesbians compared to heterosexual women, and this is attributed to societal perceptions or viewpoints that regard lesbians as immoral and unfit to be mothers. In addition, such women are discriminated against and lack social support (Ross, 2005).
Test and Diagnosis
Postpartum depression is diagnosed based on the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5” (DSM-5) criteria that perceive the condition as a subtype of major depression. According to this criterion, this condition is diagnosed when the major depression symptoms are manifested within 2-4 weeks after birth (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). Some of these symptoms include guilt, emptiness, exhaustion, unhappiness, low self-worth, desperation, feelings of being overwhelmed, social withdrawal, inability to be comforted, inability to find pleasure in activities that once used to be enjoyable, sleep and eating disturbances, and decreased sex drive (Field, 2010).
In situations where the diagnosis is not known or differential diagnosis is required, screening may be done using various depression-screening questionnaires or diagnostic tools such as the “Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale” that evaluates the extent and severity of the condition. This tool consists of ten questions that are posed to the mother in relation to her moods and overall cognitive status, and a score of more than 12 is indicative of postpartum depression. Blood tests may also be performed to determine the level of hormones and their functions of contributing to the condition’s signs and symptoms (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014).
Treatment, Management, and Prevention
This condition is treatable and its management specifically depends on the mother’s individual health needs and severity of the condition. Different treatment modalities exist for this condition, and the most common ones include pharmacological intervention that entails the use of antidepressants (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). These include “selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors” (SSRIs) such as Citalopram and Sertraline that reduces depression by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin in the brain and “tricyclic antidepressants” (TCAs) such as amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine that functions by blocking the reuptake of various neurotransmitters that include serotonin and norepinephrine. Treatment interventions also include hormone therapy and this entails estrogen replacement that replaces the declined hormone level after childbirth (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006).
Postpartum depression is also managed using non-pharmacological interventions that include cognitive behavioral therapy that trains the patient to understand her condition and what is required of her, alternative treatment methods that include interpersonal therapy that consists of non-directive counseling and social skills training (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). In regard to prevention, PPD can be prevented by earlier screening that identifies women at risk of developing the condition, eating a healthy diet with lots of fluids, and encouraging regular physical exercise (Stein et al., 2001).
Effects or Impact of Postnatal Depression on Child Development
Plenty of evidence exists that shows parental psychiatric disorder has a disastrous impact on child development. The deleterious consequences may be as a result of a number of factors. Rutter (2009) identifies three ways in which postpartum depression can affect child development. The first way is direct pernicious effects on the baby as a result of exposure to the condition of the parent; secondly, as an indirect effect that can occur through interpersonal behavior or parenting in particular. Additionally, the child may be affected by postpartum depression through third factors such as the social adversity that is directed towards people with genetic or psychiatric problems (Rutter, 2009). Overall, child development can be impacted by postpartum depression in the three named processes. It is important to mention that infants extremely depend on their caretakers. For that reason, they have developed a great deal of sensitivity to interpersonal contacts. Often, the mother forms part of the primary environment of the infant for the first early months of development (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). Hence, most cases of postpartum depression have been associated with adverse child outcomes. Precisely, children cared for mothers suffering from PPD have been found to suffer from impaired emotional and cognitive development (Field, 2010).
Research carried out to investigate the impact of postnatal depression on child development has reported poorer mental and motor development at the age between 12 and 18 months. In a study conducted by Lyons-Ruth et al. (2006), they found out that most of the infants who were referred to “child intervention service with matched community controls” were mostly from mothers who had suffered postnatal depression. Based on Bayley scales, these children scored poorly on mental development. Another study conducted in the British community showed that children of mothers who had succumbed to PPD scored poorly on the IQ test compared to those of the women who had remained healthy during pregnancy and even after delivery (Stein et al., 2001). A further follow-up check at the age of eighteen months shows that children born to postnatally depressed mothers are more likely to fail “Stage V of Piaget’s object permanence task” whereas those of healthy postpartum mothers are likely to score well (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). “Stage V of Piaget object permanence task” examines the child’s ability to perceive things and interpret concepts. Regarding the Bayley scale of mental development, there was an association of the infant gender and the mother’s state of mind. The results indicated that boys born to mothers suffering from postpartum depression poorly interacted with their parents compared to the boys born to postnatally healthy mothers (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006).
A study on the effects of PPD on emotional child development has been investigated in three particular approaches. The first one has been “an examination of the quality of the infant's interpersonal functioning when in direct communicative engagement with the mother” (Stein et al., 2001). A comparison of the ratings of the “quality of interaction” between the postnatally depressed mothers and their infants versus the controls showed that the degree of interaction low among postpartum depressed mothers and their children. The infants born to mothers suffering from postpartum depression showed lower rates of interactive behavior. In addition, they had less concentration and often gave negative responses. The children also showed a little degree of interaction with strangers (Stein et al., 2001).
The other way in which studies on emotional development have been made is through assessing the quality of infant attachment. The quality of infant attachment is evaluated using “Ainsworth strange situation procedure” (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2008). Several studies have been made on this area, drawing samples from mothers with postpartum depression. Accordingly, “Lyons-Ruth et al. found an association between insecure attachment at the age of twelve months and increased the degree of postpartum depression” (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006). In another study conducted by Murray, he reports, “there is a significant association between the occurrence of depression in the postnatal period and insecurity of attachment at 18 months postpartum, with avoidance being the prominent insecure attachment profile” (Murray, 2008). However, a study carried out by Campbell and Cohn found results that contradict the above findings. For Campbell and Cohn, there is no association between attachment status and postnatal depression (Campbell & Cohn, 2007). However, it is important to note a few things about the study by Campbell and Cohn. First, the rate of insecurity was very high in both postnatally depressed sample and controls. In addition, the rate of follow up was very low. These two factors could have majorly contributed to the type of results they found. In a somehow different study conducted by Stein and colleagues, they observed children being separated from their mother by strangers. They discovered that infants of postnatal mothers did not show any form of distress, unlike the controls that showed distress. In most aspects, this phenomenon was attributed to the avoidant attachment by children born to postpartum depressed mothers (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
The third and last way in which the impact of PPD on an infant’s emotional development was studied is taking account of the level of behavioral problems. Murray conducted one of the studies using this approach. Murray prepared a modified version of behavioral screening questionnaire (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). He then sampled mothers with infants who are eighteen months old from both the healthy and postnatal depressed groups. The findings indicate that mothers suffering PPD reported more behavioral problems in their children than healthy parents. The most reported problems by the postnatally depressed mothers were separation difficulties, temper tantrums, and sleeping and eating problems Murray L (2008). Conclusively, the above studies indicate that children raised by postnatally depressed mothers suffer a lot when it comes to cognitive and emotional development. As mentioned earlier, these problems may affect the children at a later stage. It is not unlikely to find out that most of the children diagnosed with psychiatric disorders such as hyperactivity, conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY
Chapter three of this paper is dedicated to the methodology. Here, we shall focus on the methods to be applied in selecting the participants of the study, the tools to be used for data collection, and data analysis (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006).
In efforts to select the participants to be included in the study, a simple random sampling technique will be used. The participants will be randomly picked from the mothers attending the perinatal clinic at Dodowa Hospital (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). Simple random sampling is necessary for the research study since it will help save time and resources, and it will help to eliminate issues associated with bias and subjectivity (Field, 2010). However, in order to be included in the study, the participants will be required to be English literate that is, capable of reading and writing properly in English, to be aged more than 18 years old, and to have experienced or suffered from postpartum depression immediately after delivery (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014).
Method of Collecting Data
The primary tool used in the collection of data throughout the study is questionnaires. Every participant will be required to fill a questionnaire, and these surveys will be designed to include both closed and open-ended questions. The other consideration to be made during the preparation of the questionnaires is the level of language (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). The questionnaires will be prepared using simple language to make sure all the participants can understand it well. Every participant will be supplied with one questionnaire, and they will be required to take a maximum of fifteen minutes to fill the survey. The respondents will be assured of their privacy and confidentiality regarding the information they provide (Field, 2010).
In fact, in the questionnaire, the participants will not be expected to indicate their details such as name. Upon completion, the respondents will be required to submit their filled questionnaires at a point near the exit of the hospital. The location of this collection point will be to ensure that the numbers of questionnaires collected back are high (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006).
Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS) software will be used to analyze the numerical data collected. SPSS is important software for the collected data entry and analysis (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013). In addition, the software enables the creation of tables and graphs without forgetting that it can handle large volumes of data. However, qualitative data collected will be analyzed by descriptive methods. These data included the risk and causative factors of postpartum depression, treatment modalities, and prevention. After data analysis, the results will be presented in the form of tables, charts, discussions, and graphs (Lyons-Ruth et al., 2006).
Since this research study will primarily deal with human subjects or participants, it will be imperative to protect them from any issues or occurrences that would violate their privacy rights and elements of confidentiality (Field, 2010). Before the commencement of the study, legal permission will be secured from the Ministry of Health in Ghana and Director of Public Health, Dodowa District (Stuart-Parrigon & Stuart, 2014). In addition, we will also seek permission from the medical superintendent at Dodowa District Hospital. All the participants in this study will be included on their own free will, and this means that no participants will be forced or even given incentives to participate in the study. Written consent will be obtained from them before commencement of the study. The participants will be assured of their privacy and the information they will give will be considered confidential, and it will be handled with the ultimate privacy it deserves. The names and other vital sensitive details of the patient will not appear anywhere in the final report (Dennis & Dowswell, 2013).
