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Adult Treatment Court Resources

These resources serve as the foundation for adult drug courts and all team members should be well-versed in their content. Examples include: best practice standards, 10 key components, etc.

These sample documents are used by similar treatment court program types across the US and can be adapted for use within your program. Examples include: policy and procedure manuals, sanctions/incentives grids, participant handbooks, exit surveys, phase checklists, medication contracts, etc. 

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 Resource Category

Cascade County Participant Task List

Colorado State Courts Strategic Planning

Hamilton County Adult Drug Court Sustainability Plan

NADCP Adult Drug Court Planning Initiative Guide to Creating a Participant Handbook

NADCP Adult Drug Court Planning Process Checklist

NDCI Sample Memorandum of Understanding Best Practice Standards

NDCI Sample New Drug Court Staff Orientation Sheet

NY State Adult Treatment Court Recommended Practices

Placer County Adult Drug Court Mentors in Treatment Program Policies and Procedures

Recovery Maintenance Check In

Benton County Authorization for Disclosure of Photographs

Henry County Resource Court Confidentiality Statement

Henry County Waiver and Consent for Release of Confidential Information

OASAS Consent to Release Info Concerning Chemical Dependence Treatment

Problem Solving Courts Confidentiality Agreement for Courtroom Visitors

Adams County Drug Court Client Contract and Agreement

Bexar County Felony Drug Court Information Questionnaire

DeKalb County Drug DUI Court Participant Contract

Henry County Resource Court Inclusion Exclusion Criteria

Iowa Eighth Judicial District Drug Court Referral Screening Policy and Procedures

Lee County Felony Drug Court Plea Form and Probation Agreement

McHenry County Drug Court Sentencing Order

Santa Fe County Drug Court Fee Waiver

Teton County Drug Court Supervised Treatment Case Plan

Walworth County Drug Court Defense Review Packet

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Sample Documents

NADCP developed the following template documents to help programs apply the skills taught at training. The documents below are free to use and should be adapted to your program's policy and procedures based on the Adult Drug Court Best Practice Standards .

Recovery Capital

Worksheets for treatment court teammembers to assist clients with identifying positive recovery capital.

Policy & Procedure

This document for new courts and existing courts lays out the procedures for operation of the program.

Phase Requirements

This is a tool used to set expectations by explaining requirements for each phase of the program.

Virtual Reporting Form

This form is a tool to use while courts are meeting clients through virtual reporting.

Participant Handbook Guide

This guide provides the framework for creating a user-friendly, effective participant handbook.

Exit Interview

Interviewing participants when they leave the program can often provide valuable insight into effectiveness.

Memorandum of Understanding

These are written agreements with other agencies or organizations for services and coordination.

Treatment Court Passport

Help participants track their treatment milestones with this sample passport.

Client Referral Flow Chart

This chart shows how to get clients from arrest or probation violation to treatment court within 30 days.

Phase 1 Participant Handbook

Use this sample handbook to help guide participants through their first phase of treatment court.

Choosing an Evaluator

A guide and sample questions to ask when choosing an evaluator for your treatment court program.

Sample Case Planning Forms

This tool is designed to assist with developing case management plans and staffing.

Integrated Case Planning

Sample Staffing Sheet

Participant Reporting Forms

Adult Drug Court

Veterans Treatment Court

Sample weekly sheet

Phase Up Applications

New Staff Training Guide

Tribal Healing to Wellness Court

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Key Components of Drug Courts

One of the ways to achieve good results in the efforts against drug abuse is the use of drug courts. Drug courts are special court programs with the purpose of achieving a reduction in substance abuse and the increase of the likelihood of a successful rehabilitation program through early and intense treatment, community supervisions, mandatory periodic testing, and other rehabilitation services that a judicial officer supervises (Belenko, DeMatteo, & Patapis, 2002). Evaluation and research have shown that where the implementation of the drug courts is consistent with procedures based on objective studies, they offer a significant reduction in substance abuse, especially among high-risk offenders (Holloway, Bennett, & Farrington, 2006). In addition, they would increase the likelihood of a successful rehabilitation program. In doing this, the courts would reduce the cost of addressing these problems relative to the costs of the criminal justice system.

The drug courts have ten key components that enable them to work efficiently and achieve their goal of stopping drug abuse and other related criminal activity (U.S Department of Justice, 2004). The first component is the integration of drug treatment services with the justice system case processing. The treatment process is usually done in three phases to ensure the efficiency of the component – a stabilization phase, an intensive treatment phase, and a transition phase. The second element is the employment of a non-adversarial technique by prosecution and defense for them to uphold the safety of the public as well as shield the due process and rights of the participants. The third component is the identification of eligible participants early for placement in a drug court program. The procedure is to do an eligibility screening based on the established written criterion, advising the eligible participants about the program requirements and screening of the participants by trained professionals for a most suitable treatment program. The other mechanism is the provision of access to a variety of drugs, alcohol, including other rehabilitation services, repeated drug and alcohol testing to scrutinize self-denial, which is a harmonized tactic to oversee drug courts reactions. Additionally, there is the judicial interaction with the drug courts and participants that consists in the monitoring and evaluation of the achievements of the program goals to gauge its effectiveness. Finally, the remaining components are ensuring a continuous interdisciplinary education to promote effective drug court procedures and generating local support by partnering with public agencies and community-based organizations, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of the drug court programs (Moscher & Akins, 2014).

