Will the relationship between India and Pakistan will ever improve
Vikas Kumar Ronzia
- how to improve india pakistan relations
- relationship between india and pakistan
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- relations between india and pakistan
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Essay on indo pak relations for class 10, 12, mains exam (upsc, psc, ssc).
Indo Pak Relations Essay : Since the separation of India and Pakistan into two different countries, after India got its independence in 1947 from the British rule, the relation between the two countries have never been cordial.
Pakistan has always been trying to capture some parts of Indian territory stating it being Pakistani land, while India has always been retaliating against them to prevent its borders from the Pakistani invasion.
The continuous fighting between the two countries has resulted of eruptions of terrorist activities into India. Thereby affect the peace and harmony of the country.Pakistan has already fought 3 wars against India trying to capture Indian territory. Many groups of terrorists have been formed at the borders with intention to invade India in all forms. Several training camps have been setup at the borders of Indo Pakistan to prevent persons from entering illegally into either countries.
Surgical strikes by India have been conducted to prevent Pakistan troops from invading the Indian borders.India has upgraded its weaponry system keeping close eye on Pakistani troupes for any further destructive movement.
India and Pakistan have tried to bring peace between the two but yet have enmity which can erupt any time into a war.
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India - Pakistan Relations
India pakistan relations upsc.
In this article, you can read about several issues concerned with India’s relations with its neighbour Pakistan.
The India Pakistan relations are one of the most complex associations that India shares with any of its neighbouring countries. In spite of the many contentious issues, India and Pakistan have made major strides in reducing the “trust deficit” over the past few years.
India desires peaceful, friendly and cooperative relations with Pakistan, which requires an environment free from violence and terror. The two countries share linguistic, cultural, geographical and economic links but due to political and historical reasons, the two share a complex relation.
India – Pakistan Relations [UPSC Notes]:- Download PDF Here
From the IAS Exam perspective, the relation between India and Pakistan is an important topic and aspirants must be aware of the latest bilateral development between the two countries.
India-Pakistan Relations – Latest Developments
In February 2021, India and Pakistan issued a joint statement for the first time in years, announcing that they would observe the 2003 ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC). The countries have agreed to a strict observance of all agreements, understandings and cease firing along the Line of Control (LoC) and all other sectors with effect from the midnight of February 24-25, 2021. In the interest of achieving mutually beneficial and sustainable peace along the borders, the two Directors General of Military Operations agreed to address each other’s core issues and concerns which have the propensity to disturb peace and lead to violence.
- In the latest bilateral brief between India and Pakistan (February 2020) India stands by its “Neighbourhood First Policy” and desires normal relations with Pakistan in an environment which is free of terror and violence.
- In 2019, Article 370 of India’s Constitution, was scrapped off, which gave a special status to Jammu and Kashmir. Following which, the bilateral relations faced a severe blow. It was followed by Pakistan expelling the Indian Hgh Commissioner in Islamabad and suspension of air and land links, and trade and railway services.
- There was no forward movement in bilateral ties in 2020 due to the mistrust between the two countries, especially on the Kashmir issue.
- India, on February 15, 2019, withdrew Most Favoured Nation Status to Pakistan
Aspirants can go through the details regarding India Pakistan Cease Fire on the video provided below-
A Brief Background of India-Pakistan Relations
Ever since India’s independence and the partition of the two countries, India and Pakistan have had sour relations. Discussed below is a brief timeline of the relations between the two countries:
- The Composite Dialogue between India and Pakistan from 2004 to 2008 addressed all outstanding issues. It had completed four rounds and the fifth round was in progress when it was paused in the wake of the Mumbai terrorist attack in November 2008.
- Then again in April 2010, then Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Pakistani PM Yousuf Raza Gillani on the margins of the SAARC Summit, spoke about the willingness to resolve the issue and resume the bilateral dialogue.
- Counterterrorism & Humanitarian issues
- Economic issues at Commerce
- Tulbul Navigation Project at Water Resources Secretary-level
- Siachen at Defence Secretary-level
- Peace & Security including Confidence Building Measures (CBMs)
- Jammu & Kashmir
- Promotion of Friendly Exchanges at the level of the Foreign Secretaries.
- Cross LoC travel was started in 2005 and trade across J&K was initiated in 2009
- India and Pakistan signed a visa agreement in 2012 leading to liberalization of bilateral visa regimes between the two countries
Aspirants can also get details about the Indian-International relations in the links given below:
Conflict Zones between India and Pakistan
There have been a few constant factors which have led to the complex bilateral ties between the two countries. Discussed below are these factors as per the latest developments released by the Government authorities, as of February 2020:
- Terrorism emanating from territories under Pakistan’s control remains a core concern in bilateral relations
- India has consistently stressed the need for Pakistan to take credible, irreversible and verifiable action to end cross border terrorism against India
- Pakistan has yet not brought the perpetrators of Mumbai terror attacks 2008 to justice in the ongoing trials, even after all the evidence have been provided to them
- India has firmly stated that it will not tolerate and comprise on issues regarding the national security
- Based on attacks in India and involvement of the neighbouring country, the Indian Army had conducted surgical strike at various terrorist launch pads across the Line of Control, as an answer to the attack at the army camp in Uri, Jammu and Kashmir
- India had again hit back over the cross border terror attack on the convey of Indian security forces in Pulwama by carrying out a successful air strike at a training camp of JeM in Balakot, Pakistan
Cross border terrorism is one of the biggest factors for the disrupted relations between India and Pakistan.
Trade and Commerce
The figures for India Pakistan bilateral trade in the last 6 years is as follows:
The trade agreement has also faced a downfall when it comes to the relations between India and Pakistan. In 2019, after the Pulwama terror attack, India hiked customs duty on exports from Pakistan to 200% and subsequently, Pakistan suspended bilateral trade with India on August 7, 2019.
There are two major routes via which trade is commenced between the two countries:
- Sea Route – Mumbai to Karachi
- Land Route – via Wagah Border through trucks
Indus Waters Treaty
The 115th meeting of Permanent Indus Commission (PIC) was held on August 29 and 30, 2018 in Lahore. The Indian delegation was led by the Indian Commissioner for Indus Water (ICIW), while the Pakistan delegation was led by Pakistan Commissioner of Indus Water (PCIW).
In the two days meeting both sides discussed Pakal Dul Hydroelectric Power Project (HEP), Lower Kalnai HEP and reciprocal tours of Inspection to both sides of the Indus basin. Subsequently, a delegation led by PCIW inspected Pakal Dul, Lower Kalnai, Ratle and other hydropower projects in the Chenab Basin between January 28 and 31, 2019.
Read in detail about the Indus Water Treaty at the linked article.
People to People Relations
- Since 2014, India has been successful in the repatriation of 2133 Indians from Pakistan’s custody (including fishermen), and still, about 275 Indians are believed to be in their custody
- In October 2017, the revival of Joint Judicial Committee was proposed by India and accepted by Pakistan, wherein, the humanitarian issues of custody of fishermen and prisoners, especially the ones who are mentally not sound in each other’s custody need to be followed
- The Bilateral Protocol on Visits to Religious Shrines was signed between the two countries in 1974. The protocol provides for three Hindu pilgrimage and four Sikh pilgrimage every year to visit 15 shrines in Pakistan while five Pakistan pilgrimage visit shrines in India.