Once this research study is completed, it will be able to provide detailed information regarding the knowledge levels of postpartum depression among women attending antenatal care in Dodowa hospital in Ghana. Therefore, once approved, this research study will be able to provide a detailed understanding of the issue postpartum depression and its effects on childhood development, and the mechanisms that can be adopted to address the problem.
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Postpartum Depression: The ole of Nurses Nursing oles and Postpartum Depression Postpartum Depression: The Preventive and Interventional oles of Nurses Postpartum depression is widely recognized as a significant health threat to the mother and the rest of the family, and thus to society, but the biggest threat is to the lifetime health prospects of the newborn infant. Given the health significance of postpartum depression, recent research about the risk factors for this condition, and recommendations for interventions, were examined. While a direct causal link between depression and child neglect does not appear to exist, or be statistically strong, there is a significant indirect causal link. The essential connection seems to be difficulty bonding and bonding is essential to the process of maternal-infant attachment. There also appears to be an inverse relationship between the strength of the attachment and the risk of postpartum depression, such that both mother and child benefit…
Choi, Hyungin, Yamashita, Tatsuhisa, Wada, Yoshihisa, Narumoto, Jin, Nanri, Hiromi, Fujimori, Akihito et al. (2010). Factors associated with postpartum depression and abusive behavior in mothers with infants. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64, 120-127.
Courey, Tamra J., Martsolf, Donna, Draucker, Claire B., and Strickland, Karen B. (2008). Hildegard Peplau's theory and the healthcare encounters of survivors of sexual violence. Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association, 14(2), 136-143.
Grassley, Jane S. (2010). Adolescent mothers' breastfeeding social support needs. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 39, 713-722.
Humphries, Joan M. And McDonald, Carol. (2012). Unveiling new dimensions: A hermeneutic exploration of perinatal mood disorder and infant feeding. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33, 377-386.
Postpartum depression is a serious problem among women. Once thought of as a relatively minor phase within the postpartum cycle, it is now known that it can seriously impair the individual woman's ability to function under the stress of new parenthood and can seriously erode the family, at a point of foundational transition. Over the last twenty years doctors and the general public have demonstrated greater knowledge of the problem of postpartum depression through awareness and of coarse research. According to the British Columbia eproductive Mental Health Program the prevalence of postpartum depression is relatively high but has risk factors associated with age, social support level and prior history of either previous postpartum depression or other forms of clinical depression. The most vulnerable time for a woman to develop onset of mood disorders is during the postpartum period. Approximately 12- 16% of women experience depression during the postpartum period. Adolescent…
(1995). Depression A Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Dickstein, S., Seifer, R., Hayden, L.C., Schiller, M., Keitner, G., Miller, I., Matzko, M., Sameroff, A.J., Rasmussen, S., & Magee, K.D. (1998). Levels of Family Assessment: II. Impact of Maternal Psychopathology on Family Functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(1), 23-40.
Goldstein, L.H., Diener, M.L., & Mangelsdorf, S.C. (1996). Maternal Characteristics and Social Support Across the Transition to Motherhood: Associations with Maternal Behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 60-71.
Howell, E. & Bayes, M. (Eds.). (1981). Women and Mental Health. New York: Basic Books.
Postpartum Depression Past and Current
If that is indeed the case, again her societal position afforded her this opportunity although it was in no way an intervention. She voiced some concern through tears in the quiet of the night. However, Scott points out that this submissive positioning exemplified in the story only served to support the diminished position of women during the time. Ecological adaptation equates to diminished female capacity for Scott and any reader who chooses to look past the flowery verbiage regarding the Yellow Wallpaper. Conclusion Postpartum depression is regarding by experts in the field as an environmental factor that is influential with the mother, child, and mother child dyad. When postpartum depression reaches a chronic state, less than ideal patterns of mother-infant interactions can develop. esultantly, secure attachment is delayed or hindered entirely, which serves to negatively effect social, emotional, cognitive, and neurological development. Empirical findings and the very nature of child…
Besser, A., Priel, B., & Wiznitzer, A. Childbearing depressive symptomology in high risk pregnancies the roles of working models and social support. Personal Relationships 9 (2002): 395-413.
Cox, J., Holden, J., & Sagovsky, R. detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10 item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 150, (1987): 782-786.
Goodman, S. Depression in mothers. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, (2007): 107-135.
Kinnaman, G., & Jacobs, R. Seeing in the dark. Michigan: Baker Publishing Group, 2006.
Postpartum Depression Theory in Contemporary
, 2009, 239). When women begin to feel depressed, they often do not go find help or understand that this is an event that is more common than one would think. They tend to isolate their depression, which accelerates it even more. Advanced nurse practitioners and other nursing and clinical staff can help better provide for women by being accepting of their depression, rather than questioning it. Nursing staff can help ease some of the stress by not condemning the depressive feelings or symptoms, which typically make it worse. ather, nursing staff can help the women identify with others who have undergone similar depressive states, thus helping them understand they are not alone and reducing the pressure to put on a facade, which only increases mental stress and accelerates the condition overall. Unfortunately, there are gaps in the literature in regards to the potential risk factors of PPD, leading to…
Maeve, M. Katherine. Postpartum depression theory. Chapter 34.
Oppo, a., Mauri, M., Ramacciotti, V., Camilleri, S., Banti, C., Rambellie, M.S., Montagnani, S., Cortopassi, a. Bettini, S., Ricciardulli, S. Montaresi, P., Rucci, Beck, C.T., Cassano, G.B. (2009). Risk factors for postpartum depression: The role of the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Archive of Women's Mental Health, 12(2009), 239-249.
Postpartum Depression Is a Completely
It takes time, reading baby-care books, talks with the pediatrician, support groups with other mothers, and experience to know how to care for a child. And the maternally bonding feelings sometimes take weeks or months to develop. Perfect aby. The fantasy that your baby will be beautiful in every way, sleep through the night, and never cry is exactly that -- a fantasy. And the thoughts that all your friends new babies are perfect and yours isn't is also a fantasy. In 99 cases out of 100 that won't happen. ut these thoughts can contribute to PPD. Perfect Mother. eing the perfect mom will never happen -- either for you or your friends whom you perceive as perfect. You think you are not living up to the ideally perfect mother because you have trouble sometimes balancing the baby, other children, housework, a job, a spouse, and a myriad of other…
ACOG. (2009, January). Postpartum depression. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG): http://www.acog.org /publications/patient_education/bp091.cfm familydoctor.org staff. (2008, February). Postpartum depression and the baby blues. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from familydoctor.org: http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/ppd/general/379.html
Lane, B. (2007, January 21). Causes of postpartum depression. Retrieved February 28, 2010, from suite101.com: http://pregnancychildbirth.suite101.com/article.cfm/causes_of_postpartum_depression
Leopold, K., & Zoschnick, L. (n.d.). Postpartum depression. Retrieved March 1, 2010, from obgyn.net: http://www.obgyn.net/femalepatient/femalepatient.asp?page=leopold
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009). Postpartum Depression. Retrieved February 27, 2010, from Mayoclinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/postpartum-depression/DS00546
Postpartum Depression or Postnatal Depression Is a
Postpartum depression or postnatal depression is a term that describes the occurrence of moderate to severe depression in a woman after she has given birth (although sometimes men are given this diagnosis when severe depression occurs after the birth of a child). This depression may occur soon after delivery and may linger up to a year or longer. In the majority of recognized cases the depression occurs within the first three months following the delivery of the child. The DSM-IV does not recognize postpartum depression as a distinct disorder. People who receive a diagnosis of postpartum depression must first meet the standard diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and then they must satisfy the additional specifier criteria for the postpartum onset (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). This criterion states that the onset of the major depressive episode must occur within four weeks after delivery. Postpartum depression then should be…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manualof mental disorders (4th Ed.-test revision). Washington D.C.: author.
Cohen, J. (1997). The earth is round (p < .05). The American Psychologist, 49 (12), 997-1003.
Daston, L. (2005). Scientific error and the ethos of belief. Social Research, 72 (1), 1-28.
Hageman, W.J., & Arrindell, W.A. (1999). Establishing clinically significant change: Increment of precision and the distinction between individual and group level of analysis. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 1169-1193.
Postpartum Depression According to the
The issue that is most often associated with the diagnosis of PPD is the time frame, however Records notes that there are major discrepancies between the maternity and psychiatric literature making a 2-12-month diagnosis difficult (Records pp). The subjects in Records's study described how their past abuse experiences affected their thoughts and view of their labor, delivery, and postpartum experiences (Records pp). Records revealed that "all of the subjects felt that the combined recall of trauma events and the labor and delivery experience provided the foundation for the PPD...perceived negative labor and delivery experience as the basis for their PPD" (Records pp). In the May 01, 2002 issue of OB GYN News, Erik L. Goldman cites Dr. Diana Dell's press briefing sponsored by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. According to Dell, women are under tremendous pressure to "make perfect babies and to be perfect mothers and perfect wives...and…
Cohen, Lee. "Treating postpartum depression." OB GYN News. February 02, 2002.
Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Epperson, C. Neill. "Postpartum Major Depression: Detection and Treatment."
