Will the relationship between India and Pakistan will ever improve

Vikas Kumar Ronzia

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Essay on indo pak relations for class 10, 12, mains exam (upsc, psc, ssc).

Indo Pak Relations Essay : Since the separation of India and Pakistan into two different countries, after India got its independence in 1947 from the British rule, the relation between the two countries have never been cordial.

Pakistan has always been trying to capture some parts of Indian territory stating it being Pakistani land, while India has always been retaliating against them to prevent its borders from the Pakistani invasion.

The continuous fighting between the two countries has resulted of eruptions of terrorist activities into India. Thereby affect the peace and harmony of the country.Pakistan has already fought 3 wars against India trying to capture Indian territory. Many groups of terrorists have been formed at the borders with intention to invade India in all forms. Several training camps have been setup at the borders of Indo Pakistan to prevent persons from entering illegally into either countries.

Surgical strikes by India have been conducted to prevent  Pakistan troops from invading the Indian borders.India has upgraded its weaponry system keeping close eye on Pakistani troupes for any further destructive movement.

India and Pakistan have tried to bring peace between the two but yet have enmity which can erupt any time into a war.

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India - Pakistan Relations

India pakistan relations upsc.

In this article, you can read about several issues concerned with India’s relations with its neighbour Pakistan.

The India Pakistan relations are one of the most complex associations that India shares with any of its neighbouring countries. In spite of the many contentious issues, India and Pakistan have made major strides in reducing the “trust deficit” over the past few years.

India desires peaceful, friendly and cooperative relations with Pakistan, which  requires an environment free from violence and terror. The two countries share linguistic, cultural, geographical and economic links but due to political and historical reasons, the two share a complex relation. 

India – Pakistan Relations [UPSC Notes]:- Download PDF Here

From the IAS Exam perspective, the relation between India and Pakistan is an important topic and aspirants must be aware of the latest bilateral development between the two countries. 

India-Pakistan Relations – Latest Developments

In February 2021, India and Pakistan issued a joint statement for the first time in years, announcing that they would observe the 2003 ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC). The countries have agreed to a strict observance of all agreements, understandings and cease firing along the Line of Control (LoC) and all other sectors with effect from the midnight of February 24-25, 2021. In the interest of achieving mutually beneficial and sustainable peace along the borders, the two Directors General of Military Operations agreed to address each other’s core issues and concerns which have the propensity to disturb peace and lead to violence.

Aspirants can go through the details regarding India Pakistan Cease Fire on the video provided below-

essay on india pakistan relationship

A Brief Background of India-Pakistan Relations

Ever since India’s independence and the partition of the two countries, India and Pakistan have had sour relations. Discussed below is a brief timeline of the relations between the two countries:

Aspirants can also get details about the Indian-International relations in the links given below:

Conflict Zones between India and Pakistan

There have been a few constant factors which have led to the complex bilateral ties between the two countries. Discussed below are these factors as per the latest developments released by the Government authorities, as of February 2020:

Cross-border Terrorism 

Cross border terrorism is one of the biggest factors for the disrupted relations between India and Pakistan. 

Trade and Commerce

The figures for India Pakistan bilateral trade in the last 6 years is as follows:

The trade agreement has also faced a downfall when it comes to the relations between India and Pakistan. In 2019, after the Pulwama terror attack, India hiked customs duty on exports from Pakistan to 200% and subsequently, Pakistan suspended bilateral trade with India on August 7, 2019. 

There are two major routes via which trade is commenced between the two countries:

Indus Waters Treaty

The 115th meeting of Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) was held on August 29 and 30, 2018 in Lahore. The Indian delegation was led by the Indian Commissioner for Indus Water (ICIW), while the Pakistan delegation was led by Pakistan Commissioner of Indus Water (PCIW). 

In the two days meeting both sides discussed Pakal Dul Hydroelectric Power Project (HEP), Lower Kalnai HEP and reciprocal tours of Inspection to both sides of the Indus basin. Subsequently, a delegation led by PCIW inspected Pakal Dul, Lower Kalnai, Ratle and other hydropower projects in the Chenab Basin between January 28 and 31, 2019.

Read in detail about the Indus Water Treaty at the linked article.

People to People Relations

Kartarpur Corridor

Aspirants can know in detail about the Kartarpur Corridor at the linked article and know its religious and social importance.