drug court phase up essay

Operation of Drug Courts and Their Effectiveness

On the local level, the operation of drug courts is aimed at diverting offenders with substance abuse problems from incarceration into the treatment programs that have rigorous standards of accountability. Drug courts offer their assistance to the participants, which enables them to recover from addiction and prevents them from engaging in future criminal activities while reducing the costs of processing low-level, non-violent offender cases through national courts, prisons, and jails (Mosher & Akins, 2014). According to Gottfredson, Najaka, and Kearley (2003), drug court participants obtain treatment as well as other services for not less than a period of one year. Court appearances are recurrent with random drug testing with incentives and sanctions to persuade successful compliance and completion of the program. When the participant completes the program, it may result in the dismissal of charges, reduced sentences, or lesser penalties. Reports have shown that drug courts have been effective in reducing drug use and recidivism, maintaining high retention rates in the program and cost-effectiveness (Gottfredson, Najaka, & Kearley, 2003). In addition, some reports term the programs as being able to reunite families, giving birth to drug-free babies, offering greater credibility for the criminal justice process and freeing up criminal justice resources to handle other serious cases (Holloway, Bennett, & Farrington, 2006).

How Various Resources Describe, Portray, and Represent Drug Courts

Various resources cover the topic of drug courts, which allows the readers to see how they describe, portray, and represent the courts. Some of these resources include government resources, political resources, newspaper resources, and opinion-based resources. Knowing the way these resources depict drug courts will assist in understanding their importance and the impacts that they have had on peoples lives. In addition, it will assist in knowing ways on how to improve on the programs that the drug courts offer.

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Government Resources

The government resources that cover the topic of drug courts mainly mention the definition of the drug courts while covering the ten key components of the courts. One such resource comes from the Drug Courts Resources Series from the United States Department of Justice titled Defining Drug Courts: The Key Components. The resource describes the ten key components of drug courts while elaborating the purpose and processes of each component. In addition, it lists various organizations that provide information and guidance about matters pertaining to drug courts. Examples of such organizations include Justice Management Institute, National Association of Drug Court Professionals, and State Justice Institute (U.S Department of Justice, 2004). The document portrays drug courts as an important tool in stopping alcohol and drug abuse as well as other related criminal activity.

Newspaper Resources

Another type of resource in consideration is newspaper resources. The topic of drug courts receives a wide coverage in various newspapers. An example of such resource is an article covered by the Daily Herald newspaper about a heroin addict who received a new life as the result of a drug court appearance. Among the people the article titled Drug Courts Give Heroin Addicts a Whole New Life talks about is a 19-year-old former heroin addict said that appearance at the drug court program gave her a whole new life (Cilella, 2015). According to the article, drug courts make the offenders get their life back together by giving them the necessary tools (Cilella, 2015). The drug court the article focuses on is the Kane County drug court. The sentence of the court lasts a minimum of 30 months and has three phases (Cilella, 2015). The first phase concentrates on allowing the participants to focus on their recovery. The second phase allows them to work on rebuilding their lives that they had lost because of their addiction. The third and final phase makes it possible for the participants to plan for their lives after they have finished their drug court programs. The article goes further to mention that drug courts result in reduced prison costs, reduced arrests, and the need for social services (Cilella, 2015).

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Another newspaper article that covers the topic of drug courts is the article on the stories of drug court graduates by the C & G Newspapers. The article titled Drug Court Graduates Share Stories of Struggle, Hopetalks about the struggles the participants faced before finishing the programs and having their normal lives back (Louwers, 2015). Some of the people who attended the program have been able to improve their lives by getting good jobs, attending support meetings, and managing to stay clean after the program. The articles mainly talk about the 37th District Court program. Among those who completed the program is Carl Brune, 27. The charges against him were possession of heroin and analogs (Louwers, 2015). After spending 18 months in the 37th District Courts program and later 13 months in a recovery house, he was able to get a good job and found the motivation to attend support meetings a few times a week (Louwers, 2015). Another participant, Georgette Aegerter, 28, was able to regain guardianship of her daughter after completing the program (Louwers, 2015). The article positively portrays drug courts as avenues that enable people who previously abused drugs to regain back their lives and have a healthy and productive lifestyle.

Opinion-Based Resources

The opinion-based resources also cover the topic of drug courts. An example of this type of resource an article by Michael Honda and Martin Sheen (2011) titled Why We Need more Drug Courts. In the article, the authors claim that drug courts should be at the center of the criminal justice reform process (Honda & Sheen, 2011). They give four reasons to support their opinion. First, that drug courts are extremely effective in reducing recidivism. Secondly, those drug courts serve a growing number of military veterans who have charges stemming from substance abuse. Third, drug courts courageously combat drug abuse across various states. Finally, the last reason is that drug courts have been able to offer a reduction in crime by up to 50% (Honda & Sheen, 2011). The authors conclude by saying that if the United States is serious about on lowering criminal justice costs, it should hold the line on drug court funding because the program can return up to $27 for an investment of $1 (Honda & Sheen, 2011). Further, the courts can continue treating addicted offenders and meet the growing needs of the people in the criminal justice system (Honda & Sheen, 2011).

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Based on the study of various resources, it is evident that drug courts have been able to provide essential services to non-violent offenders with alcohol and drug use problems. Eligible persons may go to the drug courts instead of justice system case processing. The courts keep individuals in treatment for not less than one year, thus enabling the programs to work. During the period, the participants remain under strict supervision. They participants receive intensive treatment and other services they require; they are accountable for meeting their obligations to the society, courts and family, undergo random and regular drug tests and receive rewards for doing well and sanctions if they do not meet their obligations. The drug courts serve a fraction of the people who have drug addiction problems. Breaking the cycle of drug abuse and its relation to criminal activities needs the establishment of a drug court within the reach of every person.