- An agreement between India and Pakistan for the facilitation of pilgrims to visit Gurdwara Darbar Sahib Kartarpur, Pakistan, was signed on 24 October 2019 in order to fulfil the long-standing demand of the pilgrims to have easy and smooth access to the holy Gurudwara
- The Kartarpur Sahib Corridor Agreement, inter alia, provides for visa-free travel of Indian pilgrims as well as Overseas Citizen of India (OCI) cardholders, from India to the holy Gurudwara in Pakistan on a daily basis, throughout the year.
- On November 9, 2019, on the occasion of the 550th birth anniversary of Guru Nanak Dev ji, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the corridor
Aspirants can know in detail about the Kartarpur Corridor at the linked article and know its religious and social importance.
This is one of the most sensitive issues between India and Pakistan and has been a major cause of the sour relations the two countries share. Article 370 gave Jammu and Kashmir a special right to have its own constitution, a separate flag and have their own rules, but in August 2019, the Article was scrapped off and J&K now abides by the Indian Constitution common for all. It was given the status of a Union Territory and this move of the Indian Government was highly objected by Pakistan due to their longing of owning Kashmir entirely.
Trade Agreement between India and Pakistan
The two countries had signed a Trade agreement which was mutually beneficial for both. Discussed below are the ten Articles of the Trade Agreement:
Article I – exchange of products shall be done based on the mutual requirement of both the countries, ensuring common advantages
Article II – With regard to the commodities/goods mentioned in Schedules ‘A’ and ‘B’ attached to this Agreement, the two Governments shall facilitate imports from and exports to each other’s territories to the extent permitted by their respective laws, regulations and procedures
Article III – The import/export shall take place only through commercial means approved by both side
Article IV – With respect to commodities/goods not included in Schedules ‘A’ and ‘B’ export or import shall also be permitted in accordance with the laws, regulations and procedures in force in either country from time to time
Article V – Each Government shall accord to the commerce of the country
Article VI – There are a few exceptions for Article V
Article VII – The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade must be followed
Article VIII – Border trade shall be allowed for the day-to-day requirement of commodities
Article IX – For proper implementation of the agreement, meetings can be done every six months
Article X – The Trade Agreement between the two countries waa effective from February 1, 1957
List of Products India Imports from Pakistan
List of Products India Exports to Pakistan
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Frequently Asked Questions on India-Pakistan Relations
Q 1. what is the biggest cause of concern between india and pakistan relations, q 2. what was the indus water treaty and between who was it signed.
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India-Pakistan Relations: Evolution, Challenges & Recent Developments
From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This topic
* Updates: at the bottom
The India-Pakistan relations has often afflicted by cross-border terrorism, ceasefire violations, territorial disputes, etc. In 2019, the bilateral relationship was rocked by several tense events like the Pulwama terror attack, Balakot airstrike, scrapping of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status, etc. Improving bilateral ties is vital for both sides, as it would mean stabilisation of South Asia and the improvement of economies of both the nations. However, the political will to mend the relationship in the current juncture seems to be absent on both sides.
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- Following the partition of British India, two separate nations, India (dominated by Hindus) and Pakistan (dominated by Muslims) was formed.
- Despite the establishment of diplomatic relations after their independence, the immediate violent partition, wars, terrorist attacks and numerous territorial disputes overshadowed the relationship.
- Since independence in 1947, both countries have fought three major wars, one undeclared war and have been involved in armed skirmishes and military standoffs.
- The dispute over Kashmir is the main centre-point of all these conflicts except for the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh ).
- Several efforts were made to improve the bilateral ties, which were successful in de-escalating tensions to a certain extent.
- However, these efforts were hampered by frequent terrorist attacks and ceasefire violations.
What are the wars and conflicts that were fought between India and Pakistan?
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-48
- It was the first of the four Indo-Pakistan Wars fought between the two newly independent nations.
- This war was fought between the two nations over the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir that was under the control of Maharaja Hari Singh.
- Fearing a revolt within the state and invasion from Pakistan, Maharaja Hari Singh made a plea to India for assistance. Assistance was offered by the Indian government in return to his signing an Instrument of Accession to India.
- The war resulted in India securing two-thirds of Kashmir, including Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Ladakh.
- Pakistan controls roughly one-third of the state, referring to it as Azad (free) Kashmir.
Indo-Pakistan War of 1965:
- The Indo-Pakistan War of 1965 initiated following the culmination of skirmishes that took place since April 1965.
- Pakistan’s Operation Gibraltar was launched to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to hasten insurgency against India.
- India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan.
- This war resulted in thousands of causalities on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armoured vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.
- The war ended after an UN-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the USSR and the US, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration.
Indo-Pakistan War 1971:
- Since independence, Pakistan was geopolitically divided into two major regions, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, which is dominated by Bengali people.
- Following the launch of Pakistan’s military operation (Operation Searchlight), a genocide on Bengalis in December 1971 and the political crisis in East Pakistan, the situation went out of control in East Pakistan.
- India intervened in favour of the rebelling Bengalis population.
- Indian army invaded East Pakistan from three sides and the Indian Navy imposed a naval blockade of East Pakistan, leading to the destruction of a significant portion of Pakistan’s naval strength.
- After the surrender of Pakistani forces, East Pakistan became an independent nation of Bangladesh.
- During the winter of 1998-99, the Indian army vacated its posts at high peaks in Kargil Sector in Kashmir as it used to do every year.
- Pakistan Army made use of this opportunity to move across the line of control and occupied the vacant posts.
- The Indian army discovered this in May 1999, when the snow thawed.
- This led to intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces.
- Backed by the Indian Air Force, the Indian Army regained many of the posts that Pakistan had earlier occupied.
- Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion because of the international pressure and high causalities.
What are the territorial disputes between India and Pakistan?
- Due to political differences between the two countries, the territorial claim of Kashmir has been the subject of wars in 1947, 1965 and a limited conflict in 1999 and frequent ceasefire violations and promotion of rebellion within the Indian side of Jammu and Kashmir.
- The then princely state remains an area of contention and is divided between the two countries by the Line of Control (LoC), which demarcates the ceasefire line agreed post-1947 conflict.
- Siachen Glacier is located in Northern Ladakh in the Karakoram Range.
- It is the 5 th largest glacier in Karakoram Range and the 2 nd largest glacier in the world.
- Most of the Siachen Glacier is disputed between India and Pakistan.
- Before 1984, neither of the two countries had any permanent presence on the glacier.
- Under the Shimla Agreement of 1972, the Siachen was called a barren and useless.
- This Agreement also did not specify the boundary between India and Pakistan.
- When India got intelligence that Pakistan was going occupy Siachen Glacier, it launched Operation Meghdoot to reach the glacier first.
- Following the success of Operation Meghdoot, the Indian Army obtained the area at a higher altitude and Pakistan army getting a much lower altitude.
- Thus, India has a strategic advantage in this region.
- Following the 2003 armistice treaty between the two countries, firing and bombardment have ceased in this area, though both the sides have stationed their armies in the region.
Sir Creek Dispute:
- Sir Creek is a 96 km estuary in the Rann of Kutch.
- Rann of Kutch lies between Gujarat (India) and Sindh (Pakistan).
- The dispute lies in the interpretation of the maritime boundary line between the two countries.