Daily News

Kashmir Issue

This is one of the most sensitive issues between India and Pakistan and has been a major cause of the sour relations the two countries share.  Article 370 gave Jammu and Kashmir a special right to have its own constitution, a separate flag and have their own rules, but in August 2019,  the Article was scrapped off and J&K now abides by the Indian Constitution common for all. It was given the status of a Union Territory and this move of the Indian Government was highly objected by Pakistan due to their longing of owning Kashmir entirely.

Trade Agreement between India and Pakistan

The two countries had signed a Trade agreement which was mutually beneficial for both. Discussed below are the ten Articles of the Trade Agreement:

Article I – exchange of products shall be done based on the mutual requirement of both the countries, ensuring common advantages

Article II – With regard to the commodities/goods mentioned in Schedules ‘A’ and ‘B’ attached to this Agreement, the two Governments shall facilitate imports from and exports to each other’s territories to the extent permitted by their respective laws, regulations and procedures

Article III – The import/export shall take place only through commercial means approved by both side

Article IV – With respect to commodities/goods not included in Schedules ‘A’ and ‘B’ export or import shall also be permitted in accordance with the laws, regulations and procedures in force in either country from time to time

Article V – Each Government shall accord to the commerce of the country

Article VI – There are a few exceptions for Article V

Article VII – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade must be followed

Article VIII – Border trade shall be allowed for the day-to-day requirement of commodities

Article IX – For proper implementation of the agreement, meetings can be done every six months

Article X – The Trade Agreement between the two countries waa effective from February 1, 1957

List of Products India Imports from Pakistan

List of Products India Exports to Pakistan

Candidates can get the detailed UPSC Syllabus for the Prelims and Mains examination at the linked article and can start their preparation accordingly. 

Also, to get the latest exam updates, preparation strategy and study material, turn to BYJU’S for assistance. 

Frequently Asked Questions on India-Pakistan Relations

Q 1. what is the biggest cause of concern between india and pakistan relations, q 2. what was the indus water treaty and between who was it signed.

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India-Pakistan Relations: Evolution, Challenges & Recent Developments

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From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This topic

* Updates: at the bottom

The India-Pakistan relations has often afflicted by cross-border terrorism, ceasefire violations, territorial disputes, etc. In 2019, the bilateral relationship was rocked by several tense events like the Pulwama terror attack, Balakot airstrike, scrapping of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status, etc. Improving bilateral ties is vital for both sides, as it would mean stabilisation of South Asia and the improvement of economies of both the nations. However, the political will to mend the relationship in the current juncture seems to be absent on both sides.

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Mindmap Learning Programme (MLP)



What are the wars and conflicts that were fought between India and Pakistan?

Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48

Indo-Pakistan War of 1965:

Indo-Pakistan War 1971:

Kargil Conflict:

What are the territorial disputes between India and Pakistan?

Siachen Glacier:

Sir Creek Dispute:

Water disputes:

What are the other areas of contentions?

Cross-Border terrorism and ceasefire violations:

Kulbushan Jadhav case:

Were the past Confidence Building Measures between India and Pakistan successful?

Major Achievements:

Some of the confidence-building measures taken to improve Indo-Pakistan relations are as follows:

Military CBMs:

Non-military CBMs:

Most of these CBMs focused on improving people-to-people interaction. Some of the significant ones that more or less withstood the test of times are as follows:

Failures in the CBM process:

What was the progress made in 2019?

What can be the way forward?

Reforming Pakistan’s political structure:

People-to-people relations:

Promote trade:

Steps that can be undertaken to improve bilateral trade include:

Promoting soft diplomacy:

It is the ability of the country to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction towards its political values, culture and favourable foreign policy. Measures that can be taken to promote soft diplomacy include:

To a certain extent, soft diplomacy improved the people-to-people relations between the two countries and eased the tensions on both sides.

Cooperation to address common issues:


South Asia has not yet progressed despite it having the potential to ensure fast-paced economic growth and development. This is mostly because of the differences and tensions between India and Pakistan. Improved India-Pakistan relations can ensure the addressing of any threat the subcontinent may face in the future. Cooperation and coexistence through trust can ensure an establishment of peaceful and prosperous South Asia.