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Drug Courts Essay

drug court phase up essay

The Key Component Of Drug Courts

Not only do the eligibility requirements of drug courts vary across the board, but the way the programs operate and their outcomes vary considerably, especially when it comes down to how they choose to operationalize the ten key components (Carey & Waller, 2011; Mackin et. al, 2009). In 1997, the National Association of Drug Court Professionals published these key components. The first key component is that drug courts integrate alcohol and other drug treatment services with justice system case

Effectiveness Of Drug Treatment Courts

The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Courts: An Overview of Three Empirical Studies Tincen Vithayathil University of Baltimore The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Courts: Three Empirical Studies Since the origination of drug treatment courts, there has been countless numbers of offenders who have successfully completed the program and fought their way past drug abuse. There are also a handful of offenders who may have struggled to change their drug abuse or addiction, and fell short of

Drug Courts

Drug courts, and other recovery programs hold promise for retaining offenders involved with drugs in treatment services (SAMHSA, 2014, p.131-132). The first drug court formed in 1989 in Southern Florida. The change in the criminal justice system came when, tired of seeing the same offenders appear before the court under the same or similar charges. The group of professionals in Miami-Dade County combined drug treatment programs with criminal justice structure and authority of the judicial system

Essay on Juvenile Drug Courts

Drug Courts came about as a result of a backlogged court system and a steady, rapidly increasing prison population. Drug courts are a form of diversion that helps the offender through rehabilitation and the community through an increased sense of protection, which serves the best interest of everyone. Drug Courts are community based intermediate sanctions that incorporate treatment principles into the Criminal Justice System and divert drug offenders from traditional punishments of probation and

Drug Court Case Study

Since no drug court follow an uniform standard model, each state addressed the issue depending on their own jurisdiction model or code with slight variation of the six requirements under Morrissey (Oram & Gleckker, 2006). In State v. Cassill-Skilton (2004), Washington state statute authorized the creation of drug courts but failed to provide the provisions for operating the treatment program. The notice requirement became the center focus of the case where the defendant was admitted into a drug treatment

Drug And The Drug Court System Essay

“A drug court is a special court given responsibility to handle cases involving substance-abusing offenders through comprehensive supervision, drug testing, treatment services and immediate sanctions and incentives” (“what are drug courts?”). “These offenders have alcohol, drug addiction, and depending problems. Drug courts keep individuals in treatment long enough for it to work, while supervising them closely” (“what are drug courts?”). “In 1989, the first drug court was built in Miami-Dade County

Drug Addiction In Drug Courts

Research shows that as many as three-fourths of all Georgia inmates have drug or alcohol addiction. Should we continue to incarcerate these non-violent offenders or divert them away from the prison system and into special courts. I believe the drug courts will be a good addition to our sentencing system because it will free up law enforcement resources to fight violent crime. Georgia has been treating the symptoms of addicted and mentally ill prisoners, criminal behavior, rather than treating

Campus Drug Courts

include more intensive measures involving campus drug courts and the involvement of administrators, local police, and the judicial system. Dutmers delves into the legality of this issue and provides a new viewpoint by explaining that prevention programs should implement campus drug courts, instead of focusing prevention solely on educational methods. As this idea is new and innovative, most research is based off the success within state mandated drug courts. Nonetheless, campuses will too reap the benefits

Drug Courts Summary

This study on drug courts intends to systematically review quasi-experimental and experimental evaluations of the effectiveness of drug courts. With an emphasis on committing future crimes and continuous drug use. This report focused on the programs associated with the standard in the criminal justice system case processing. This review expresses the effects of recidivism in the long and short-term soundness with the current evidence along with the relationship reduction and effectiveness. Eligibility

Drug Court Model

types of drug courts as pretrial diversion, and post adjudication (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2015, p 132). Reading the section on drug courts one might conclude drug courts are the greatest thing since sliced bread. However, I attest this is not the truth. I have personally seen the effects of drug courts, and they simply do not work. Drug court is an example of Packer’s crime control model. Offenders are placed in drug court because of plea bargains. Sentencing an offender to drug court leaves the

Objective Drug Courts

The objective of drug courts is to impede the neglect of illegal drugs and alcohol related criminal wrongdoing. Additionally, drug courts encourage reclamation using a corresponding reaction to criminal violators reliant on alcohol and other illicit drugs. More importantly, apprehension of these objectives necessitates a group method, together with teamwork and support of the prosecutors, judges, probation officers, defense attorneys, and other correctional facilities staff, law enforcement agencies

Drug courts are specialised programs aimed at criminal offenders who suffer from drug and alcohol addiction (US Department of Justice, 2015, p.1). Drug courts improve offenders’ quality of life by decreasing substance dependency and improve mental wellbeing. Jane Lee, for the Age, explains people facing jail for drug and alcohol charges may be placed on a two-year treatment order, instead of serving jail time. The purpose of a drug court is to secure and maintain drug users in treatment, reduce

Drug Court Reflection

my local court house in Woodhaven Michigan. I was told that for legal reason I was unable to attend a actual drug court, but was able to sit in on a sobriety court. However I was able to talk to a probation officer and the manger to obtain information on drug court itself. In this short essay I will go over, what I learned in about drug court, what I have learn and observed in drug court, and well as what I have reached. Drug court was first started in 1989 in Miami, Florida. Drug court came about

Reflection Paper On Drug Court

I attended Drug Court held at the Dunklin County Justice Center in Kennett, Missouri. Court was scheduled for 9:00 a.m. on June 14, 2017. I contacted Julie Spielman who serves as the Drug Court Administrator ahead of time to inform her of the assignment and to find out when the next meeting was. She was very helpful in providing me with various options of dates and times of available court hearings. She gave me directions to follow once I arrived at the Justice Center. Julie made me feel comfortable