- Pakistan claims the entire Sir Creek in accordance with a 1914 agreement that was signed between the Government of Sindh and Rulers of Kutch.
- India, on the other hand, claims that the boundary lies mid-channel as per a 1925 map.
- If one country agrees to the other’s position, the former will lose a vast amount of Exclusive Economic Zone that is rich with gas and mineral deposits.
- The waters of the Indus Rivers begin mainly in Tibet and the Himalayan Mountains in the states of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir (Indian side).
- They flow through the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Sindh etc., before draining into the Arabian Sea through the Pakistani side.
- The partition led to conflict over waters of the Indus basin as it was in such a way that the source rivers of the Indus Basin were in India.
- Both sides were at odds over how to manage and share these rivers
- Until the signing of the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960, the arrangement to share east and west-flowing rivers were ad hoc.
- The Indus Waters Treaty is the water distribution treaty signed between India and Pakistan, brokered by World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development).
- According to the treaty, three rivers, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas were given to India for exclusive use and the other three rivers, Sindh, Jhelum and Chenab were given to Pakistan.
- This treaty failed to address the dispute since source rivers of Indus Basin were in India, having the potential to create drought and famines in Pakistan.
- Last year, Modi Government had stated that India would no longer allow its share of river waters to flow into Pakistan in response to the Pulwama terror attack.
- According to the 1960 Indus Waters Treaty, India can exploit rivers under its control without disturbing the flow or quantum.
- India plans to divert its three rivers to the Yamuna.
What are the other areas of contentions?
Cross-Border terrorism and ceasefire violations:
- Cross-border terrorism has been an issue since independence.
- Despite the 2003 Ceasefire Agreement post-Kargil Conflict, there have been regular ceasefire violations from the Pakistan side of the border since 2009, leading to the death and injury of security forces and civilians on both sides.
- The Modi Government’s massive armed retaliation to Pakistan’s ceasefire violations led to a rise in the number of infiltrations of terrorists from across the LoC.
- Subsequent incidents of 2016 Pathankot attack and Uri attack resulted in the ceasing of any effort to undertake bilateral talks between the two countries, with Indian Prime Minister declaring that “talks and terrorism cannot go hand in hand”.
- This was followed by surgical strikes by Indian Army across the LoC to target the terror infrastructure in PoK.
- India’s current stand is that it will not undertake talks until Pakistan tackle cross-border terrorism.
- Pakistan, in contrast, is ready for talks but with the inclusion of Kashmir issue.
Kulbushan Jadhav case:
- Kulbushan Jadhav, a retired Naval Officer was arrested near the Iran-Pakistan border in Baluchistan region by Pakistan.
- Pakistan accused him of espionage and spying. He was sentenced to death by Pakistan’s military court.
- India states that Jadhav was a retired Naval Officer who was in Iran on a business trip and was falsely framed by Pakistan.
- India, for many times, demanded consular access of Jadhav, which was rejected by Pakistan, citing national security.
- This led to India approaching International Court of Justice (ICJ) and stating that Pakistan was violating Vienna Convention by denying Consular Access.
- The ICJ asked Pakistan to review Jadhav’s death sentence and allow consular access.
Were the past Confidence Building Measures between India and Pakistan successful?
- Since the Partition, India and Pakistan have signed many agreements to generate confidence and reduce tensions.
- Perhaps the most notable among them are Liaquat-Nehru Pact (1951), Indus Waters Treaty (1960), Tashkent Agreement (1966), Rann of Kutch Agreement (1969), Shimla Accord (1972), Salal Dam Agreement (1978), and the establishment of the Joint Commission.
- Except for the Joint Commission, all the others were the products of either a crisis or a war that necessitated a logical end to the preceding developments.
- Though CBMs are efficient tools to improve inter-state relations, trust between the two sides is vital for its success.
- CBMs are difficult to establish but easy to disrupt and abandon.
- Some continue to be successful while others are abandoned.
Some of the confidence-building measures taken to improve Indo-Pakistan relations are as follows:
- Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear Installations and Facilities was signed in 1988 and ratified in 1990. The first exchange took place on January 1, 1992. As per the Agreement, India and Pakistan exchange the list of their nuclear installations to prevent attacking each other’s atomic facilities. This practise has been followed to date.
- Agreement on Advance Notification on Military Exercises, Manoeuvres and Troop Movements were brought into effect in 1991. This agreement played a crucial role in deescalating the tensions on both the sides of the LoC.
- A communication link between Pakistan Maritime Security Agency and the Indian Coast Guard was established in 2005 to facilitate the early exchange of information regarding anglers who are apprehended for straying into each other’s waters.
- A hotline between Directors-General of Military Operations (DGMOs) of both the countries have been in effect since 1965 and was used in an unscheduled exchange to discuss troop movements and allay tensions in the aftermath of the 26/11 attacks.
Most of these CBMs focused on improving people-to-people interaction. Some of the significant ones that more or less withstood the test of times are as follows:
- Delhi-Lahore Bus Service was initiated in 1999. It was suspended in the aftermath of the 2001 Indian Parliament Attack. The bus service was later resumed in 2003 when bilateral relations had improved. This service was recently suspended in 2019 in the aftermath of the abrogation of Article 370 and 35A of the Indian Constitution .
- Samjhauta Express that was launched following the signing of the Shimla Agreement connects Pakistani city of Lahore and the Indian town of Attari. It had been suspended frequently, but due to negotiations, it was restarted. In 2019, it was suspended after the revocation of the special status of Kashmir.
- Weekly Bus Service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad was initiated in 2005. It has withstood the test of times and still operational.
- India extended humanitarian aid to Pakistan in the aftermath of the 2005 earthquake. Pakistan too had earlier provided relief in the aftermath 2001 Gujarat Earthquake.
Failures in the CBM process:
- Although there are hotlines connecting both military and political leaders in both countries, they have been scarcely used when required the most. The absence of communications has led to suspicions and accusations of misinformation.
- There is a disproportionate emphasis on military CBMs and inadequate recognition of several momentous non-military CBMs.
- Governments of both sides often use CBMs as political tools to win over specific constituencies, which can be very damaging in the long-run. Public conciliatory statements, which are meant to be CBMs, can have the opposite effect if they are insincere.
What was the progress made in 2019?
- The year 2019 has in many ways, set the tone, tenor and tempo of how 2020 will pan out between India and Pakistan.
- Early last year, the Pulwama suicide bombing carried out by the Pakistani terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) led to the death of 40 CRPF personnel. This was the starting point of the steep decline in relations.
- Within a few days after the incident, India’s fighter jets targeted a JeM terrorist camp, not in Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK), but in Balakot in the Pakistani Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This led to retaliation from Pakistan.
- This incident led to a paradigm shift to the traditional India-Pakistan tensions.
- Later that year, the amendment and hollowing out of Article 370, scrapping of Article 35A, the bifurcation of the erstwhile Jammu and Kashmir into two Union Territories stunned Pakistan.
- This move effectively killed whatever remained of the bilateral ties post-Balakot airstrike.
- Pakistan responded by expelling the Indian High Commissioner and suspending all trade between the two countries.
- Trade had already fallen steeply after India withdrew Pakistan’s Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status and imposed a 200% import duty on Pakistani goods earlier that year post-Pulwama.