Practice Question

Terrorism and decisive military response have plagued the India-Pakistan bilateral ties. What can be done to improve diplomatic relations? (250 words)


Mind map notes for UPSC

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essay on india pakistan relationship

India and Pakistan Relations

India’s relation with Pakistan has definitely seen more low points than the high points. The bitter-sweet relation shared between the two nations has neither made significant progress nor achieved any major breakthroughs since its 65 years of Independence. Today, India’s economic progress and political stability, together with its size, have lifted it to the status of a world power. Pakistan , on the other hand, is dogged by an unhappy past marked by repeated military interventions that prevented democracy from taking root. India surpasses its neighbor when it comes to excellence in energy, aviation, scientific innovations, education, information and technology, communications and also on the political and social front. The CIA World Fact Book 2012 has commented on Pakistan’s unhappy state of affairs by stating that, “decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan.” But, apart from the differences in the aforementioned indicators, they also share similarities. Both the nations were born out of a violent struggle and share a common history which is complex and intertwined in more than ways than one. They also account for the majority of the world’s poor and both are also aware of each other’s nuclear prowess. Both the regions today are torn by sectarian strife which is plaguing not only the two nations but has spilled over to other nation-states too, regionally and globally. It would be unfair to say that attempts have not not made by the respective nations to reconcile their differences and move towards amity, peace and friendship. A host of bilateral discussions, round table meetings, conferences and summits have been held, agreements have be... ... middle of paper ... ...nted further by people to people contacts. Events like “Aman ki Asha” have definitely helped in faciliatating such contacts and in bringing the people of the two countries closer where each side discovered not only their cultural similarities but also similarities at giving peace and friendship a chance by exploring newer ways and newer avenues by looking to the future based on their present and not the past that has marred the destiny of the two nations up until now. If Nawaz Sharif is looking at making “new beginnings” he definitely will have to shed his old ways at governing and being governed by the military in order to ensure that the newly democratically elected government moves ahead on the road to peace with renewed zeal and vigor taking into account the people’s aspirations, the nation’s development and the regions’ stability, in its engagement with India.

In this essay, the author

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The War Between India And Pakistan

The british and indian war.

The first successful British settlement, motivated for economic gain, in the New World was in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Religious persecution in England, due to the Protestant Reformation, encouraged the settlement of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony. The popularity for economic and religious opportunity sparked exoduses such as the The Great Migration. The British westward expansion led to land claim disputes with the French on the Ohio River Valley and the Northeast fisheries. These disputes led to the French and Indians uniting against Britain in the war known as the the French and Indian War. Although American relations with Britain remained economically similar in the time before and after the French and Indian War in that Great Britain relied on the American colonies for revenue, the French and Indian War was a significant political turning point in that Great Britain’s period of benign neglect ended and Americans began challenging Britain’s authority; therefore, the French and Indian War marked a significant turning point in American relations with Great Britain.

The major issues and events that led the American colonies to declare their independence from Britain in 1776 was the start of it all in 1763 when the French and Indian war also known as the seven years’ war ended and that is extremely important because it led to very unhappy colonists because the British were broke. The French and Indian war was fought between the British and French on American soil and the British felt the colonists should pay them back for protecting them, The colonists majority of them being British were more than happy to assist in paying for the war but it was important that they be represented in the decision making regarding how payments would be made (taxation without representation), Obviously that did not happen. British imposed high taxes on the colonies without allowing them to represent themselves which that of course made the colonists very unhappy which some of the taxes was the sugar act (revenue-raising act), stamp act (required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used.), tea act (was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.), Townshend act (Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea). On April 5th, 1764 the sugar act also called the plantation act or revenue act was the first act to happen and the sugar act imposed higher taxes and duties on sugar imported from the West Indies. On September 1st, 1775 Parliament passed the Currency Act, successfully assuming control of the colonial currency system. The act

The American colonies declared independence in 1776 with the declaration of independence however it did not originate in 1776

During the mid-1700’s, British American Colonists were questioning their place under the British crown. The Colonists were proud to be part of the British Empire, especially after the recent victories of the French and Indian war, which gave the colonist a sense of pride and patriotism. However, British Parliament began to pass legislation that had laid a burden on the Colonists, as well as oppression. The Colonists began to question the power of the Crown, whether the idea of a Monarchy was a primitive style of government. They believed officers passing/enforcing laws were neglecting the authority of the King, which lead some radical Whigs to accuse the King of being an incompetent enforcer of human rights. Bridges built between the colonist and the mother country were beginning to deteriorate as colonist began to realize that the King was not concerned about the interests and concerns of the colonies. This would eventually lead to protests and a movement to establish a government that was influenced by the people of the colonies and not by civilians of the mother country.