Evaluation Of A Juvenile Drug Court Program

study will be reviewed. The article is an evaluation of a Juvenile Drug Court Program in Lexington, Kentucky. The data that is coming from the Bureau of Justice suggests that juvenile courts process a higher volume of cases today than at any time in the past (Hayden, 2012) These statistics represent the trend in persistently high rates in use of illegal substances among adolescents in the United States and subsequent juvenile court involvement. [The purpose of this study was to examine these outcomes

Why Is Drug Court Effective

Drug Court is an example of drugs/alcohol intervention programs which monitors the movement of non-violent drug addicts in a well refined structured treatment programs to help them recover. I heard about drug court for the first time when we watched the movie in class. I think drug court gives drugs/alcohol offenders chances to redeem themselves by sending them to rehab and other services that will help make them better people within the period. Three reasons why I think drug courts are effective

Drug Court Acts As An Intervention Program

that will allow them to rejoin society. For the participants drug court acts as an intervention program. It functions by “addressing the problems associated with drugs use, learning skills to avoid relapse, increasing family involvement, and promoting accountability for offenders” (Goetz & Mitchell, 2006). Most drug courts follow a similar model. The defendants entered in the program can come in through diversion, mental health courts or after they accept a plea to their charge. First-time, non-violent

The Maryland Drug Court Has Failed

The Maryland drug court has failed yet another person and he is now headed to prison. This person is the love of my life and my three month old son 's father. It all started last Christmas. The day after Christmas his missed a urine test and was sent to jail for three weeks after informing his parole officer he was out of town. They told him “You are better off failing a urine test than to miss a test.” even though he submitted a test the very next day. He was the sole provider at the time because

Drug Court Cost Analysis

Drug courts are less costly than traditional courts when it comes to adjudication. The cost analyses of drug courts have not included the opportunity cost which contributes to the operational cost of the programs, such as wraparound services—rehabs, transitional living facilities, etc.—which may promote reductions in recidivism rates. Drug Court is a scarce and precious resource that should be used in a manner that maximizes its benefits and minimizes its costs to participants and society in general

Examples Of Drug Court Affectedness

Drug Court Affectedness Drug Courts are a disclaimer, they allow continuous and repeat drug offenders to waste the taxes payers money and the states time. While there are other matters that their time could be better spent on. Yet, drug courts continue to grow, with almost seventy-five up are up and running in almost ever state. The average amount enrolled in this failing course is ninety-thousand individuals! An in additional to an average of fifty to sixty new cases daily. Each case roughly costing

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Season preview: colonels look to get back on to…, season preview: lady redhounds look to repeat a…, living on purpose: the broad or the narrow way …, weather alert, special weather statement until mon 1:00 pm edt, drug court changed me.

Thank you for letting me have this opportunity to talk about Drug Court and how it has changed my life.

First, I would like to thank the people who have made it possible for me to be in Drug Court. Thank you, Judge Braden, for allowing me to enter into drug court and believing that I could complete this program. I now have a second chance of a new life.

I would like to thank Helen and Terry North for being my counselors during this time period. Both of them helped me through some ups and downs and made me see the light at the end of the tunnel. They made me realize that life has more meaning without the use of drugs.

Also, a special thanks to Tracy. Tracy was very patient with me and very understanding. Tracy never gives up on people who are in drug court. She had faith that I could and would complete the program. Among many things that Tracy did, she always told me to go to meetings, that they would help.

The meetings did help. They helped me to understand that I am not alone and that I can do better with my life.

Drug Court is not an easy program to complete for drug addicts; however, it is the most rewarding and life changing. It takes dedication and the willingness to want to be a better person. One of the responsibilities of drug court involved calling a telephone number to find out whether I was going to have a random drug test that day.

Since my completion of drug court, I still find myself calling that number to see if there is a drug test. This just proves that drug court taught me to be a responsible person.

During the process, I have been educated on what drug addiction is and how it affects not only me but also the effects it has on the people I love and who once loved me.

I say once loved because before I became a drug addict, I was loved by many of my family and friends. Once I became so involved in drugs, I let me family and true friends not matter. I was so determined to fulfill my “need” to get high that my last thought was anyone who truly cared about me.

Through drug court, I have had to attend counseling, AA/NA meetings. Going to group helped me realize that I am not alone in my battle. There were people who want to help drug addicts and are anxiously awaiting the opportunity to be given a chance to make a difference in someone’s life.

I decided I wanted to be a sober person. I wanted to have a relationship with my family, my children, my sisters and with God. I was open-minded in my journey and knew that although I would have challenges, in the end my worth as a person, as a mother, as a sister, as a child of God would be more rewarding than anything I have ever experienced.

When I was little, I was a girl with big expectations, as most of us are. I remember that I used to call my sister “Sissy.” We were so close. I was innocent, caring and loving. However, when I started using drugs and hanging out with a crowd of people who used drugs as well, my whole life changed.

I no longer had a relationship with my sister or my family. I was not close to anyone. At that time, I felt so rejected by family and true friends that I used drugs to try to compensate for the loneliness and hurt I felt. This program explained that my family and true friends did not let me down. I let them down.

I have changed thanks to Drug Court. I know now more than ever, people who you associate with have an influence on you, and they are a reflection on you and what you do. I also know that my family really didn’t want me around during my addiction life only because they want and know that life has more meaning than d rugs and alcohol leads us to believe. Drug Court has allowed me to have a relationship with my sister who believed that I could become a better person and who has been there for me during my stages in Drug Court.