American Family Physician. April 15, 1999. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Postpartum Depression Screening Postpartum Depression Evaluation Plan
Postpartum Depression Screening Postpartum Depression Evaluation Plan for Postpartum Depression Screening Initiative Evaluation Plan for Postpartum Depression Screening Initiative Although a number of screening and treatment programs for postpartum depression have been implemented, many of these programs have not been studied to determine efficacy (reviewed by Yawn et al., 2012b). This lack of evidence has prevented a number of agencies and organizations from issuing recommendations, including the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The Institute of Medicine's (2001) report, titled "Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century," proposed six aims to improve health care in America. These aims were providing safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable care. One of the rules outlined to help achieve these aims was to ensure that patients received care based on the best scientific evidence available. In keeping with this goal of…
Gilbody, Simon, Richards, David, Brealey, Stephen, and Hewitt, Catherine. (2007). Screening for depression in medical settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A diagnostic meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(11), 1596-1602.
Gilbody, Simon, Sheldon, Trevor, and House, Allan. (2008). Screening and case-finding instruments for depression: A meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(8), 997-1003.
Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. IOM.edu. Retrieved 20 Sep. 2012 from http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2001/Crossing-the-Quality-Chasm/Quality%20Chasm%202001%20%20report%20brief.pdf.
Kozhimannil, Katy Backes, Adams, Alyce S., Soumerai, Alisa B. Busch, and Huskamp, Haiden A. (2011). New Jersey's efforts to improve postpartum depression care did not change treatment patterns for women on Medicaid. Health Affairs, 30(2), 293-301.
Postpartum Depression and Its Treatment
After controlling for initial depressive symptoms during pregnancy, optimism was associated with fewer depressive symptoms at three weeks postpartum" (Grote & Bledsoe, 2007). They found this in other areas of women's lives, as well, such as reaching menopause and other stressful events that can often lead to the development of depression. Thus, if a family member or loved one suspects a new mother may develop postpartum depression, they could give her support, understanding, and help her to become more optimistic in her outlook to help ward off or deal with the disorder. Support from family members is also an important element of care after the baby is born, and the lack of it can help lead to depression. In conclusion, postpartum depression is a common disorder, and it can hit just about any new mother. In some cases, the symptoms disappear by themselves, but in severe cases, the woman should…
Abrams, L.S., & Curran, L. (2007). Not just a middle-class affliction: Crafting a social work research agenda on postpartum depression. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 289+.
Editors. (2008). Depression during and after pregnancy. Retrieved 8 Dec. 2008 from the Women's Health.gov Web site:
Postpartum Depression in New Moms
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Postpartum Depression Introduction Becoming a new mother can be a very overwhelming experience for some women and the symptoms of postpartum depression that follow birth can confuse and deject them. It is important that women receive the therapeutic help they need in these situations. This paper will discuss the symptoms and causes of postpartum depression, how a counselor can develop strategies to work with clients experiencing postpartum depression, how a counselor can build rapport, barriers to care, and psychological interventions the counselor can use to treat the client. Symptoms and Causes Symptoms of postpartum depression for new mothers include a range of signs that can go from mild to extreme. On the mild end of the scale one may experience mood swings, anxiety, sadness, irritability, feelings of being overwhelmed, crying, inability to concentrate, loss of appetite and trouble sleeping (Mayo Clinic, 2020). These symptoms can last…
Evidence Based Interventions Postpartum Depression
Coping Skills: Postpartum Depression One of the most useful coping strategies for individuals suffering from depression is to take active steps to reduce the stressors responsible for triggering the depression in the first place (Orzechowska, Zajaczkowska, Talarowska, & Galecki 2013). For patients diagnosed with postpartum depression, this may include reducing the sleep deprivation and constant demands of caring for a newborn. Ensuring that the patient has support from her partner, relatives, and if possible from a hired nurse can reduce some of the factors which may exacerbate her negative mood. Another coping skill is that of reframing. Many women feel guilty that they do not have wholly positive feelings about their newborn and have ambivalent feelings about mothering in general. "Positive reinterpretation and growth (growing as a person as a result of the experience, seeing events in a positive light)" can encourage the woman to see her desire to maintain…
Fitelson, E., Kim, S. Baker, A., & Leight, L. (2011). Treatment of postpartum depression:
clinical, psychological and pharmacological options. International Journal of Women's Health, 3: 1 -- 14. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039003/
Leandro, P. & Castillo, M. (2010). Coping with stress and its relationship with personality dimensions, anxiety, and depression. Procedia, 5: 1562-1573. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042810017003
Orzechowska, A. Zajaczkowska, M., Talarowska, M. & Galecki, P. (2013). Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study. Medical Science Monitor, 19: 1050 -- 1056. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3852369/
birth of a child is often a time of anxiety for both parents and a source of physical, emotional, and mental strain for the soon to be mother. Within a short amount of time however, family members usually become accustomed to new sleeping schedules, different routines, and even occasional moments of mild depression or mood swings. Their lives quickly return to normal, and their emotions become stable, which allows them to experience the joy of having a newborn child. For nearly ten percent of new mothers and over thirty percent of all mothers, however, the feelings of mild depression and periods of mood swings do not disappear (Verkerk, 2005). This lingering sense of depression and anguish is known as postpartum depression, and is an extremely misunderstood, misdiagnosed mental illness that plagues thousands of women each year. Untreated, postpartum depression can become a nightmare for the women who experience it, and…
Ainsworth, P. (2000). Understanding depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi.
British Columbia Reproductive Mental Health Program. (2000). Psychosis. Reproductive Mental Health. Retrieved from BCRMHP. Web site: http://www.bcrmh.com/disorders/psychosis.htm.
Canadian Mental Health Association. (2004). Postpartum depression. Reach Out. Retrieved from the Canadian Mental Health Association. Web site: http://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3-86-87-88 .
Meinrad, P., & Reicherts, M. Depressed people coping with aversive situations. In P. Meinrad (Ed.), Stress, coping, and health: A situation-behavior approach (pp. 103-105). Seattle, WA: Hogrefe and Huber.
postpartum depression and gilman yellow wallpaper
Long before the term postpartum depression became part of the vernacular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman deftly and sensitively describes the complex condition in her short story “The Yellow Wallpaper.” The story describes the prevailing attitudes towards women and their narrowly defined roles in society. White, upper middle class women like the narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” could not easily express discontent with their position as wife and mother. The narrator’s husband—a physician—believes there is “nothing the matter” with his wife except “temporary nervous depression” and “a slight hysterical tendency,” (Gilman 648). Noting her brother is also a physician, the narrator exclaims, “But what is one to do,” when one is just a woman, and therefore a subordinate whose total financial and social dependency on their male counterparts precludes their self-determination (Gilman 649). To address her “hysteria,” the narrator’s husband and brother confine her to a pleasant enough country home, but restrict…
How women can mitigate the impacts of postpartum depression
Background of postpartum depressionDepression has quickly become a major public health concern for those in the United States. COVID-19 and its resulting health consequences have exacerbated many of the impacts of depression on women within developed worlds. The pandemic for example, caused massive and unexpected job loss of millions of families. Many of those impacted such as travel, tourism, and retail are still reeling from the economic consequences of the virus. These elements can combine to severely impact the psychological wherewithal of individuals in society, particularly women. Child bearing is one of the most powerful and stressful events a woman can experience. If unprepared financially, or healthcare wise, this stress can result in depression. For once Women are nearly twice as likely to experience depression during their childbearing years as compared to men. Postpartum depression is defined by academics as an episode of non-psychotic depression according to standardized diagnostic criteria…
References 1. Beck, C. T. (1995). The effects of postpartum depression on maternal-infant interaction: a meta-analysis. Nursing Research, 44, 298-304.2. Cooper, P. J. & Murray, L. (1997). The impact of psychological treatments of postpartum depression on maternal mood and infant development. In L.Murray & P. J. Cooper (Eds.), Postpartum depression and child development (pp. 201-220). New York: Guilford Press.3. Jacobsen, T. (1999). Effects of postpartum disorders on parenting and on offspring. In L.J.Miller (Ed.), Postpartum Mood Disorders (pp. 119-139). Washington, DC.: American Psychiatric Press4. Milgrom, J. (1994). Mother-infant interactions in postpartum depression: an early intervention program. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 11, 29-38.
Depression Currently Depression Is a
So, although the reverse of these characteristic is not indicative of depression, their expression within the context of grief suggests the lack of clinical depression. ith the fundamentals of depression outlined, it is reasonable to wonder why such symptoms and behaviors manifest themselves in certain people and why they do not in others. Many different researchers coming from many different scientific backgrounds -- from psychology to biochemistry -- have investigated the fundamentals of depression, and each have constructed models as to what its underlying causes are. Each of these investigations has attempted to explain the causes and symptoms of depression and has offered treatment possibilities. The psychological models of depression have focused their attention on failed early attachment, inability to obtain desired rewards, impaired social relations, and distorted thinking." This approach to depression has yielded some valuable information regarding the disorder; yet, much of the results make it unclear as…
Ainsworth, Patricia M.D. Understanding Depression. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000.
American Medical Association. Essential Guide to Depression. New York: Pocket Books, 1998.
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children's Well-Being, and Social Science." Demography, Vol. 36, Nov. 1999. Pages 421-28.
Copeland, Mary Ellen M.S., M.A. The Depression Workbook: Second Edition. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications, 2001.