- However, within days, Pakistan was forced to allow the import of medicines from Indian to provide relief to its patients who were affected due to its suspension of bilateral trade with India.
- Amid the post Article 370 breakdown, Pakistan went ahead with the Kartarpur Corridor. Even this move is seen with mistrust by many due to Pakistan’s support to the Khalistani movement.
- Furthermore, any progress in the diplomatic ties in the political front is going to be difficult because of Pakistan military’s dominance in the country’s foreign policy. Any progress made has often led to a terror attack or ceasefire violation.
- In the current situation, the prospects for meaningful engagement between the two nations remain bleak and the best that can happen is that the diplomatic relations are fully restored, trade is opened up and easing of travel between the two nations.
What can be the way forward?
Reforming Pakistan’s political structure:
- Despite the democratic elections in Pakistan, the military wields the real power in the country. This holds true especially on matters of defence, national security and foreign policy.
- Pakistan’s military is the most dominant national political institution, the primary decision-maker and the chief overseer of Pakistan’s growing nuclear arsenal.
- People’s needs on the aspects of health, employment and education are not prioritised while the military decides on its foreign policies with other nations, leading to the Pakistani economy feeling the brunt of the radical decisions by the military.
- Pakistan’s Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI), consisting for personnel from Pakistan Armed Forces, is often accused of supporting and training separatist militant groups operating in Kashmir and other parts of the country like North-East India .
- This makes it highly difficult for India to undertake diplomatic relations with Pakistani government since it is not the decision-maker in the country.
- Thus, a strong political reform in Pakistan, the one that focuses on the welfare of the Pakistani nationals is vital to improving its relations with India.
- Propaganda is currently being used by both sides through the media to justify each other’s stand on conflicting issues.
- This is creating misconception, hatred and stereotyping among the people of both countries.
- This method is also used for political gains of both nations, with least consideration towards people’s welfare and the need for peace.
- Steps must be taken to facilitate travel between the two countries, ease up visa regimes, provide security for tourists, set up student and faculty exchanges, and invite professionals, intellectuals and artists to events to promote the bilateral ties.
Steps that can be undertaken to improve bilateral trade include:
- Remove non-tariff barriers and bureaucratic hurdles that are currently impeding trade.
- Cut down duties
- Improve customs clearance procedures
- Proportionate trade is beneficial for both sides and is possible through the right government policies.
Promoting soft diplomacy:
It is the ability of the country to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction towards its political values, culture and favourable foreign policy. Measures that can be taken to promote soft diplomacy include:
- Use of Indus Waters Treaty to promote hydro diplomacy. Both nations can come together to construct Water Grid between their territories to address the water problems in the region.
- Cultural diplomacy can be used through the exchange of ideas, values, traditions and other cultural aspects to strengthen bilateral ties, enhance the socio-cultural cooperation and promote the individual national interest.
- Promotion of Cricket diplomacy i.e., the use of cricket as a diplomatic tool to overcome differences between the two countries.
To a certain extent, soft diplomacy improved the people-to-people relations between the two countries and eased the tensions on both sides.
Cooperation to address common issues:
- Being neighbours, both India and Pakistan face similar problems that are currently plaguing the region.
- For instance, recently, Pakistan has sought to import chemicals from India to fight the imminent locust attack.
- India too is a victim to locust attack.
- Thus, such similar problems like climate change and natural disasters can be dealt with through cooperation from both sides.
- This can significantly improve the bilateral relations between India and Pakistan.
- Social issues like child marriage, illiteracy, disease, discrimination, exploitation, unemployment and poverty are also an issue of common importance for both the nations, which the countries can use to improve their relations and coexist with each other.
South Asia has not yet progressed despite it having the potential to ensure fast-paced economic growth and development. This is mostly because of the differences and tensions between India and Pakistan. Improved India-Pakistan relations can ensure the addressing of any threat the subcontinent may face in the future. Cooperation and coexistence through trust can ensure an establishment of peaceful and prosperous South Asia.
Terrorism and decisive military response have plagued the India-Pakistan bilateral ties. What can be done to improve diplomatic relations? (250 words)
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India and Pakistan Relations
India’s relation with Pakistan has definitely seen more low points than the high points. The bitter-sweet relation shared between the two nations has neither made significant progress nor achieved any major breakthroughs since its 65 years of Independence. Today, India’s economic progress and political stability, together with its size, have lifted it to the status of a world power. Pakistan , on the other hand, is dogged by an unhappy past marked by repeated military interventions that prevented democracy from taking root. India surpasses its neighbor when it comes to excellence in energy, aviation, scientific innovations, education, information and technology, communications and also on the political and social front. The CIA World Fact Book 2012 has commented on Pakistan’s unhappy state of affairs by stating that, “decades of internal political disputes and low levels of foreign investment have led to slow growth and underdevelopment in Pakistan.” But, apart from the differences in the aforementioned indicators, they also share similarities. Both the nations were born out of a violent struggle and share a common history which is complex and intertwined in more than ways than one. They also account for the majority of the world’s poor and both are also aware of each other’s nuclear prowess. Both the regions today are torn by sectarian strife which is plaguing not only the two nations but has spilled over to other nation-states too, regionally and globally. It would be unfair to say that attempts have not not made by the respective nations to reconcile their differences and move towards amity, peace and friendship. A host of bilateral discussions, round table meetings, conferences and summits have been held, agreements have be... ... middle of paper ... ...nted further by people to people contacts. Events like “Aman ki Asha” have definitely helped in faciliatating such contacts and in bringing the people of the two countries closer where each side discovered not only their cultural similarities but also similarities at giving peace and friendship a chance by exploring newer ways and newer avenues by looking to the future based on their present and not the past that has marred the destiny of the two nations up until now. If Nawaz Sharif is looking at making “new beginnings” he definitely will have to shed his old ways at governing and being governed by the military in order to ensure that the newly democratically elected government moves ahead on the road to peace with renewed zeal and vigor taking into account the people’s aspirations, the nation’s development and the regions’ stability, in its engagement with India.
In this essay, the author
- Opines that india's relationship with pakistan has seen more low points than the high points. the bitter-sweet relationship between the two nations has neither made significant progress nor achieved any major breakthroughs since its 65 years of independence.
- Opines that india's economic progress and political stability have lifted it to the status of a world power, while pakistan is dogged by an unhappy past marked by repeated military interventions that prevented democracy from taking root.
- Opines that india surpasses its neighbor when it comes to excellence in energy, aviation, scientific innovations, education, information and technology, communications, and also on the political and social front.
- Explains that the two nations share similarities and a complex history, which is intertwined with each other's nuclear prowess. both regions are torn by sectarian strife.
- Opines that bilateral discussions, round tables, conferences, summits, agreements, symbolic gestures of friendship have not borne the desired result one would have hoped for.
- Analyzes how india has taken the lead to restore peace in the region through dialogue and negotiation with its neighbor. political tensions and internal domestic compulsions in pakistan thwart any attempts at establishing peace.
- Opines that india needs to build on its promises and respect the wishes of the kashmiri people in order to gain acceptance from the people.
- Opines that india and pakistan need to stand together to tackle terrorism on a top priority basis to ensure that the talks are not stalled.
- Opines that the unfolding of the democratic process in an otherwise military dominated pakistan is a step in the right direction.