Most of all, I would like to thank God. God is the foundation of my strength. I pray every day, and God has answered my prayers of me being a better person.

Drug Court has changed me. Once in the program, I became educated, focused and responsible without the use of the drug. I have regained relationships with my family and friends.

I am a better and changed person. I am so thankful for this second chance at life.

Bobbie Brown

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Drug Courts

“Drug Courts”

A· Steven Belenko, Jeffrey A. Fagan & Tamara Dumanovsky [200] The Effects of Legal Sanctions on Recidivism in Special Drug Courts, Justice System Journal

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Drug Court Essay

drug court phase up essay

Show More Are drug courts the most effective way of treating drug-addicted people? A drug court is a treatment based alternative to youth detention facilities, prisons, jails, and probation. These courts make use of drug testing, immediate sanctions, and treatment services. The criminal justice system works with treatment systems to provide an offender with proper tools to recover and maintain a crime -free life. Drug courts reduce crime and drug use, save money, restore lives, and reunite families. Drugs courts were first demonstrated in 1989 in Dade County, Florida. According to Weimer (2012), “Federal grants, favorable state policies, and information provided by a variety of nonprofit organizations contributed to the spread of drug courts to over …show more content… They are provided with treatment to get and stay clean and sober. They are held accountable by the drug court judge for meeting the obligations to the court, giving them a sense of responsibility. Regular and random drug testing is given. Offenders are required to appear in court frequently so the judge can evaluate their progress. They are rewarded for doing well or sanctioned when they don’t live up to their responsibilities. Drug courts are intended to break the link between substance abuse and criminal behavior. Drug courts require cooperation from the members of the courtroom as well as probation officers and those who provide the treatment services. Drug courts help the offenders change their life to stop criminal activity rather than focusing only on punishment. Putting a person under punishment can push them to act out more. According to NADCP (2015), “Drug courts keeping drug addicted offenders out of jail and in treatment has proven to reduce drug abuse and crime while saving money.” They significantly reduce drug use and crime and are more cost effective than other criminal justice …show more content… The cost savings drug courts produce per client reduce prison costs, reduce arrests and trials, and reduce victimization. In 2007, $9.00 was leveraged in state funding for every federal dollar invested in drug courts. Drug courts help provide consistent responses to drug offenses among the judiciary, which increases the cost effectiveness of drug treatment programs. If offenders are not supervised regularly by a judge and held accountable then 70% of offenders drop out of treatment early. Drug courts provide closer supervision than other community based supervision programs. Providing closer attention to offenders helps them with recovering and maintaining their health. Drug courts are more likely to keep offenders in treatment long enough for them to get better. Offenders who have children are twice as likely to go to treatment and complete it. Children who have parents in treatment spend less time in out of home placements. Rates are 50% higher for family reuniting for family drug court participants. An individual who has an addiction commits about 63 crimes a year. That number could be reduced to 10 crimes a year for someone who is in or has completed treatment. Multiplying that number by all the defenders in a state, a drug court could prevent more than 1,000 crimes a year (Gebelin, 2000, p.

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The type of offender that would be affected by my change in criminal justice policy would be nonviolent drug offenders. It's important to note that the nonviolent drug offenders would only be drug users, not dealers. The proposed policy decriminalizes drug use and instead would impose fines and a probationary period for violators. By decriminalizing drug use, real change may occur. Instead of throwing addicts in jail, there will be a greater emphasis on rehabilitation.…

The Consequences Of Drug Addiction

Doing this creates an image of these addicts as victim of their demise towards the drug. Also this expand the needed coverage for addiction by insurance to get the help they need. And putting this out to the public that drug addiction is a disease may push politician to provide more funding for treatment. Furthermore, the public negative view on addict would lighten up a bit, providing a more positive environment where addicts are more likely to get help. Research-Based Programs have shown to have produce positive results, such as ‘‘NIDA’s Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide for Parents, Educators, and Community Leaders’’, even though those are provide to the youth (‘‘Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction,’’2014, p.83).…

The Importance Of Rehab

Some believe that rehab does not work or that jail already teaches enough lessons to convicts. However, rehab can be an important part in preventing crime as it can reduce the use of drugs, which are a typical cause of illegal acts ranging from drug possessions to…

Mass Incarceration Analysis

Span also helps their clients who need health and/or mental health care, substance abuse treatment, education or work and other critical services by assisting clients to access collaborating providers (3). By assisting our clients to avoid returning to criminal behavior, we make our communities safer and provide a fiscally responsible alternative to repeated incarceration. Span 's average annual cost to help one client stay on a path of self-sufficiency and out of prison is $4,000, compared to the $46,000 annual cost to incarcerate one Massachusetts state inmate. (4) We believe that breaking the cycles of addiction, unemployment, crime, and imprisonment benefits everyone - victims, offenders, families, and…

Drug Court Research Paper

Some of which are to provide an alternative to incarceration for offenders that committed crimes that are drug related. Also, they would like to reduce criminal justice costs by reducing addiction and street crime. Furthermore, they want to provide incentives for defendants as motivators to not only participate in the program but for them to complete the program. The treatment program is successful in achieving the goals that are set because they provide their participants with a certificate after completing the first 90 days of the program. Providing the participant with a reward shows that their efforts are not going unnoticed.…