The Ethnic Conflict Between India And Pakistan

The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan has been the subject of speculation and study by political scientists and historians for a number of years. The ethnic conflict seems to have been sparked at the very beginning in 1947, when the British used Muslim and Hindu mercenaries against each other before the area finally split into today’s countries of India and Pakistan (Spiegel et al. 2015, 185). The timeline since then has been full of conflicts, both major and minor. Brutal tactics used by security forces and a high rate of unemployment have added to the issue (BBC News 2016).

The United States Department Of Defense Defines Terrorism

History of terrorism in Pakistan goes back to the time of Russian capture of Afghanistan. Pakistani powers have long had binds to residential aggressor amasses that help propel the nation 's center outside strategy engages. India and Afghanistan have blamed Pakistan 's security and discernment administrations for playing a "twofold amusement".

Dbq War Analysis

There is very little doubt that this decade of 20th century was characterised by a very vicious strategic rivalry between the two contemporary super powers. Although the Soviet-US Enmity was the most dominant factor of this war, yet it was never fought between these two countries. One can argue that this was the only US war where not even a single US soldier received even a single bullet. With very little doubt, one can say that this US-Soviet war was actually fought between Pakistan and the USSR, where the Pakistani army was fighting to fulfil its commitments with its ally. A tussle between Kabul and Moscow finally involved an active role by Islamabad and Washington. Both Islamabad and Washington were able to rebuild their relationship a

Richard M. Nixon's Stand Of Pakistan

During the second week of July, 1971, Kissinger arrived in Beijing, where he heard the words by then Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai: “In our opinion, if India continues on its present course in disregard of world opinion, it will continue to go on recklessly. We, however, support the stand of Pakistan. This is known to the world. If the Indians are bent on provoking such a situation, then we cannot sit idly by. On this, Kissinger responded that China should know that the US also backs Pakistan on this issue. Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister in those times decided to tour most of the Western capitals to prove Indian stand and gain support and sympathy for the Bengalis of East Pakistan. On November 4th and 5th she met Nixon in Washington. Nixon straightforwardly told her that a new war in the subcontinent was out of the question.The next day, Nixon and Kissinger assessed the situation. Kissinger told Nixon: The Indians are” bastards”anyway. They are plotting a war. On December 4, just one day after Pakistan raided Indian airfields in Kashmir and Punjab declaring war on India, America’s proxy involvement in the war was becoming clear. Thinking that the Soviet Union might enter the war if they come to know this, which could cause a lot of destruction to Pakistan and American equipment given to Pakistan, US ambassador to the United Nations George H W Bush [later 41st president of the United States and father of George Bush] introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council, calling for a ceasefire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and

The Between India And The United States

There has been much publicity about the lives of women in India and how they are regarded. I would like to explore this topic in order to clarify and organize the abundance of information that has been in the media and in publications. I will focus this this topic comparing two countries, India and the US. Both are democratic countries and both have some forms of inequality. I will start by giving background information about both of the country’s political and cultural systems when relevant and the inequalities. This will produce the answer to which of the two states has made more improvements in the area, my dependent variable. Then I will go on to the bulk of the research in explaining the causes of the improvements or lack thereof which will be which will be the independent variables.

Kashmir Conflict Between Hindus And Muslims

Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of South Asia. It borders Pakistan and India in the Himalayan Mountains. This landscape is known for its raw natural beauty and has stood out in the history and folklore of the Indian subcontinent. At one point in time, Kashmir was aptly named "paradise on Earth". Kashmir excels at diversity. People from all over the world many different religious backgrounds and even more diverse dialects frequent the land. Today however, the Kashmir region is the center a multidimensional problem, with religious hostilities taking center stage.

India After Ww1

India played a key part in World War One; however, their contribution to Great Britain is severely overlooked. They began pushing towards a more self-government approach and this began impacting their relations with Britain. Expecting to be rewarded for their efforts, India assisted Britain in the war by sending millions of volunteers to the Western Front; thus began their alliance goals with them. Near the end of the war, they began realizing that self-government they pictured wasn’t going to happen, so tensions began rising towards the Independence movement with Mahatma Gandhi and the efforts towards Civil Disobedience.