- Opines that india must take the lead to win the confidence of its neighbor and ensure that the tense atmosphere between the two nations does not escalate further.
- Opines that nawaz sharif must shed his old ways at governing and being governed by the military in order to ensure that the newly democratically elected government moves ahead on the road to peace with renewed zeal and vigor.
- Opines that the us and un should have taken pre-violence prevention measures to prevent the deadly growth of the conflict, but instead, us took position with israel at the early stage.
- Opines that the us foundational basis for mediation in the conflict took the path of "coercion" against palestine which is why one can only speak of little success (at least a cease fire) situation.
- Explains that saudi arabia and us leaders discussed two states solution in 2002. in 2007 poll in gaza strip and west bank, 46.7% responded in favour of two state solution and 26.5% for a binational (having two nations under one government).
- Analyzes how the prolonged peace talks and the failed outcomes, partly depended on the individuals in power, over the years of the conflict. this affected the us's mediation role, leading to hard mediation measures.
- Explains that president barack obama's speech in june 2009 set out a new us goal towards the conflict on neutral ground.
- Opines that the only resolution is for the aspirations of both sides to be met through two states where israelis and palestinians each live in peace and security.
- Opines that the shift from negative to positive peace building process points to the role and importance of the individual in any mediation process.
- Explains that prior to obama's era, americans supported israel as a holy ground for christianity. this support was the driving force for us foreign policy towards israel, thus projecting an anti-arabic policy.
- Explains that the us – middle east relation is defined by power, liberal political superiority, various forms of mediation diplomacy, including peacekeeping, peace-building, reconciliation, and quest to impose western political economy.
- Explains that israel took advantage of the conflict and the us unconditional support and went on to steal us’s nuclear information. us considers israel as a strategic partner through which it can actualize its goals in the region.
- Cites alabama department of archives and history's "alabama governors".
- Explains the "dust bowl." encyclopedia britannica online school edition.
- States that frost, robert (1874-1963) and gerber, philip. writers for young adults. ted hipple.
- Describes the encyclopedia britannica online academic edition, 2012.
- Explains that the year of 1937 was marked by dynamic world leaders, intensifying international conflicts, economic struggles, record breaking athletes, and influential authors.
- Explains that joe dimaggio was one of major league baseball's best players in its history. he was the leader in the american league for homeruns and runs scored.
- Explains that roosevelt terminated all commercial trade with japan and passed the neutrality act of 1937. hitler and his nazi army inflicted blow after blow on europe’s jews.
- Explains that india was a massive nation made up of several states, ruled by the british.
- Analyzes how india and pakistan's economies were shattered by the cost of supporting war.
- Analyzes how india claims that the rebels in kashmir were not local, but actually pakistan army officers and that people of kashmir themselves were fighting on the indian side.
- Analyzes how the violent and bloody birth of kashmir has led to an equally violent situation.
- Opines that if the kashmiris did not have some desire for change, there would be no fighting. the indian argument is that all militants are financed, trained, and sent in from pakistan.
- Opines that kashmiris are tired of getting nowhere with peaceful methods, and have suffered too much to take.
- Opines that a plebiscite is the solution favored by the pakistani government, but another war will not solve the problem.
- Opines that a plebiscite is the fairest option for all sides concerned with kashmir. the united nations must agree to put its troops in jeopardy, spend substantial amounts in kashmir, and take care of the state.
- Explains that kashmir is at the center of an age-old dispute between pakistan and india that has dragged on from the independence of both nations over fifty years ago to the present time.
- Opines that change in the situation is necessary, since both countries were on the brink of using their newfound nuclear weapons on each other.
- Argues that the drawbacks of giving kashmir independence outweigh its benefits.
- Recalls their grandfather talking about two powerful men in the world who could destroy the entire planet by pushing two buttons.
- Explains that with the end of the cold war the whole international climate seemed to change fundamentally. disarmament was a political reality for the first time since the bomb was created.
- Opines that the cease of enmity between the superpowers did not turn the world into a peaceful heaven. the last decade of this century has been just as violent as the previous ones.
- Explains that the question of nuclear weapons came back to the picture when allegations were spread in the media about iraq having or almost having weapons of mass destruction.
- Opines that the nuclear tests by france, india, and pakistan also showed that we are still leaving in a world of nuclear war. the spread of weapons of mass destruction to officially non-nuclear state means also higher risk of it being used intentionally or by accident.
- Explains that the un general assembly (unga) adopted a resolution requesting the international court of justice (icj) to render its advisory opinion on the following question: is the threat or use of nuclear weapons in any circumstances permitted under international law?
- Opines that both the question and the court's actual opinion are of historical importance. the icj dealt with the issue despite the fact that most nuclear weapon states had no jurisdiction on the matter.
- Explains that the court concluded that nuclear weapons threat or use falls under the principles and rules of jus in bello, particularly international humanitarian law, and thus is generally unlawful.
- Explains that even in an ''extreme circumstance of self-defence', the court could not conclude that the use or threat of nuclear weapons would be lawful.
- Explains that the court's advisory opinion bears of great importance, since it proved that nuclear weapons are subject to international law.
- Explains that the court looked at all relevant legal materials, treaties, customary law, and found the law on nuclear weapons. the court could not give a clear answer on the question of extreme circumstance of self-defence.
- Opines that the advisory opinion did not get much publicity and even the few articles misinterpreted the courts stance. a convincing, clear and categorical answer would have been of greater educational effect.
- Opines that the advisory opinions are not legally binding, but in practice they are followed in 90% of the cases. the advisory opinion is authoritative in that it embodies the collective view on a point of law.
- Opines that the question of security is still widely identified by the strategy of nuclear defence.
- Opines that nuclear weapons are being discredited as military means and their use appears wholly disproportionate at every circumstance and raises enormous risks.
- Opines that nuclear weapons have no power of deterrence unless there is real intention of actually using them. it is useful for the leader of the enemy country to convince his people that their existence is endangered.
- Explains that collective security works with conventional weapons and economic sanctions can cause vast destruction and suffering to the people.
- Opines that the gulf crisis is a lesson on the spread of nuclear weapons. with the end of the cold war, the existing monitoring system is not efficient anymore.
- Opines that if nuclear weapon states continue to argue the legality and efficiency of the nuclear weapons than they will encourage other states to have their own nuke.
- Analyzes how the people arguing for nuclear weapons use the magic word deterrence as their ultimate argument. they quote hiroshima as the proof of effectiveness of these weapons.
- Opines that the taboo on the use of nuclear weapons is very strong. any use can lead to mutual destruction. nuclear weapons are too dangerous to be useable.
- Explains that international law has outlawed aggression in the charter of the un, in article 4(2), leaving only the narrow space of self-defence and collective self
- Explains that there are three different strategies for self-defence: unlimited, arms reduction, non-proliferation, and complete disarmament.
- Opines that the most important treaty on non-proliferation is the npt, which tried to limit the nuclear weapons club to those that tested the weapons by 1967.
- Explains that in the eighties, there was constant testing, apparently integrand part of the nuclear defence strategy. there were and are well-established cases of deaths from cancer, leukaemia and other diseases.
- Explains that the icj's advisory opinion led to the comprehensive test ban treaty, which opened for signing on 24th september 1996.
- Explains that the treaty is the next step towards disarmament and the respect of the rights of non-nuclear states, but it has some weak sides. the good news is that it prohibits the test of nuclear weapons.