Alternatives To Incarceration Essay

Restorative justice is another suitable alternative to incarceration that that Corrections Corporation of America can implement. Restorative justice is a form of punishment that entails holistic sentencing (FAMM, 2011). The main idea behind restorative justice is to bring healing to all individuals impacted by the act. In dealing with drug related offences, offenders should first undergo a mandatory therapy program or counselling. Those who fail to complete the program successfully should face severe punishment such as imprisonment for a particular period.…

The Abuse Of Illegal Drugs Should Be Treated As A Matter Of Public Health

The negative will now prove the treating of abuse of illigal drugs should be a matter of criminal justice because first of all the absense of punishment will lead to an idea of acceptance among drug users. Secondly, locking up drug abusers is an effective way to keep them from harming civilians. Thirdly, the only way a drug abuser can quit is only if they want help and want change themselves. This issue adresses not only the U.S but also the rest of the world The legalization of drugs will lead to an idea that since its legal everyone should do it. It will increase in use not only in adults but also in youths, according to Former New York City Mayor Ed Koch.…

Case Study: Drug Courts

Drug courts constitute a clear example of an integrated public health and safety strategy that has shown promise for reducing drug use and recidivism rates. Drug courts are separate criminal courts providing supervised treatment for drug offenders as an alternative to incarceration. Drug courts provide offenders with intensive court supervision, mandatory drug testing, and substance abuse treatment. Successful completion of the program allows the offender to avoid incarceration, have their criminal charges reduced or dismissed, or have their sentences reduced. Those found not in compliance with the program rules typically receive a criminal drug conviction and may be sentenced to incarceration.…

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Drug Courts on Drug Abuse

The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007). The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003). In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is…

Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010

from www.courtinnovation.org/_.../state%20of%20dc%20research.pdf

Belenko, S. (2001). Research on drug courts: A critical review 2001 update. National Drug Court

Institute Review, 4, 1 -- 60 www.20.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/2001drugcourts.pdf

Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…

Bibliography

Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.

Green County Drug Court the Green County

Green County Drug Court The Green County court system has finally decided to implement a "drug court" to bring about some much-needed changes in the current system. The county has authorized a new judge and is debating the merits whether that individual should be elected or appointed. The court is also considering the questions of whether it should operate on a due process model or a crime control model and whether juveniles should be adjudicated. Green County elects its judges, but in this instance it is recommended that the drug court judge be appointed. The primary reason is expedience. Political campaigns, in addition to being costly in terms of money, are costly in terms of time. Green County needs to address its drug problem immediately and can do so by appointing a judge. Election campaigns can also take the focus away from an issue. The recent brouhaha over President Obama's…

Gruenewald, P.J., Johnson, K., Shamblem, S.R., Ogilvie, K.A., and Collins, D. (2009).

Reducing adolescent use of harmful legal products: Intermediate effects of a community prevention intervention. Substance Use & Misuse 44(14), pp. 2080-2098.

Juvenile Drug Courts

Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…

Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.

Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from   https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf  

Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from   https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf  

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from   http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf

Drug Legalization as the Country

"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248() Socio-economic effects Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.

Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.

Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .

Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization

Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs. From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…

Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.

Drug Sentencing in the U S Criminal Justice

Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration. (1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses? (2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs? (3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws? Significance of the Study The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study. Methodology The…

Clickman, Rubin (2011) Sentencing Guidelines in the American Justice System. FindLaw. Retrieved from: http://knowledgebase.findlaw.com/kb/2010/Nov/203582.html

Kansal, T. And Mauer, M. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. JANUARY 2005. Retrieved from:   http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/disparity.pdf  

Stevens, John Paul CJ (2011) Our Broken System of Criminal Justice. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from:   http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/nov/10/our-broken-system-criminal-justice/?pagination=false

Drug-Related Crime Many People Who

One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs. Reurer 170) orks Cited Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14. Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19. Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004. Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…

Works Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.

Drug Policies Major Policies History

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14). By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24). Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at   http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm  .

Drug Enforcement of the U S

All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently. 1. PBS (2009). The Border Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/ 2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet. Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html 3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…

6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.

Last accessed March 2010:   http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/  

  http://articles.sfgate.com/2007-01-28/news/17227058_1_san-diego-tijuana-border-initiative-crossings-at-san-ysidro-drug-trade

Court Services Management

Court Service Management How does a court system cope with a changing of the guard when a new administration is elected and key executives and managers are replaced, and/or when policy changes direction as a new political party assumes power? The court deals with transitions of power by maintaining the established traditions and principles from the Constitution. This is used to ensure that case precedent is respected and to provide stability for the entire political system. As the basic guarantees of the Constitution will not change and cannot be adjusted based upon a new party coming to power. In this case, the structure and attitudes will remain the same. This is from the institution and its practices remaining in place. egardless of what is happening with transitions in power. (Koopmans, 2003) (Neubauer, 2012) (Oakley, 2009) However, the courts will be impacted by these changes to a certain extent. This will…

Glannon, J. (2008). Civil Procedures. Frederick, MD: Kluwer Law.

Howard, J. (1999). The Shifting Wind. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Koopmans, T. (2003). Courts and Political Institutions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lane, S. (2012). Highway 420. Staten Island, NY: Sandi Lane.

Drug Use the Courage to

The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs. For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…

Effects of Drugs on the Economy

Drugs on the Economy History of drugs in the United States How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…

References List

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern

History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html

Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from   http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html

Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment. Social issue: Drug abuse The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…

Works cited:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)

Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes. This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles. Introduction With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Southwestern Border Combating Drug Trade

Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…

Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.

BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from   http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm  

Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.