How Did Ww2 Changed The Course Of The World

When the Soviets installed missiles in Cuba, this threathened the position of the United States and this showed them that going against the Soviets in the future can be dangerous and the war will turn into a Nuclear fight very fast. Additionally, after the separation of Hindu dominated country India and Muslim dominated country Pakistan, fight over a city near the borders of each country started. Both the countries have been fighting since then to gain power over Kashmir. Pakistan sends it's mujahideen forces to fight the Indian soldiers and massive amounts of deaths have occured since. Both the countries have Nuclear powers and the Western countries have stopped trying to interfere in their

Waltz suggests that though it is important that states arm themselves and be ready for possible hostile actions, most states will attempt to work within the post WWII status quo that exists because their ultimate goal is survival and they have better odds of surviving by thinking strategically and cooperating with other states at times while still having the ability to defend themselves when needed . In this scenario the military capabilities serve not as a tool that states would use in an offensive capability, rather as a deterrent from potential threats. A particular example of this is the relation between Pakistan and India. Pakistan has a population which is around 15% that of India and an economy which is slightly larger than a tenth of the Indian economy . Given the history of conflicts and disputes between the two nations it is no surprise that relationships are often tense and prone to deterioration. India’s rapid economic growth coupled with a large military expenditure and nuclear capability have been great concerns to Pakistani policymakers and it is evident that Pakistan would not be able to ensure its defense against India using conventional means. The lack of security was a great cause of concern for the Pakistani government and the newly acquired nuclear weapons by India further tipped the scale in India’s favour. This left Pakistan feeling

India Pakistan Breaking With The Past Summary

The book “India, Pakistan and the United States: Breaking With the Past” By Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli asserted that to assure “cold peace" between both neighbouring countries India and Pakistan, Washington must acknowledge ground realities. According to the author threats and withdrawing the assistance cannot help to make Pakistan to change its policies no incentive of any kind can do anything with regard to the policy of Pakistan. The insecurity will prevail due to maintenance of its nuclear programs. The writer further says any measure of punishing Pakistan to roll back on nuclear proliferation would not work no sanction can do any effect on its approach. The Only thing, that can work is enhancing the attention on steps of engaging Pakistan and

The Partition onf India

To Rani, ‘people dying here, others dying there’ (cited in Butalia, 2000, p.268) was something that happened every day, it was no surprise to her. Thus, Rani’s cynical view about the future of India and Pakistan was conceivably drawn from memories of witnessing horrendous fights and strife throughout her whole life (cited in Butalia, 2000, p.268).

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Short essay on Pakistan & India Relations

essay on india pakistan relationship


The relations between Pakistan and India have been subject to many strains by numerous political dilemmas in history and currently as well, they include the Partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the many military conflicts which have been fought between the two states. These two states of South Asia share historic, cultural, geographic and economic links but their relationship has been filled with hostility and doubt.

During the times of Independence Jinnah and Gandhi had overheated discussions, moreover around five hundred thousand Muslims and Hindus were murdered in riots following the partition. Millions of Muslims living in India and Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan emigrated, it was a massive transmissions of population till today. Both states accused the other of not providing enough security to the minorities that war emigrating, this increased hostility amongst the two new nations.

In terms with the British Plan for Partition, all the princely states had the right to decide which country to join. With an exception of a few, most of the Muslim-majority princely state joined Pakistan, and most of Hindu-majority princely state joined India. But, the decisions of one of the Princely state would shape the relationship between the two countries in the future that lay ahead.

Over all with the British Raj leaving in 1947, two sovereign states were born, the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. This partition from the British displaced around 12.5 million people and there were many losses to lives some say a hundred thousand while others say a million. Pakistan was established as an Islamic republic and India became a secular nation.

After this Independence, India and Pakistan had formed diplomatic relations but the effects of the fierce partition and territorial conflicts kind of suppressed the diplomatic relationship. Since Partition the two countries have fought three wars with each other, one war was undeclared, they also have been involved in various armed skirmishes and military standstills. Besides the Indo-Pakistan War in 1971 which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, the conflict with Kashmir has been central to all these wars and issues between the two states.

Steps have been taken many at times to better the relations between the two neighbors these include the Agra Summit, Shimla Summit and the Lahore Summit. After 1980 there was hostility between the two nations mainly because of the Siachen conflict, the worsening of the Kashmir insurgency in 1989, the nuclear tests of India and Pakistan in 1998 and in 1999 the Kargil War. Other confidence building measures such as the 2003 ceasefire and the Delhi Lahore Bus service were victorious in improving relations. However the terrorist attacks that occur have ruined such efforts. The attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001 almost started a nuclear war between the two states. The bombings in 2007 of the Samjhauta express in which 68 people were killed who were mostly Pakistanis, accompanied by the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants served as knife to the bond of the two nations. These events have soured the peace talks immensely.

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