Postnatal Depression Lit Review in
(Mason, ice & ecords, 2005, p.52) The literature dealing with postnatal depression has sought over many years to understand the phenomena of postnatal depression and to find causal links to external and internal environments that could cause it in certain women. In Grote and Bledsoe the goal of the work was to study the influence of optimism and stress in the life and mind of the new mother and determine if there was a link between the negative and/or positive the led to or helped avoid postnatal depression. The results of this research correlated internal optimism with a reduced risk of postnatal depression but also found causal links between postnatal depression and life stresses. Though internal optimism was able to counter these effects it is clear that the lack of social support that can be linked with life stress still increased the incidence of depression in some women. (Grote &…
Clemmens, D.A. (2002). Adolescent Mother's Depression after the Birth of Their Babies: Weathering the Storm. Adolescence, 37(147), 551.
Conway, K.S., & Kennedy, L.D. (2004). Maternal Depression and the Production of Infant Health. Southern Economic Journal, 71(2), 260.
1995). Depression a Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Frye, a.A., & Garber, J. (2005). The Relations among Maternal Depression, Maternal Criticism and Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(1), 1.
Postnatal Depression Kathy Is a
I said that I also thought that the doctor may want to do some blood tests just to make sure that everything was running smoothly in her body. Kathy seemed to be restless as she was moving her hands and feet quite a bit -- another sign that is quite common in postnatal depressive patients. I also noted that there seemed to be some kind of anxiety in Kathy and the anxiety seemed to really be present when we talked specifically about the baby. She seemed hopeless as well in that she repeatedly stated that she feels that she can't do anything right. Anxiety over not knowing exactly how to do things as a first time mother are quite common (Dalton & Holton 2001, p. 45), however, Kathy's anxiety seems to be much more than just that. She reported that her focus had been quite scattered (not being able to…
Aiken, C. 2000. Surviving postnatal depression: At home, no one hears you scream. (1st
edition). Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Dalton, K. & Holton, W. 2001. Depression after childbirth: How to recognize, treat, and prevent postnatal depression. (4th edition). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kleiman, K. 1994. This isn't what I expected: Overcoming postpartum depression. (1st
How Mothers Encounter Stress in the Early Postpartum Period
Stressful Factors and Coping Styles of Women With Babies 0-3 Months Old This is a report on a descriptive study that was conducted among women who had babies between the 0-3 months age in order to understand the way they deal with the varied stresses that they go through during that postpartum period. It describes the problems that these mothers encounter due to baby care, self-care and social life, these three being the main sources of their stress. The article highlights the varied statistics of the women who were affected by the different causes as well as the different interventions that have been taken by different countries in ensuring that women at that stage of life can cope with the physiological as well as the emotional changes that they undergo after birth. There are as many as 80% of women who suffer postpartum depression, otherwise referred to as "baby blues."…
Deniz C. & Ayaz S., (2013). Factors causing stress in women with babies
0-3 months old and their coping styles. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Pp588. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baby Care Center, (2015). Postpartum Depression and Anxiety. Retrieved October 1, 2015 from http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-depression-and-anxiety_227.bc
Psychology in Women Depression in
Silence and Withdrawal - where the man "punishes" the woman for her "behavior" by becoming silent and withdrawn. Lack of Emotional Connection - where the woman reaches out for support and empathy, and the man withholds it (Chang 73-81). It is easy to see how these conditions of verbal and mental abuse could lead to feelings of low self-esteem and depression in women. Author Chang quotes a woman stuck in a mentally abusive relationship as saying, "He complained I never communicated with him, but whenever I tried to communicate with him, he would always tell me why I was wrong to think that way. And so it finally reached a point of why bother. You know, I got tired of listening to him criticize me'" (37-year-old nurse) (Chang 73). Studies indicate that abuse in a relationship, no matter what type of abuse, can lead to long-term depression, especially when the…
Ainsworth, Patricia. Understanding Depression. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2000.
Chang, Valerie Nash. I Just Lost Myself. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
D'Mello, Dale a. "1 Epidemiology of Late-Life Depression." Depression in Later Life: A Multidisciplinary Psychiatric Approach. Ed. James M. Ellison and Sumer Verma. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. 1-26.
Editors. "Depression: What Every Woman Should Know." National Institute for Mental Health. 2007. 30 Nov. 2007. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression-what-every-woman-should-know/summary.shtml
Postpartum Adolescents and Sti or
Sample The sample is related only to the point where they share the same baseline categories previously mentioned. Sampling Technique The sampling technique used in this research was selected sampling due to the specfic needs of the participants. Statistical Tests The BMI groups variables were analyzed using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square analyses for categorical variables. Results or Findings The BMI group demonstrated that 39% of participants were normal weight, 31% were overweight and 40% were obese. On other comparisons, Tukey HSD post-test analyses showed that obese participants had more stress, depression and conflict, and less self-esteem and social support than normal weight and overweight women and Conclusions Results from this study showed that BMI significantly related to STI incidence and sexual risk. Overweight women were at increased risk for STI incidence compared to normal weight women and obese women. However, being obese was protective for STIs, with obese…
Depression is a state of sadness and gloom where one feels dull and overwhelmed by the challenges of life. People tend to say that they are "depressed' any time they feel very unhappy. More likely than not, it could just be a mere response to fatigue, sad thoughts or events. This improper use of this term causes confusion between an ordinary mood swing and a medical condition. While it is normal for all human beings to experience dejection every now and then, a few people may experience unipolar depression. Ordinary dejection is rarely serious enough to significantly affect a person's day to day activities and does not persist for long. Mood downcasts can even have some benefits. Time spent contemplating can help an individual explore their inner self, values and way of life. They often come out of it feeling stronger, resolved and with a greater sense of clarity. Unlike…
Comer, R. (2013). Abnormal Psychology (8th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Bolton, P., Bass, J., Neugebauer, R., Verdeli, H., Clougherty, K. F., Wickramaratne, P.,. ..& Weissman, M. (2003). Group interpersonal psychotherapy for depression in rural Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 289(23), 3117-3124. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12813117
Dombrovski, A. Y., Lenze, E. J., Dew, M. A., Mulsant, B. H., Pollock, B. G., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. (2007). Maintenance Treatment for Old-Age Depression Preserves Health-Related Quality of Life: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Paroxetine and Interpersonal Psychotherapy. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 55(9), 1325-1332. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17767673
Elder, B. L., &Mosack, V. (2011). Genetics of depression: an overview of the current science. Issues in mental health nursing, 32(4), 192-202. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21355753
Experimental Method Design Project
Experimental Method Design Project Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school. Selection he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…
The women in the study will be subjected to a 'follow up' series of interviews within six months, after the initial series of interviews. This will allow the research to be contextualized in terms of the women's recovery or trajectory of the illness, to assess the impact of support after identification and treatment in the long-term.
Borgatti, Steve. (n.d). Introduction to grounded research. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child
Maternal Mental Health in Pregnancy and Child Behavior. This is designed to provide better insights about how parental postpartum depression (PPD) is impacting the mother and the child. The findings are determined based upon looking at different cultures and the frequency of them. It is at this point, when there is a focus on previous research and any kind of gaps in existing theories. (Lukose, 2011) In the future, these conclusions can improve everyone's understanding of how this is impacting both the patent and child during the pregnancy process. Then, after they are born is when these factors are taken into consideration to see how this is influencing their development. Over the course of time, this will enable healthcare professionals to understand the impact PPD on the parents and their children. (Lukose, 2011) Provide a summation of the research conducted and the research findings The research looked at the effects…
Lukose, A. (2011). Maternal Mental Health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53 (4), 351 -- 361.
Birth Places a Tremendous Emotional
Breast pumping techniques. Introduction to Internet and print resources for new mothers. Introduction to social networking and support groups for new mothers in her area. Teaching Strategies Used and ationale The teacher and learner will have a high degree of privacy in the hospital room during the teaching project. Therefore, lessons on breastfeeding will be comfortable and cause little embarrassment for the learner. Having privacy will help the learner feel relaxed and willing to breastfeed in front of the teacher. Also, the private setting will help the learner express her emotions. Having determined that the learner prefers to observe and then act, the teaching strategies used for the project will include demonstrations and imitation. The learner's positive attitude directly suggests her high level of motivation to learn. Also, her cultural background and tendency to be compliant with hospital standards and procedures imply that the learner is likely to be highly…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2008). Breastfeeding: How to pump and store your breast milk. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/women/pregnancy/birth/828.html
American College of Healthcare Executives (nd). Using adult lifelong learning concepts. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ache.org/pgfd/lifelong.cfm
Baby Center Medical Advisory Board (2006). Postpartum exercise: Is your body ready? BabyCenter.com. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.babycenter.com/0_postpartum-exercise-is-your-body-ready_196.bc
Beger, D. & Cook, S.A. (1998). Postpartum teaching priorities: the viewpoints of nurses and mothers. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. Mar-Apr;27(2):161-8. Retrieved July 14, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9549701
Panic Disorder During Pregnancy and
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
Bipolar Psychiatric Disorder Bd -- Which Is
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles. Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Women Who Kill Their Children
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done. The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010). ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…
Child Abuse Prevention Network. http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.