Drug Tysabri That Was Tested

According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained. 3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge. From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…

Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from   http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/  

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from   http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3  

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from   http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of  - drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from   http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html

Drug Trade The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade can also be placed in a broader social, political, and economic context. The international drug trade is a thriving black market industry. Its commodities are not exchanged on the New York Stock Exchange but in shady deals on darkened shipping docks. The international drug trade is, however, a lucrative industry, and its participants reap definite financial benefits. The drug trade impacts the legitimate global economy by diverting funds towards policing, court costs, and other punitive procedures. Border patrols and other preventative measures also cost taxpayer money that could be diverted elsewhere. Moreover, the thriving drug industry means that impoverished people are willing to risk the concurrent dangers associated with the trade in order to reap higher wages. For example, Afghani farmers…

'Drug Programme." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/undcp.html

Yamane, Maki. "The Drug Trade." 18 Feb 1997. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from   http://www.chez.com/bibelec/publications/international/drugtrade.htm

Court Proceeding

Criminal Court Observation I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a criminal one. However, I thought that a criminal case would be far more interesting than a civil one. Yet, despite my decision, and my belief that it would be "no big deal" to watch a criminal court case, I began to feel very nervous the minute I hit the line for the metal detector. It's funny -- but I always feel just a little bit paranoid before I go through one of those machines -- almost as if I really were hiding some kind of weapon without knowing it. Anyway, as I finally made my way into the courtroom after a long wait at security, I certainly did not feel any more at ease. For one, the room was too warm,…

American Drug Policy

Drug Policy American Drug Policy: Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.

Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.

Supreme Court of U S Has

From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive. As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…

MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.

Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.

Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.

Gambino Drug Family Their Entire Drig Business

Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family. National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…

Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from   http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html  

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from   http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf  

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from   http://criminal.findlaw.com  /crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html

Juvenile Drug Abusers

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders. Prevention Programs: Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs. Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at   http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf  .

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at   http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html  .

Relationships Between Alcohol Drugs and Domestic Violence

Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…

Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.

Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.

Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence

In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse

That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams). It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli). Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…

Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006   http://proquest.umi.com  .

An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006   http://find.galegroup.com  .

Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006

Legalization of Drugs Ever Since

He argues that 15 million Americans used drugs over and over again last year, but very few harms were actually produced. To punish all 15 million users for the few harms is unfair, but again he does say that. He also argues that racial inequalities make the system unfair. Minorities are no more likely to use drugs, but they are far more likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted, and minority communities are devastated because of this selective enforcement. He finally takes a stand and admits Americans should be outraged by this. The author effectively refutes arguments that drug use would soar if it were decriminalized. The price of drugs would not go down, he claims, even if it became legal to sell them. Taxes would take care of that. Lawsuits would be allowed against producers for harmful effects. To remain in business, drug producers would have to pay the…

Goldberg, Raymond (Ed.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Drugs and Society, 7th edition.

New York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.

Husak, Douglas. "Drug Legalization," Criminal Justice Ethics, (Winter/Spring, 2003), 21-29.

Legalization of Drugs Laws Against

Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea. ibliography 10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:   http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm  

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:   http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/druguse/  

Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:   http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm

Punitive Drug Prohibition

Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…

Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html

McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004.   http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html  

Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site:   http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html  

Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html

Criminal Justice Agency Administration Drug

" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22) The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005. Sources…

DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at   http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm  

Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at   http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html  

The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.

Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at   http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm

Domestic Violence & Drugs Use With Latina Parents

CPS Intervention The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive. Analysis The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…

Edwards, B., & Addae, R. (2015). Ethical decision-making models in resolving ethical dilemmas in rural practice: Implications for social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics, 12(1), 88-92.

Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2009). Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Among

Latinos. Journal Of Ethnicity In Substance Abuse, 8(3), 242-260.

doi:10.1080/15332640903110435

Minor's Constitutional Rights Courts Have Recognized Some

Minor's Constitutional Rights courts have recognized some Constitutional rights for students attending public schools that school officials need to be aware of. Even though, school officials have been given the right to control student conduct on school grounds, school officials can cross the line when it comes to student rights. The Supreme Court case Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding (2009) is a prime example of school officials crossing the line concerning violation of a student's Constitutional rights when the Arizona middle school had strip searched 13-year-old Savana Redding under suspicion she was hiding ibuprophen pills in her underwear (arnes 2009). The fact was another student had been found with prescription strength ibuprophen and told the Assistant Principal she received it from Redding. After being pulled into the office by the Assistant Principal, Redding had consented to a search of her backpack and outer clothing. When the search found…

Barnes, P. 2009. Supreme Court Rules Strip Search Violated 13-Year-old Girl's Rights. June 26. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.   http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/25/AR2009062501690.html  .

Bravin, J. 2009. Court Faults Strip-Search of Student. June 26. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.   http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124593034315253301.html  .

Liptak, A. 2009. Strip Search of Girl Tests Limits of School Policy. Mar 23. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.   http://www.nytimes.com  /2009/03/24/us/24savana.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

Criminal Justice Supreme Court Decisions

The plaintiffs were disabled Tennesseans who could not access the upper floors in state courthouses. They sued in Federal Court, arguing that since Tennessee was disallowing them public services for the reason that their disabilities, it was infringing Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Tennessee argued that the Eleventh Amendment banned the suit, and filed a motion to dismiss the case. It relied chiefly on Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett (2001), in which the Supreme Court held that Congress had, in endorsing certain provisions of the ADA, unconstitutionally repealed the supreme immunity of the States by letting people sue the States for discrimination on the foundation of disability. Garrett had held that Congress had not met the congruent-and-proportional test, in that it had not collected enough proof of discrimination on the basis of disability to give good reason for the repeal of…

GONZALES V. OREGON (04-623) 546 U.S. 243 (2006) 368 F.3d 1118. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site:   http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-623.ZS.html  