- Opines that the elimination of nuclear weapons will take many years if ever. law may have a powerful role in regulating this issue.
- Analyzes how the logic of annihilation still has a role in international relations. the rapid development of warfare technology has multiplied the scale of destruction.
- Explains that there are signs that the situation is not entirely hopeless. the un regime's main aim is to maintain international peace and security.
- Analyzes judge weeramantry's analysis of international law and humanitarian law, which is built on the ancient morals of the universal human culture.
- Opines that the use or threat of nuclear weapons is illegal and endangers the human environment. international law could contribute significantly towards rolling back the shadow of the mushroom cloud.
- Opines that the icj's advisory opinion shows that nuclear weapons fall under international law, showing the obligations of every state to pursue disarmament.
- Explains that greed is a major contributor to the on-going conflict in the middle east.
- Explains that the middle east is comprised of followers of islam, but the sunni and shia are the main sources of conflict. the jewish population in israel and palestinians want to reclaim their land.
- Analyzes how charles maynes in "the middle east in the twenty-first century" addresses the future by examining the region demographically and technologically.
- Analyzes how maynes addresses the limited amount of resources in the middle east, and their contributions to the on-going violence.
- Analyzes reinoud leenders' article, "regional conflict formations: is the middle east next?", which focuses on the inta-state conflicts of lebanon, syria, and iraq.
- Opines that peace is not a likely outcome for the middle east unless serious changes take place (politically, environmentally, etc.).
- Explains that andersen, roy, robert f. seibert, and jon g. wagner. politics and change in the middle east: sources of conflict and accommodation.
- Analyzes leenders, reinoud, "regional conflict formations': is the middle east next?" in third world quarterly.
- Explains maynes, charles, and the middle east in the twenty-first century.
- Explains that srli, mirjam, nils gleditsch, and hvard strand, "why is there so much conflict in the middle east?" the journal of conflict resolution.
- Analyzes the sources of conflict in the middle east, including the lack of natural resources, leadership styles, and religious strife.
- Opines that america has no right to be involved in pakistan, as the acts they commit are not beneficial to both pakistan and are unethical.
- Argues that america needs to be an example to other developing and broken countries on how to handle foreign affairs.
- Analyzes how obama's drone attacks and terrorist attacks on pakistani soil killed 2,414 people, 421 of them being innocent adult civilians, and 172 were children. it should never be acceptable to kill that many people just because you are trying to end the war against terrorism
- Opines that america's strong presence in pakistan has changed how the pakistani people view america forever. the acts america is committing are not beneficial to both pakistan and are unethical.
- Analyzes the kashmir conflict in its historical context and assesses whether there is sufficient political will to resolve the dispute.
- Opines that the princely state of kashmir remains unresolved after more than fifty years of conflict.
- Opines that pakistan's involvement in the insurgency is controversial, and that it has been more actively involved since 1990.
- Opines that the will of the people alone will not be sufficient unless india and pakistan can come to a compromise over their historical positions.
- Opines that the conflict has been costly for both sides, not only in terms of human suffering in kashmir, but in the negative effects it has had on india and pakistan.
- Opines that kargil was never meant as a first step towards capturing kashmir by force. it was an attempt to put pakistan into negotiating position and to bring greater international attention to the issue.
- Opines that india-pakistan relations have never been characterized by political flexibility. the nuclear restraint is belatedly beginning to sink in after the initial phase of saber-rattling.
- Argues that maintaining the status quo is related to avoiding political loss, rather than hope for any tangible political gain. foreign investors would be more willing to channel funds into india and pakistan.
- Opines that if we are to resolve the kashmir dispute, it will require more than the hackneyed stances of half a century.
- Opines that to become prosperous and normal peoples, one must make peace where there is hostility, build bridges where chasms exist, heal where wounds are, feed where hunger is, prosper where poverty is.
- Describes the hindu's view from pakistan on kashmir.
- Cites bbc news - home, 10 mar. 2000, and web. 16 nov. 2011.
- Opines that indian predicament in kashmir | pakistan daily.
- Opines that a single team representing the region would show unity and lessen the chance for bilateral arrangements that might lead to self-destructive intra-regional competition.
- Explains the lack of commitment from regional leaders and a "go it alone" attitude of some caribbean governments.
- Opines that we still have a strong sense of psychological dependence on things external especially north american, europe, and some of the bigger countries of latin america.
- Argues that the selection of the west indies cricket team still suffers from this insularity.
- Opines that the absence of a unifying force prompted by external danger and the want of the common struggle against the reluctant coloniser.
- Explains that there have been many proposals and recommendations for a political union since the federation collapsed in 1962.
- Explains the founding members of the caribbean free trade association are antigua, barbados, guyana, jamaica, and trinidad & tobago.
- Explains that the substantive provisions of the treaty itself set out three areas of activity for the community.
- Explains that the csme is an arrangement that seeks to create a single economic space without cross-border restrictions and allow for the free movement of goods and services, labour and capital among member states of caricom.
- Opines that a single market and economy is essential for the survival of caribbean countries that face increased competition from large countries and regional integration movements.
- Explains that the initiative allows goods, services, people, and capital to move throughout the caribbean community without barriers and any other restrictions.
- Explains that the caribbean community seeks to harmonise the economic, monetary and fiscal policies of all member states with the objective of achieving a common regional policy in these areas.
- Opines that it will facilitate the diversification of skills within the region.
- Explains the loss of national economic control and ownership of limited resources as a consequence of free movement of capital.
- Describes the west indian commission's report, time for action, barbados.
- Questions whether the integration process within caricom is marred by cynicism, lack of political will, and self-aggrandisement of the political directorate.
- Describes the role of the acs (association of caribbean states) in enhancing or destroying caricom.
- Argues that the caribbean remains fragmented economically and politically as a result of competition and conflict among the european powers. the case for regional integration is both simple and irrefutable.
- Explains that great britain organised the west indies federation in 1958 to avoid granting independence to seemingly small non-viable microstates. the federal experiment was terminated when jamaica gained independence in 1962.
- Explains that there were differences between the leadership of the region, particularly jamaica and trinidad & tobago on the structure and the future direction of federation.
- Analyzes how the reluctance of regional leaders to enter federal politics weakened the support of civil society for the whole integration process.
- Explains that only limited legislative and executive powers were assigned to the central government, and the office of governor general was the most powerful institution in the federation.
- Explains that caricom's main purpose is to further economic integration and cooperation among its members.
- Explains that caribbean economic integration was curtailed between 1976 and 1978 due to import restrictions imposed by jamaica and guyana, and dissatisfaction among the less-developed countries
- Explains that the oecs is conceived as an institution that would provide the legal framework for collective action in foreign affairs, while consolidating the continuing processes of cooperation in common services and economic integration.
- Explains the establishment of the eastern caribbean central bank, which is responsible for monetary policy throughout the sub-region.
- Describes the benefits of increased bargaining power in the international arena by presenting a united front to foreign investors and the creation of strong regional companies to compete internationally.
- Summarizes carrington, e., and benn, d.'s contending with destiny: the caribbean in the 21st century.
- Describes the main failures and benefits of the caribbean integration movement.
- Explains that the states of the global south have internal problems and are unlikely to commit their resources to solving global dilemmas like international security or environmental damage.