National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Perinatal Loss Support at Time
Armstrong's findings additionally relate that due to previous research and the influence of perinatal loss on postpartum depression on partnered relationships. Armstrong states that differences in continued psychological stress between mothers and fathers after a subsequent birth is another area requiring further evaluation. Specifically stated is that it is necessary to evaluate "...the strength of partnered relationships during future childbearing experiences is important to identify any potential influence of the loss on couple, as well as family, outcomes. Understanding possible gender differences may help neonatal nurses and other healthcare providers to recognize couples at risk for discord." (2007) Neonatal nurses are those who work closely with infants and parents and in the best position to make identification of depression and to pose questions about the individuals symptoms including: 1) mood; 2) appetite; 3) energy or fatigue levels; 4) ability to concentrate; and 5) as well the neonatal nurse is in…
Gold, K.J., Dalton, V.K. And Schwenk, T.L. (2007) Hospital Care for Parents After Perinatal Death. Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 109. No. 5 May 2007.
Hughes, P., Turton, P., Hopper, E. And Evans, CDH (2002) Assessment of Guidelines for Good Practice in Psychosocial Care of Mothers After Stillbirth: A Cohort Study. The Lancet 2002;360:114-18.
Alexander, K.V. (2001) the One Thing You Can Never Take Away": Perinatal Bereavement Photographs. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing Vol. 26(3) May/June 2001. 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Promoting Responsiveness Between Mothers With
Data Collection The data collection methods were grounded in scientific theory and enabled collection of accurate information based on the results of the questionnaire's provided to patients participating in the study. Ethics This study deals with a very private and thus ethical issue. The researchers took great care to ensure that high standards of moral and ethical virtue were maintained for purposes of this project. The authors point out that they acquired approval prior to initiating the study. In addition, intensive training was required prior to commencement of the study. The author would have done well to detail in greater detail the exact methods that were adopted to ensure the privacy and anonymity of each of the mothers participating in the study. Presentation of Data/Conclusions The presentation of the final data and conclusions could be improved upon. The author would have benefited by comparing each of the result segments with…
Horowits, J.H., & Bell, M. et. al. (2001)."Promoting responsiveness between mothers with depressive symptoms and their infants." Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 33 (4), 323-329
Britney Spears -- Pop Star
608). Hence, Spears is seen as transcending from teen pop star to "vamp." Some of her fans refer to her as "slore" (the combined words "slut" and "whore") because of her move from teen cuteness to adult soft core pornography. Although it is possible, it doesn't seem likely that Spears suffers from schizophrenia. In his book, Dr. David Barlow lists the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and while Spears has shown "grossly disorganized…" behavior, to our knowledge she does not have disorganized speech, delusions or hallucinations. There is nothing in the literature about Spears that indicates she has had autistic issues or psychotic lapses, but again, schizophrenia is a remote possibility (Barlow, et al., 2008). hat interventions may be appropriate for Spears, given the widespread believe among those close to her and professionals that she has psychological problems? Does Spears suffer from a bipolar condition? According to Medline Plus (part of…
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2009). Postpartum Blues. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2009, from http://www.acog.org .
Barlow, David H. (2008). Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. Florence, KY:
Celizic, Mike. (2008). Spears Suffering from "Bipolar Disorder." MSNBC. Retrieved Dec. 16,
Answering Questions about Research Studies
nursing because a solution to it directly impacts the level of quality care that staff can provide to patients. The research is quantitative. The underlying purpose of the study is to test whether providing information from assessments about patient-caregiver hospice dyads to interdisciplinary teams is effective in improving hospice outcomes. The purpose does correspond to an EBP focus -- namely, therapy/treatment. Greater awareness leads to a greater ability to provide care. This study could have been undertaken as a qualitative study by conducting interviews with caregivers and/or patients to assess personal reactions to the issue at hand. Example 2: Qualitative Research The research problem is very relevant to the actual practice of nursing because it regards how patients deal with suffering, self-blame, guilt, etc., all of which nurses will encounter when treating them. The research is qualitative. The underlying purpose of the study is to provide description of a situation.…
Healthy Mothers and Babies Recent Research
Maternal Risk Entity Is there anything more important to a family -- and to the community of interest around that family -- than the safe and healthy delivery of the brand new baby and its mother? Modern medicine has provided technologies and training to alleviate many of the risks vis-a-vis mother and infant, however there is never going to be a situation absolutely free of potential risks surrounding pregnancy, childbirth, and the post-pregnancy period. Hence, nurses and physicians and other healthcare professionals must stay informed and be fully prepared to come up with solutions when risky situations occur. This paper presents the peer-reviewed literature on several maternal risks and there possible remedies. Infants' Risks in Late Preterm Births In the peer-reviewed journal Birth, the authors point out that the preterm birth rate has risen from 10.6 births in 1990 to 12.8% in 2006 -- a twenty percent increase (Kirby, et…
Hooker, L., Ward, B., and Verrinder, G. (2012). Domestic violence screening in maternal and child health nursing practice: A scoping review. Contemporary Nurse, 42(3), 198-215.
Kirby, R.S., and Wingate, M.S. (2010). Late Preterm Birth and Neonatal Outcome: Is 37 Weeks'
Gestation a Threshold Level or a Road Market on the Highway of Perinatal Risk? Birth, 37(2)
Mental Health Effects of Domestic Violence
Womens Mental Health and Domestic ViolenceSharma, K.K., Vatsa, M., Kalaivani, M. & Bhardwaj, D. (2019). Mental health effects of domestic violence against women in Delhi: A community-based study. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(7), 2522-2527.Social science discipline the article represents: Psychology and Sociology.Psychology: It represents the field of psychology because it focuses on mental health processes.Sociology: It represents the field of sociology because it focuses on womens experiences of domestic violence.Summarize the tenets of the article: Domestic violence is a pervasive public health problem as it affects over one-third of women across the globe. Domestic violence occurs in various forms including physical, psychological, or sexual violence. As a result, it has varying impacts on the health and wellbeing of women or even male victims (Sharma et al., 2019). This community-based study carried out among 827 ever married women in Delhi shows that female victims of domestic violence have…
Andrea Yates in 2001 Andrea Kennedy Yates
Andrea Yates In 2001, Andrea Kennedy Yates drowned her five children one at a time in her bathtub (Moisse, 2012). The first criminal trial lasted a total of only three weeks. Yates was convicted of capital murder, but was not given the death penalty. Instead, Yates was given life in prison with a chance for parole in 2041. However, in 2005, Yates' initial conviction was overturned in a Texas appellate court. A new trial was ordered, based primarily on the fact that a witness for the prosecution lied under oath. During the initial trial of Yates, the prosecution called Park Dietz to attempt to establish premeditation. Dietz "falsely told jurors that Yates had watched an episode of "Law and Order" in which a mother had drowned her children in their bathtub…but no episode had ever aired," ("How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Later," n.d.). In 2006,…
"Andrea Yates, who killed her five children, will ask for pass to attend church," (2012). NBC News. Retrieved online: http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/03/28/10910591-andrea-yates-who-killed-her-five-children-will-ask-for-pass-to-attend-church-lite
"How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Later," (2012). The Atlantic. Retrieved online: How Andrea Yates Lives, and Lives With Herself, a Decade Laterhttp://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2012/03/how-andrea-yates-lives-and-lives-with-herself-a-decade-later/254302/
Moisee, K. (2012). Andrea Yates Could Be Released From Psychiatric Hospital to Attend Church. ABC News. March 28, 2012. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/MindMoodNews/andrea-yates-released-psychiatric-hospital-attend-church/story?id=16021269#.UKgRkePreII
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Andrea Yates. About.com. Retrieved online: http://crime.about.com/od/current/p/andreayates.htm
Maternity Nursing Labor and Delivery and Newborn
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn Labor and Delivery Terms Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116). Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116). Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011). Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011). Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
Value of Qualitative Research Overview
A slightly broader study was deployed for the quantitative study entitled "Multiple gestations: side effects of antepartum bed rest." This study found that high-risk pregnancies and bed rest significantly increased the stressors upon the women. It measured this by using the Antepartum Stressors Hospital Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The weekly rate of maternal weight gain during hospitalization was also significantly less than recent recommendations for multiple gestation weight gain and women on bed rest reported a high number of depressive symptoms than those patients not on bed rest. CES-D scores for depressive symptoms were high as were postpartum symptoms for women in the study. This study also recommended that it is critical for hospitals to attempt to alleviate antepartum stress, but it focused on the physical risks posed by maternal weight loss, as well as psychological stress, stress, depression,…
Maloni, J.A & S.P. Margevicius, & E.G. Damato. (2006, Oct). "Multiple gestation: side effects of antepartum bed rest. Biological Research Nursing. 8(2):115-28. Retrieved 22 Sept 2007 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17003251&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus
Richter, M.S.C. Parkes, & J. Chaw-Kant. (2007, Jul-Aug). "Listening to voices of hospitalized high-risk antepartum patients." Journal of Obstetrics Gynecological Neonatal Nursing. 36(4):313-8. Retrieved 22 Sept 2007 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=17594405&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum
Anomie A Sense of Alienation
The popular media's negative coverage of the insanity defense in contested cases when a defendant claims not to have the rational capacity to commit a crime or has a diminished capacity to conceptualize a criminal intent has caused the public to dismiss forensic psychiatry as providing rationalizations or excuses for bad behavior, rather than possessing a real scientific method. The use of the insanity defense is clearly subject to sociological and societal factors, such as the statistically greater willingness to believe a man who kills his child is competent vs. A woman. However, the authors contend that this ignores the many cases where the defense and the prosecution both agree that the criminal in question was not competent and was operating upon a different schema of 'reality' that affected his or her ability to judge circumstances in the same fashion as a sane person. (It might be argued, in the…
Nursing a Complete and Detailed
Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions. Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…
Mothers Killing Their Babies First
Methods of Killing The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days. Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…
Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.
Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.
Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.
Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
Murray L Cooper P J Wilson
Such a limited gathering of data suggests that perhaps a different outcome may have occurred had a truly careful and representative collection and analysis of data actually been performed. Other significant limitations to this study exist. In fact, the sample of women and children was generally comprised of low risk and only primiparous mothers. Accordingly, the findings as generally stated may not accurate with regard to high risk and/or multiparous populations. Additionally, the sample itself was underpowered to actually detect the nuances between the different treatment groups. Admittedly, the research undertook to examine several different types of therapies and treatment amongst several different sets of women; and, a fastidious review of subtle differences between treatment groups was not completed. Furthermore, of the indicators that revealed a positive outcome, these indicators were based upon data from mothers which was subjective in nature as it was solely based upon the mothers' assessment…
Communication Between Men in Women
Her physician husband, John, and those like him do "not believe" that she is "sick" or even, in her view, capable of understanding her sickness, so "what," she asks, "can one do?" (Hume). How can one view this passage without seeing a total lack of communication in a marriage? The narrator even goes so far as to say, "It is so hard to talk to John about my case, because he is so wise, and because he loves me so" (Perkins Gilman). From a purely logical standpoint, John's wisdom and the fact that he loves her so would seem to naturally suggest that he would be the most receptive person to listen to the narrator's discussions, but other things that the narrator says reveal John's patronizing attitude towards her. Instead of caring for her, John absolutely ignores the narrator's suggestions about what she thinks may help heal her. Dismissing her…
Golden, Catherine. "The Writing of 'The Yellow Wallpaper': A Double Palimpsest." Studies in American Fiction. 17.2 (Autumn 1989): 193-201. Rpt. In Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism. Vol. 201. Detroit: Gale, Literature Resource Center.
Deneau, Daniel P. "Chopin's The Story of an Hour." The Explicator. (Vol. 61). .4 (Summer 2003): p210. Literature Resource Center.
Managing madness in Gilman's "The yellow wall-paper"
Hume, Beverly A.
Yonndio Thirties Tillie Olsen Introduction Linda Ray
Yonndio thirties" Tillie Olsen. Introduction Linda ray Pratt. Full citation heading- author, title, place publication, publisher, date, number pages. 1- The reviewer gives a clear concise summary content book Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004. Yonnondio from the thirties details the struggles of a Colorado-based mining family during the first half of the 20th century. Jim Holbrook is an alcoholic who abuses his wife Anna. They have many children, including the main protagonist of the novel, Mazie. Eventually the family moves to South Dakota where they establish a farm and briefly enjoy prosperity. However, the family still remains mired in debt, and when Anna becomes pregnant again, her marriage to Jim begins to even more rapidly dissolve. The family is forced to move to the city of Omaha. Conditions are far worse in an urban environment because of the poor health of the air, water, and closeness of…
Coiner, Constance. "Tillie Olsen." From Better Red: The Writing and Resistance of Tillie Olsen
and Meridel Le Sueur. New York: Oxford UP, 1995. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/olsen/life.htm
Olsen, Tillie. Yonnondio from the thirties. Bison, 2004
Unraveling The Heroine of Charlotte
"I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time… I lie here on this great immovable bed -- it is nailed down, I believe -- and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, we'll say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I will follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion." She does not think of her child, and only occasionally of her husband. The wallpaper and the imaginary woman command her focus. Forced into a pointless existence, and denied the mobility and the intellectual excitement that make life meaningful, the woman's mind turns to other intellectual and imaginary pursuits, Gilman suggests. Eventually, rather than describing herself as looking at the pattern of the wallpaper, Gilman's heroine disassociates and…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the jaundiced eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction. Winter 1994.
Accessed from Find Articles October 6, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2455/is_n1_v31/ai_15356232/?tag=content;col1
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Full e-text available from the University
Abortion Societal Concerns About Abortion
The short-term effects of only one year. hat this researcher also found enlightening was that the population of those working in the psychological field can accept many 'syndrome' type findings, but when it comes to a syndrome espoused by those who believe women who have abortions are affected by a post-abortion depression syndrome, those same psychological experts show scorn and disdain for such espousals. One study agrees, stating that; "since the 1960's mental health professionals...have recognized disorders such as postpartum depression....can have a negative psychological impact on both mother and child these same constituencies have almost universally rejected the existence of Post Abortion Syndrome because of the lack of supporting scientific evidence or strong political support. (Psychology pg 117). Other studies show that women no longer feel that abortion is anything more than an everyday procedure. One study; "presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed by severe…
Adler, N., David, H., Major, B., Roth, S., Russo, N., Wyatt. G. "Psychological Factors in Abortion" American Psychologist 47.10 (1992) 1194-1204.
Kero, A., Hogberg, U., Lalas, A. "Well Being and Growth: Long-term Effects of Legal Abortion." Social Science and Medicine 58.12 (2004): 2559-2569.
Psychological Effects of Abortion and Motherhood." Psychology of Women Quarterly 30.1 (2006): 117
why americans'should get more paid maternity leave
Maternity Leave: Why it Matters, Why We Need More The United States lags behind its counterparts in the wealthy, developed world on many measures, not least of which is how it treats new moms. In the United States, only twelve percent of women have access to paid maternity leave of any length (Froese 1). The six weeks of paid maternity leave I receive from my company might be better than most Americans get, but it is still not at all enough and can lead to serious health problems for both mom and baby, as well as to more generalized societal ills. Research also reveals that current maternity leave programs in the United States reflect gross inequalities along the intersections between race, class, and gender, exacerbating income disparities (May 1). The United States should therefore adopt a more sensible, rights-based maternity leave policy, modeled after the successful programs already in place…
Women's and Gender Studies
omen and Gender Studies Of all the technologies and cultural phenomena human beings have created, language, and particularly writing, is arguably the most powerful, because it is the means by which all human experience is expressed and ordered. As such, controlling who is allowed to write, and in a modern context, be published, is one of the most effective means of controlling society. This fact was painfully clear to women writers throughout history because women were frequently prohibited from receiving the same education as men, and as the struggle for gender equality began to read a critical mass near the end of the nineteenth century, control over women's access to education and writing became a central theme in a number of authors' works, whether they considered themselves feminists or not. In particular, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 story The Yellow allpaper features this theme prominently, and Virginia oolf's extended essay A…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the Jaundiced Eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilmans "the Yellow Wallpaper." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 39-.
Carstens, Lisa. "Unbecoming Women: Sex Reversal in the Scientific Discourse on Female
Deviance in Britain, 1880-1920." Journal of the History of Sexuality 20.1 (2011):
Jenny Case Study
Characteristics did Jenny have as a child that are common in individuals who develop hoarding disorder? Hoarding usually involves having difficulty getting rid of items and also issues on the maintenance of control over belongings. This behavior affects school and social functioning and appeared to Jenny when she was aged eight (Sorensen, 2011). Jenny also experienced problems at school as the teacher often sent notes stating that her desk is messy and she appeared to be absent minded in class. By the time she was in second grade, she had started being left behind in some subjects. Literature points out that hoarding has been higher among children having ADHD than in children who are relatively healthy (Sorensen, 2011). In the case of Jenny, she was diagnosed with ADHD by a neuropsychologist. Dr. Davis said that she had neurodevelopment disorder that ensured it was hard for her to sustain her attention…
American Psychiatric Association. (2014). Hoarding Disorder. Retrieved 26 February 2015, from
Frost, R., Tolin, D., & Maltby, N. (2010).Insight-Related Challenges in the Treatment of Hoarding. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(4), 404-413. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2009.07.004
Pogosian, L. (2010). Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding: A Case Study. The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8-11. Retrieved from http://www.einstein.yu.edu/uploadedfiles/ejbm/page8_page11.pdf
Sorensen, R.J. (2011). Hoarding Disorder (Compulsive Hoarding): A Comprehensive Literature Review and Professional Training to Prepare Clinicians to Treat Problematic Hoarding. Retrieved from
Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow Wallpaper
Medical Misunderstandings and Gender: “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a brief psychological study of a woman slowly going mad over the course of an imposed rest cure, prescribed by her physician-husband. The story illustrates the extent to which limited knowledge of the female psyche and a refusal to treat women as intelligent, independent beings ironically produces the types of behaviors the psychological treatment of the era was supposed to prevent. Both women and men are guilty of limiting women’s voices when women attempt to escape the conventional confines of motherhood and domesticity. Although the main character’s love of reading and writing is a constant and sustaining force in her life, she is denied it when it is assumed her illness is due to her refusal to conform to conventional roles. As noted by history professor Hilary Marland, “The Yellow Wallpaper”…
Female Violent Offenders Characteristics
Female Violent OffendersWomen are more apt to be the victims than the perpetrators of crimes. The purpose of a recent quantitative, descriptive study by Coleman, Almond, and McManus (2018) was to determine some of the essential characteristics of female, violent juvenile offenders versus a control sample of nonviolent offenders. Using UK police data of offences committed between April 2001 and April 2011, the researchers determined that 72.3% of the female violent offenders had committed a previous violent offense and had a previous conviction, a significantly higher percentage than the control group (Coleman, Almond, and McManus, 2018). Female offenders were also more likely to have committed a theft previous to their incarceration for a violent offense.According to the British publication The Independent, rates of violent crime by women in general have increased in the United Kingdom. The number of girls and women arrested for violence has more than doubled between 1999/2000…
ReferencesColeman, R., Almond, L., & McManus, M. (2018). Do female offenders differ? Comparing the criminal histories of serious violent perpetrators with a control sample. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 15(1) 3-19. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jip.1485Quarmby, K. (2016). Why are we shocked when women commit violent crimes? The Independent. Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/features/some-women-do-kill- abuse-and-torture-a7056136.htmlWang, J., Li, C., Zhu, X., Zhang, S., Zhou, J., Li, Q., … Wang, X. (2017). Association between schizophrenia and violence among Chinese female offenders. Scientific Reports, 7, 818. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5429758/
Armstrong E Kukla R Kuppermann
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard. Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125. The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
Coding & Review of Interview
InterestInterview Coding & Reaction There is little doubt that the experience, events and quality of care that surround expecting and new mothers is extremely important (Berrien, Olledorff & Menard, 2015). The reduction or mitigation of things like excessive pain before and after birth, any sort of disconnect between patient and providers in terms of communication and an explanation of what is and shall be going on and so forth are all important (Taavoni, Abdolahian, Neisani & Hamid, 2016). This research deigns to cover a number of things. First, it is asked of the interviewee what went well, what did not, what perhaps could or should be compared and contrasted between this or prior birthing experiences (and one did exist in the case of this research), what could have been done better, what was done well, whether proper and full options were made available and so on. The setting and meeting…
Domestic Violence Intimate Partner Violence
Women tend not to disclose their partner's violent behavior out of fear of retaliation, embarrassment or economic dependence on the abusing partner. Pregnant women, in particular, require comprehensive healthcare and special services. Postpartum violence is a serious issue as it not only affects the mother but also poses serious danger for the life of the child. Policy makers should focus not only on providing funds for prenatal and post natal medical care but also ensure that domestic violence services and other support services are integrated with the healthcare services. A collaborative approach involving a collocation of interdisciplinary services is critical for providing optimal care for victims of intimate partner abuse. Nurses, as primary caregivers in the emergency department are ideally placed not only to provide medical care but also to co ordinate and to lead multidisciplinary interventions that are in place to address domestic violence against women. ibliography 1) The…
1) The Clark County, ' Fast Facts on Domestic Violence', retrieved Apr 13th 2010, from, http://www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/domviol/facts.htm
2) Brian J. Biroscak. MA, MS, BS, Patricia K. Smith MS, BS & Helen Rosnowski MSN, BSN RN et.al (2006), 'Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Findings from one State's ED Surveillance System', Journal of Emergency Nursing, 32-12: 6
3) Christine Rubertsson, PhD, Ingegerd Hildingsson PhD & Ingela Radestad PhD, (2010), 'Disclosure and Police reporting of Intimate Partner Violence Postpartum: A pilot Study', Midwifery, 26 e1-e5
4) Rebecca J. Macy, PhD, Sandra L. Martin PhD & Lawrence L. Cupper PhD et.al (2007), ' Partner Violence among women Before, During and After Pregnancy: Multiple Opportunities for intervention', Women's Health Issues 17: 290-299
Andrea Yates Case
Research the McNaughton rule. What was McNaughton and how did the McNaughton Rule come into being? The name McNaughton came from the son of A Glasgow wood turner who was deluded that there was conspiracy against him when the catholic priests sent spies to harass him. It is from these encounters that the McNaughton Principle came into being. The rule in based on understanding what is right and wrong. It is a test of the two concepts, i.e. "knowing right and wrong by oneself in the course of their actions" (Asokan, 2007). The idea of uncontrollable impulses was not considered an important item. This rule was the standard test that was used by the jury after listening to a medical report. Thus, there was a presumption of sanity unless the defence proved otherwise. The US and the UK adopted the McNaughton Rule and still use it to handle cases to…
History of Development of Blues
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Military Readiness the Issue of
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army. On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
Special Needs Parental Stress on
Likewise, the study would not include unmarried couples, single-parent homes, or couples without children. With 50 to 60 participants couples gathered and fulfilling the necessary qualifications for division into the two categories, those with a Special Needs child will be identified as the SN group whereas those with a non-Special Needs child will be identified as the SNS group. Statistical analysis will rely on the use of a t-test, an appropriate mode of assessing comparative inventory scores and their meaning in the case of this particular study design. According to Trochim (2006), "the t-test assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each other. This analysis is appropriate whenever you want to compare the means of two groups, and especially appropriate as the analysis for the posttest-only two-group randomized experimental design." (Trochim, p. 1) Findings: Ultimately, the inventory responses and the statistical analysis conducted through the aforementioned…
Baskin, T.W., Rhody, M., Schoolmeesters, S., & Ellingson, C. (2011). Supporting special needs adoptive couples: assessing an interventio to enhance forgiveness, increase marital satisfaction, and prevent depression. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 933-955.
Belsky, J., & Rovine, M. (1990). Patterns of marital change across the transition to parenthood: pregnancy to three years postpartum. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 5-19.
Corman, H., & Kaestner, R. (1992). The effects of child health on marital status and family structure. Demography, 29, 389-408.
Daire, a.P.; Munyon, M.D.; Carlson, R.G.; Kimemia, M. & Mitcham, M. (2011). Examining Distress of Parents of Children With and Without Special Needs. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 33(2), 177-188.
Worlds of Criminal Justice and
"(Bonnie et al.) For many the ability of a client to participate in pleading insanity is controversial. Many contend that this ability shows that the person is rational and should be punished accordingly. While others argue that, the ability of a person to know that they are insane does not make them sane. In either case, the insanity plea remains as a controversial subject. Within the realm of psychology, the issue of insanity has always been a topic of interest. Psychologists have long asserted that there are various mental conditions that render individuals insane. These conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and even certain forms of depression. Psychologists contend that these conditions can make an individual unable to rationalize. A book entitled Court-Ordered Insanity: Interpretive Practice and Involuntary Commitment explains that many cases involve the hospitalization or commitment of the client. In these cases, the book explains that the client mental…
Bonnie, R.J., Poythress, N.G., Hoge, S.K., Monahan, J., & Eisenberg, M. (1996). Decision-Making in Criminal Defense: An Empirical Study of Insanity Pleas and the Impact of Doubted Client Competence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 87(1), 48-62.. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000317272
Ellias, R. (1995). Should Courts Instruct Juries as to the Consequences to a Defendant of a "Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity" Verdict?. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85(4), 1062-1083. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77002953
Fass, M.E. (1999). A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense. Teaching of Psychology, 26(3), 201-203. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34684718
Nursing One mid-range nursing philosophy is that of Barbara esnick, with her "Middle ange Theory of Self-Efficacy." This theory states that 'self-efficacy expectations and outcome expectations are not only influenced by behavior, but also by verbal encouragement, physiological sensations and exposure to role models or self-modeling" (Nurses.info, 2014). esnick is an Associate Professor at the University of Maryland School of Nursing. She is also a geriatric nurse practitioner at oland Park Place. Her research is focused on motivation, particularly with older adults. She has written papers on motivation for older adults to recover from disabling events, for example, noting that where motivation is high recovery is more likely to be successful, and life prolonged. She found support for her theory in this study (esnick, 1998), for example, lending credence to her prior work on finding ways to enhance the likelihood of recovery in all populations, but particularly in older and…
Nurses.info. (2014). Barbara Resnick. Nurses.info. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from http://www.nurses.info/nursing_theory_midrange_theories_barbara_resnick.htm
Resnick, B. (1998). Efficacy beliefs in geriatric rehabilitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. Vol. 24 (7) 34-44
Resnick, B. & Jenkins, L. (2000) Testing the reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol. 49 (3) 154-159.
Weber, B., Roberts, B., Resnick, M., Deimling, G., Zauszniewski, J., Musil, C. & Yarandi, H. (2004). The effect of dyadic intervention on self-efficacy, social support, and depression for men with prostate cancer. Psycho-oncology. Vol. 13 (2004) 47-60.
Analyzing the Hashimoto Thyroiditis
Hashimoto Thyroiditis ACONYMS TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone T3 Triiodothyronine T4 Thyroxine Hashimoto Thyroiditis The condition, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese scientist, who uncovered the disease in the year 1912. Amino, DeGroot, and Akamizu (2013) write that Hashimoto explained the conditions of four types of individuals having a chronic thyroid disorder, that he labeled as "struma lymphomatosa." These individuals' thyroid glands had diffused lymphocytic infiltration, parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis, and eosinophilic acinar-cell change. Pathological as well as clinical researches of Hashimoto Thyroiditis have been conducted frequently since Hashimoto first described the affliction. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune syndrome wherein a person's immune system attacks body tissues, organs and cells. Persons suffering from this affliction have a thyroid malfunction, a condition known as hypothyroidism, wherein the thyroid gland ceases to secrete sufficient hormones to meet the needs of the body. This gland, situated at the anterior part of the…
Kresser, C. (2010, June 28). The Most Important Thing You May Not Know About Hypothyroidism. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Chris Kresser; Let's Take Back Your Health: www.chriskresser.com
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2013, February 25). Hashimoto's Disease. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: www.niddk.nih.gov
The American Thyroid Asspciation Taskforce. (2011). Guidelines of the American Thyroid
Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Thyroid, 1081-1125. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Stopping of Female genital mutilation
Female genital mutilation should be stopped Female Genital Mutilation or FGM can be explained as a procedure that is performed or inflicted on women and girls in some developing countries (Klein et al., 2018). FGM entails the altering or cutting of female genitalia. There are many known consequences of inflicting FGM on women including viral and bacterial infections, psychological problems, and obstetrical complications. The FGM topic has been taken up by activists in areas where the practice is rampant. The FGM topic has fundamental societal importance, cultural, significance, and ramifications. In this informative piece, the implications and consequences of FGM are discussed. There have been many efforts put in place to eradicate the FGM vice although certain societal and cultural dynamics have allowed FGM to be deeply rooted in some regions. It is important for more interventions to be instituted in the communities where FGM is practiced as a ritual…
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The Concept of Postpartum Depression
Introduction, predisposing factors.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a range of emotional and physical changes that the majority of new mothers go through. Immediately after delivery, mothers experience a sharp drop in hormones, and this chemical change may cause depression. Additionally, social and psychological changes that occur after getting a baby may cause this condition. One in every 10 new mothers experiences PPD (Chojenta, Lucke, Forder, & Loxton, 2016). Postpartum depression is a common condition involving psychological, emotional, social, and physical changes that many new mothers experience immediately after giving birth, but it is easily treated using medications and therapy. Postpartum depression is a common condition involving psychological, emotional, social, and physical changes that many new mothers experience immediately after giving birth, but it is easily treated using medications and therapy.