- Opines that a favourable international market to developing countries can mitigate the economic and political division between north and south.
- Argues that the economic, social, political, and influential gap between the affluent countries of the global north and the still developing countries in the world is the greatest challenge in global governance.
- Explains collier, paul, the bottom billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done.
- Describes frank, matthew, lisa a. hyland, sarah o. ladislaw, and frank verrastro.
- States frieden, jeffrey a., global capitalism: its fall and rise in the twentieth century.
- Cites stern, nicholas, stern review on the economics of climate change, report for her majesty's.
- Argues that the global north-south divide is a social, economic, and political separation between the highly developed nations and the rest of the world.
- Explains that as states modernize, there is a clash between traditional values and the culture of modern life.
- Explains that india is the world's second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people. economic reforms in 1991 made india attractive to multinational corporations.
- Explains that political stability has ensured that india is the largest democracy in the world today, although insurgencies and uprisings cause regional disturbances.
- Explains that state and federal governments are corrupt, and the policies change based on local alliances between political parties. a single brand retailer has to source 30% of their materials from local small and medium sized enterprises.
- Explains that india is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has registered an average growth rate of 7.5 % between 2001 and 2011.
- Explains that india is the second largest country in the world based on demographics, with a median age of 26.5 years. however, in terms of human development, the country has not achieved much.
- Opines that the pyramid structure of the indian market is slowly collapsing and is being replaced by a new multifaceted consumer class.
- States that class movement based on income across rural and urban areas, has induced organizations to reevaluate market segmentation and product positioning.
- Explains that india is an attractive destination because of its sound technological base, low costs and governmental policies which encourage research and development.
- Explains that india offers limitless opportunities because of its huge market potential and the fact that it is a growing market compared to american and european markets.
- Advises retailers to understand that states can intervene and change the fdi policy in their jurisdiction. high consumer confidence means that india is promising market.
- Opines that indian society is complex and multifaceted; a localized policy would not be effective and flexibility in approach would be there to deal with ethnic diversity.
- Explains that alyssa ayres, a closer look at fdi flip flopping in india, forbes magazine, february 4, 2014.
- Explains dinodia capital advisers' opinion on fdi in retail: is 30% local sourcing feasible?
- Opines that consumer spending will multiply four fold to $3.6 trillion by 2020: cii-bcg report.
- Explains that a paradigm shift from pyramid to new multifaceted consumer class in india and its impact on organized retailing.
- Explains that india ranked 94th in corruption perception index ratings says transparency international.
- Indo-Pakistani relations
- Most favoured nation
The War Between India And Pakistan
The british and indian war.
The first successful British settlement, motivated for economic gain, in the New World was in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. Religious persecution in England, due to the Protestant Reformation, encouraged the settlement of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay Colony. The popularity for economic and religious opportunity sparked exoduses such as the The Great Migration. The British westward expansion led to land claim disputes with the French on the Ohio River Valley and the Northeast fisheries. These disputes led to the French and Indians uniting against Britain in the war known as the the French and Indian War. Although American relations with Britain remained economically similar in the time before and after the French and Indian War in that Great Britain relied on the American colonies for revenue, the French and Indian War was a significant political turning point in that Great Britain’s period of benign neglect ended and Americans began challenging Britain’s authority; therefore, the French and Indian War marked a significant turning point in American relations with Great Britain.
The major issues and events that led the American colonies to declare their independence from Britain in 1776 was the start of it all in 1763 when the French and Indian war also known as the seven years’ war ended and that is extremely important because it led to very unhappy colonists because the British were broke. The French and Indian war was fought between the British and French on American soil and the British felt the colonists should pay them back for protecting them, The colonists majority of them being British were more than happy to assist in paying for the war but it was important that they be represented in the decision making regarding how payments would be made (taxation without representation), Obviously that did not happen. British imposed high taxes on the colonies without allowing them to represent themselves which that of course made the colonists very unhappy which some of the taxes was the sugar act (revenue-raising act), stamp act (required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used.), tea act (was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain.), Townshend act (Taxes on glass, paint, oil, lead, paper, and tea). On April 5th, 1764 the sugar act also called the plantation act or revenue act was the first act to happen and the sugar act imposed higher taxes and duties on sugar imported from the West Indies. On September 1st, 1775 Parliament passed the Currency Act, successfully assuming control of the colonial currency system. The act
The American colonies declared independence in 1776 with the declaration of independence however it did not originate in 1776
During the mid-1700’s, British American Colonists were questioning their place under the British crown. The Colonists were proud to be part of the British Empire, especially after the recent victories of the French and Indian war, which gave the colonist a sense of pride and patriotism. However, British Parliament began to pass legislation that had laid a burden on the Colonists, as well as oppression. The Colonists began to question the power of the Crown, whether the idea of a Monarchy was a primitive style of government. They believed officers passing/enforcing laws were neglecting the authority of the King, which lead some radical Whigs to accuse the King of being an incompetent enforcer of human rights. Bridges built between the colonist and the mother country were beginning to deteriorate as colonist began to realize that the King was not concerned about the interests and concerns of the colonies. This would eventually lead to protests and a movement to establish a government that was influenced by the people of the colonies and not by civilians of the mother country.
The Ethnic Conflict Between India And Pakistan
The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan has been the subject of speculation and study by political scientists and historians for a number of years. The ethnic conflict seems to have been sparked at the very beginning in 1947, when the British used Muslim and Hindu mercenaries against each other before the area finally split into today’s countries of India and Pakistan (Spiegel et al. 2015, 185). The timeline since then has been full of conflicts, both major and minor. Brutal tactics used by security forces and a high rate of unemployment have added to the issue (BBC News 2016).
The United States Department Of Defense Defines Terrorism
History of terrorism in Pakistan goes back to the time of Russian capture of Afghanistan. Pakistani powers have long had binds to residential aggressor amasses that help propel the nation 's center outside strategy engages. India and Afghanistan have blamed Pakistan 's security and discernment administrations for playing a "twofold amusement".
Dbq War Analysis
There is very little doubt that this decade of 20th century was characterised by a very vicious strategic rivalry between the two contemporary super powers. Although the Soviet-US Enmity was the most dominant factor of this war, yet it was never fought between these two countries. One can argue that this was the only US war where not even a single US soldier received even a single bullet. With very little doubt, one can say that this US-Soviet war was actually fought between Pakistan and the USSR, where the Pakistani army was fighting to fulfil its commitments with its ally. A tussle between Kabul and Moscow finally involved an active role by Islamabad and Washington. Both Islamabad and Washington were able to rebuild their relationship a
Richard M. Nixon's Stand Of Pakistan
During the second week of July, 1971, Kissinger arrived in Beijing, where he heard the words by then Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai: “In our opinion, if India continues on its present course in disregard of world opinion, it will continue to go on recklessly. We, however, support the stand of Pakistan. This is known to the world. If the Indians are bent on provoking such a situation, then we cannot sit idly by. On this, Kissinger responded that China should know that the US also backs Pakistan on this issue. Indira Gandhi, the Indian prime minister in those times decided to tour most of the Western capitals to prove Indian stand and gain support and sympathy for the Bengalis of East Pakistan. On November 4th and 5th she met Nixon in Washington. Nixon straightforwardly told her that a new war in the subcontinent was out of the question.The next day, Nixon and Kissinger assessed the situation. Kissinger told Nixon: The Indians are” bastards”anyway. They are plotting a war. On December 4, just one day after Pakistan raided Indian airfields in Kashmir and Punjab declaring war on India, America’s proxy involvement in the war was becoming clear. Thinking that the Soviet Union might enter the war if they come to know this, which could cause a lot of destruction to Pakistan and American equipment given to Pakistan, US ambassador to the United Nations George H W Bush [later 41st president of the United States and father of George Bush] introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council, calling for a ceasefire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and
The Between India And The United States
There has been much publicity about the lives of women in India and how they are regarded. I would like to explore this topic in order to clarify and organize the abundance of information that has been in the media and in publications. I will focus this this topic comparing two countries, India and the US. Both are democratic countries and both have some forms of inequality. I will start by giving background information about both of the country’s political and cultural systems when relevant and the inequalities. This will produce the answer to which of the two states has made more improvements in the area, my dependent variable. Then I will go on to the bulk of the research in explaining the causes of the improvements or lack thereof which will be which will be the independent variables.