The common form of PPD is “baby blues,” which is mild and it affects almost every new mother. Normally, after delivery, new mothers are likely to experience sudden moods, which may lead to irritability, anxiety, loneliness, restlessness, and sadness. These changes may last for two weeks. PPD is prolonged and frequent baby blues’ symptoms with depressive characteristics, and it can occur several weeks or months after delivery. A new mother suffering from depressive symptoms should visit a health practitioner for treatment using medication and therapy. Postpartum psychosis is a severe form of PPD with full-blown symptoms of depression. New mothers suffering from this condition lose touch with reality together with having delusions, hallucinations, insomnia, agitation, and restlessness. Treatment is recommended using therapy and medications.
The common symptoms include mood changes, loss of appetite, and extreme fatigue, which are common signs after delivery. Other new mothers may experience loneliness, restlessness, agitation, and anxiety. In extreme cases where postpartum psychosis is involved, some individuals may experience symptoms such as suicidal thoughts, feelings of despair, and ineptitude, which are pointers to depression.
A new mother with a history of depression even before pregnancy is highly likely to suffer from PPD. Additionally, having many children may cause depression in new mothers, especially in cases where there is not enough financial support to take care of the kids (Chojenta et al., 2016). Young age at the time of pregnancy predisposes new mothers to PPD as they figure out how to deal with their new status. Finally, marital conflict and limited social or family support are risk factors because new mothers under such conditions lack the requisite backup that they need to deal with motherhood (Ghaedrahmati, Kazemi, Kheirabadi, Ebrahimi, & Bahrami, 2017).
Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition. Psychotherapy is used to guide the patient on how to cope and overcome their depression and other related conditions. The commonly used drugs are antidepressants to alleviate depressive symptoms. In cases of psychosis, a patient may be admitted to a hospital, and antipsychotic drugs are used for treatment (Ghaedrahmati et al., 2017). Social support is also recommended as a coping mechanism.
Postpartum depression is a common condition affecting one in every ten new mothers, and it comes in different forms such as baby blues, PPD, and postpartum psychosis. Symptoms differ depending on the type of PPD being experienced. The main predisposing factors include a history of depression, age, marital conflict, and lack of social support. Treatment is done through psychotherapy and antidepressant medications. Antipsychotic drugs are used in cases of postpartum psychosis.
Chojenta, C. L., Lucke, J. C., Forder, P. M., & Loxton, D. J. (2016). Maternal health factors as risks for postnatal depression: A prospective longitudinal study. PLoS ONE, 11 (1), 1-9. Web.
Ghaedrahmati, M., Kazemi, A., Kheirabadi, G., Ebrahimi, A., & Bahrami, M. (2017). Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 6 (60), 1-21. Web.
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Stop telling me I won’t have PPD again
I'm pregnant again, and some of my friends and family have decided to tell me that “this time will be different.” More specifically, that this time around I won’t have postpartum depression.
By Erin Bagwell February 25, 2022
Content warning: Discussion of suicidal ideation ahead.
Hi! My name is Erin Bagwell and I’m a documentary filmmaker, postpartum depression survivor , and mother of two girls: a 3-year-old and a 1-month-old.
I had debilitating postpartum depression with my first daughter three years ago. I was suicidal, crying multiple times a day, and felt like I was trapped under an excruciating wave of depression and anxiety for the first few months of my daughter’s life. So much so that I thought I made a mistake. Maybe I didn’t have what it takes to be a mom.
I found a PMAD therapist (perinatal mood and anxiety disorder) and joined a PMAD support group where I learned I was wrong: I not only had what it takes to be a mom, but I was experiencing something, that according to The Motherhood Center 1 in 5 birthing people struggle with when they become mothers. Being able to name my postpartum depression (PPD) allowed me to understand that what I was experiencing wasn’t what motherhood was supposed to feel like. It gave me the tools and the hope to explore the narrative I had around what it meant to be a mother, and to start the healing process. I even made a 30 minute documentary about the process called Year One about identity, coming through the other side of PPD, and my first year of motherhood.
You can watch Year One here.
After my daughter turned 1, my mental health began to improve, and little by little, I began to feel happier than I had been in a long time. Coming through the other side of something so painful felt liberating. Every good day I felt more confident in myself and more joyful. I started to regain my sense of self and rebuild my identity as a mother. And after weathering the first year of the pandemic, my husband and I started talking about what it would look like to have another baby.
We went back and forth on the pros and cons and what it would be like to potentially experience PPD again. And despite the pain of experiencing PPD, I felt like I was strong enough to try again. Especially since I had a great PMAD therapist to guide me through this pregnancy, and the experience of knowing when something might be wrong.
So I got pregnant.
But I’ve noticed that during this pregnancy, some of my friends and family have decided to tell me that “this time will be different.” More specifically, that this time around I won’t have postpartum depression.
PPD doesn’t discriminate based on how together your life is.
And to be fair: this time will be different. Lots of things in my life are different. My family moved out of our one-bedroom apartment in Brooklyn and into a house closer to my parents. I have more support and my toddler is in a part-time childcare program. My parenting life is much easier than it was when my family lived in New York City. But having great support doesn’t guarantee perfect mental health. Look no further than some of our favorite celebrities like Adele , Cardi B , and Reese Witherspoon , who all suffered from PMADs. Or the patron saint of postpartum depression, Alanis Morrisette , who had PPD with all three of her children. One could assume all of these women had first-class postpartum support, but having support doesn’t negate the life-altering matrescence a person goes through to become a mother.
One of the biggest misconceptions about depression is that it can’t affect put-together people. In fact, my PMAD therapist told me the people who are often hit the hardest are the Type-A overachievers who like to stick to a plan and know how to do things well. But what I’ve learned through my parenting experience is that motherhood wasn’t something I did “well” off the bat. It was a struggle, a process, a learning—one that can be quite infuriating.
My own grandmother had postpartum depression twice when she was pregnant with my dad and aunt, and she’s the toughest woman I know. PPD doesn’t discriminate based on how together your life is. It doesn’t care if you live in a one-bedroom apartment or if you can sell out the Hollywood Bowl with Oprah singing along to your songs.
The idea that it “will be better this time” actually puts the responsibility on the mother: the one person who doesn’t really need to take on the pressure of meeting others’ expectations about her own mental health. Instead, if you have a friend who is going through the postpartum journey again, maybe it would be better to just say, “I’m here to support you, no matter what.” Even just an honest “how are you doing?” can be quite effective; you’d be surprised how many people are afraid to ask the simple questions when it comes to mental health .
Part of my mental health journey has been about giving myself permission to talk about it more openly, and not feel shame around admitting that I’m struggling.
Because at the end of the day, that’s the real reason for how “it will be different this time.” It’s going to be different because hopefully your village will show up and be there with you in the discomfort. And if they won’t, you don’t have to take that on either. That’s what a great PMAD therapist is for. Your journey is yours alone, and you don’t owe anyone anything other than taking care of yourself and your own family.
I’ve been battling with suicidal thoughts and depression since I was about 17 years old. It’s been a hard topic to discuss with my family, especially with my mom, who I feel comfortable sharing the good parts of my life with, but not always the bad. Part of my mental health journey has been about giving myself permission to talk about it more openly, and not feel shame around admitting that I’m struggling.
This past week on Instagram I posted a photo of a candle on my stories that read, “lighting an evening candle is really helping my seasonal depression.” A few hours later my mom called to inform me she had been gifted about a million holiday candles from school and that I could have a couple if I wanted to help fight my seasonal depression. She was being sincere with a hint of sarcasm, and it was perfect. It was the first time we talked about my depression casually, without any strings, and without me feeling any shame. It just was.
As I enter into the first few weeks postpartum I’ll be thinking about Cardi B, my nanny, my best friend Molly, and all those who’ve experienced PPD and survived. Who’ve gone on to work through their depression, become excellent mothers, and grow from their postpartum journeys. Parents who have taught me to hope, and love, and given me the courage to bring another child into the world again.
It will be better this time.
If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 800-273-8255 or text HOME to the Crisis Text Line at 741741.
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