Kashmir Conflict Between Hindus And Muslims
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of South Asia. It borders Pakistan and India in the Himalayan Mountains. This landscape is known for its raw natural beauty and has stood out in the history and folklore of the Indian subcontinent. At one point in time, Kashmir was aptly named "paradise on Earth". Kashmir excels at diversity. People from all over the world many different religious backgrounds and even more diverse dialects frequent the land. Today however, the Kashmir region is the center a multidimensional problem, with religious hostilities taking center stage.
India After Ww1
India played a key part in World War One; however, their contribution to Great Britain is severely overlooked. They began pushing towards a more self-government approach and this began impacting their relations with Britain. Expecting to be rewarded for their efforts, India assisted Britain in the war by sending millions of volunteers to the Western Front; thus began their alliance goals with them. Near the end of the war, they began realizing that self-government they pictured wasn’t going to happen, so tensions began rising towards the Independence movement with Mahatma Gandhi and the efforts towards Civil Disobedience.
How Did Ww2 Changed The Course Of The World
When the Soviets installed missiles in Cuba, this threathened the position of the United States and this showed them that going against the Soviets in the future can be dangerous and the war will turn into a Nuclear fight very fast. Additionally, after the separation of Hindu dominated country India and Muslim dominated country Pakistan, fight over a city near the borders of each country started. Both the countries have been fighting since then to gain power over Kashmir. Pakistan sends it's mujahideen forces to fight the Indian soldiers and massive amounts of deaths have occured since. Both the countries have Nuclear powers and the Western countries have stopped trying to interfere in their
Waltz suggests that though it is important that states arm themselves and be ready for possible hostile actions, most states will attempt to work within the post WWII status quo that exists because their ultimate goal is survival and they have better odds of surviving by thinking strategically and cooperating with other states at times while still having the ability to defend themselves when needed . In this scenario the military capabilities serve not as a tool that states would use in an offensive capability, rather as a deterrent from potential threats. A particular example of this is the relation between Pakistan and India. Pakistan has a population which is around 15% that of India and an economy which is slightly larger than a tenth of the Indian economy . Given the history of conflicts and disputes between the two nations it is no surprise that relationships are often tense and prone to deterioration. India’s rapid economic growth coupled with a large military expenditure and nuclear capability have been great concerns to Pakistani policymakers and it is evident that Pakistan would not be able to ensure its defense against India using conventional means. The lack of security was a great cause of concern for the Pakistani government and the newly acquired nuclear weapons by India further tipped the scale in India’s favour. This left Pakistan feeling
India Pakistan Breaking With The Past Summary
The book “India, Pakistan and the United States: Breaking With the Past” By Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli asserted that to assure “cold peace" between both neighbouring countries India and Pakistan, Washington must acknowledge ground realities. According to the author threats and withdrawing the assistance cannot help to make Pakistan to change its policies no incentive of any kind can do anything with regard to the policy of Pakistan. The insecurity will prevail due to maintenance of its nuclear programs. The writer further says any measure of punishing Pakistan to roll back on nuclear proliferation would not work no sanction can do any effect on its approach. The Only thing, that can work is enhancing the attention on steps of engaging Pakistan and
The Partition onf India
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To Rani, ‘people dying here, others dying there’ (cited in Butalia, 2000, p.268) was something that happened every day, it was no surprise to her. Thus, Rani’s cynical view about the future of India and Pakistan was conceivably drawn from memories of witnessing horrendous fights and strife throughout her whole life (cited in Butalia, 2000, p.268).
- Richard Nixon
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- President of the United States
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Pakistani & Indian Relations
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- Kashmir Issue:
- 1965 War & Kargil War (1998-99)
- Water dispute
- Bangladesh Liberation War
- Control Line Issues
- Samjhota Express Bombings (2007)
- Mumbai attacks (2008)
- Aman ki Aasha:
- Shoaib and Sania Relationship:
- Bilateral Sports Promotions:
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Short essay on Pakistan & India Relations
The relations between Pakistan and India have been subject to many strains by numerous political dilemmas in history and currently as well, they include the Partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir dispute and the many military conflicts which have been fought between the two states. These two states of South Asia share historic, cultural, geographic and economic links but their relationship has been filled with hostility and doubt.
During the times of Independence Jinnah and Gandhi had overheated discussions, moreover around five hundred thousand Muslims and Hindus were murdered in riots following the partition. Millions of Muslims living in India and Hindus and Sikhs living in Pakistan emigrated, it was a massive transmissions of population till today. Both states accused the other of not providing enough security to the minorities that war emigrating, this increased hostility amongst the two new nations.
In terms with the British Plan for Partition, all the princely states had the right to decide which country to join. With an exception of a few, most of the Muslim-majority princely state joined Pakistan, and most of Hindu-majority princely state joined India. But, the decisions of one of the Princely state would shape the relationship between the two countries in the future that lay ahead.
Over all with the British Raj leaving in 1947, two sovereign states were born, the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. This partition from the British displaced around 12.5 million people and there were many losses to lives some say a hundred thousand while others say a million. Pakistan was established as an Islamic republic and India became a secular nation.
After this Independence, India and Pakistan had formed diplomatic relations but the effects of the fierce partition and territorial conflicts kind of suppressed the diplomatic relationship. Since Partition the two countries have fought three wars with each other, one war was undeclared, they also have been involved in various armed skirmishes and military standstills. Besides the Indo-Pakistan War in 1971 which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh, the conflict with Kashmir has been central to all these wars and issues between the two states.
Steps have been taken many at times to better the relations between the two neighbors these include the Agra Summit, Shimla Summit and the Lahore Summit. After 1980 there was hostility between the two nations mainly because of the Siachen conflict, the worsening of the Kashmir insurgency in 1989, the nuclear tests of India and Pakistan in 1998 and in 1999 the Kargil War. Other confidence building measures such as the 2003 ceasefire and the Delhi Lahore Bus service were victorious in improving relations. However the terrorist attacks that occur have ruined such efforts. The attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001 almost started a nuclear war between the two states. The bombings in 2007 of the Samjhauta express in which 68 people were killed who were mostly Pakistanis, accompanied by the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants served as knife to the bond of the two nations. These events have soured the peace talks immensely.
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