TENNESSEE V. LANE (02-1667) 541 U.S. 509 (2004) 315 F.3d 680. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site:   http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/02-1667.ZS.html

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental Drugs

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access. Experimental Drugs Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:   http://books.google.com/books?id=_14H7MOw1o4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s  

Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from:   http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21516-new-cancer-drug-sabotages-tumours-escape-route.html  

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:

Nklenske Courts the Dual Court

More people are currently incarcerated than at any other time. In fact, prisons are so over crowded that it is now common practice for judges to simply use deferred sentences and probation as a means of sentencing. Further, the costs of housing so many criminals is one that many states simply cannot afford. As a result, much of the prison industry is being outsourced to private corporations. The net effect of the incarceration boom is two fold. First, there's the lack of meaningful punishment, or justice, due to the fact that there is not enough room in the jails and not enough money in the budgets to build more space. The result: criminals are given less severe sentences and, in many cases, remain a threat to the public. Further, there is no deterrence factor when one knows that the worse they will get for a relatively small crime is a…

Bohm, Robert M., Keith N. Haley. Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Origins of the Federal Judiciary. Maeva Marcus (editor). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Turrow, Scott. Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer's Reflection on Dealing with the Death Penalty. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2004.

United States Constitution: First Amendment. www.findlaw.com,2007.

Generic vs Name Brand Drugs

309). The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these expenses. In this regard, Greene emphasizes that, "Whereas the pioneer drug manufacturer must incur great expense and undergo rigorous scrutiny when it files an new drug application (NDA) to secure FDA approval, a generic manufacturer may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in which it may take advantage of the NDA holder's time and expense" (2005, p. 310). The impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act on generic drug availability has been enormous. For instance, in 1984, generic drug prescriptions represented less than 20% of all prescription drugs marketed in the United States; however, due in large part to the Hatch-Waxman Act, by 1996, the market share for generic drugs had increased to 43% and by 2006, as many as 63% of…

Abramson, R.G., Harrington, C.A., Missmar, R., Li, S.P. & Mendelson, D.N. (2004). Generic

drug cost containment in Medicaid: Lessons from five state MAC programs. Health Care

Financing Review, 25(3), 25-26.

Buehler, G. (2002, September-October). Generic drugs: What you need to know. FDA

Prescription Drugs and the Health

The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises. eferences Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006. etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636 Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…

Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke Risk could last for Years. 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at   http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html  

Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.

Retrieved June 1,2007, at   http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous  

Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. Retrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx

Role of the FDA with prescription drugs

Pharmacy Ethics The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…

Business Ethics in Drug Companies

Office Memo Sub: comment on John's claim as a whistle blower against PharmaCAE and the ethical and legal implications of the case As a member of Dewey, Chetum, and Howe you asked me to find out suitable ethical and legal implications that John's case could bring for the firm and for John himself. Detailed in the report are the issues regarding: The Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety in relation to PharmaCAE Business ethics can be defined as the art, system, method and the discipline that is applied to along with ethical principles to solve complex business issues and dilemmas. It defines the actions that are taken that tries to reach a balance between the organization achieving its business and economic obligations and social obligations (Moon, 2001). One of the ethics that is applicable in this case is related to the advertisement…

Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from   http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.56  

Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from

Determining Whether to Use Drug Evidence

Motion to Suppress Drug Evidence in a Case During a regular traffic police check, a criminal defendant was stopped by law enforcement personnel after he was observed speeding. A computer check indicated that the criminal defendant had an outstanding misdemeanor warrant for his arrest. While being arrested, a marijuana joint fell from his pocket and prompted the police officer to search his car. The law enforcement officer found additional illegal drugs following the search on the defendant's car. The warrant information regarding the outstanding misdemeanor was eventually found to be incorrect in the computer system and subsequently dismissed. The criminal defendant has now filed a motion to suppress the drug evidence. As a state court judge, the determination on this motion to suppress the drug evidence requires an analysis of the case facts and legal provisions relating to the issue. When the police stop a criminal defendant for an illegal…

"State v. Bradshaw." (n.d.). Find Law -- for Legal Professionals. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from   http://caselaw.findlaw.com/mo-court-of-appeals/1353431.html  

"What Does the Fourth Amendment Mean?" (n.d.). United States Courts. Retrieved from Administrative Office of the United States Courts website:   http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/what-does-0

Confidentiality Breaches & Informed Consent when Testing New Drugs

Confidentiality Breaches in Clinical Practice The confidentiality and privacy of patients are considered as one of the fundamental freedoms that they should enjoy and are safeguarded under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA). It is also a precept of the American Medical Association’s Code of Ethics and the Hippocratic Oath. The breach of confidentiality is unethical and illegal. Medical professionals are under the obligation of protecting the patient’s confidentiality. Confidentiality and privacy prohibit medical providers from unlawful disclosure of the patient’s information. Some of the inappropriate disclosures include discussing a patient’s case in the elevators or corridors, giving out extra copies of handouts from conferences while they contain identifiable patients’ details and any other possible leakage of information to unauthorized individuals (Beltran-Aroca et al. 52). In clinical practice, the patients’ confidentiality can be breached due to indiscretion, carelessness, and sometimes malice. Medical practitioners are obligated legally and…

Heard in the U S Supreme Court --

heard in the U.S. Supreme Court -- ashington v. Harper -- will be the focus of the first part of this paper. The second part reviews prison conditions in Texas. ashington v. Harper -- Part One This was a case resulting from the unstable mental condition of alter Harper, who has been incarcerated in the ashington state prison system since a robbery conviction in 1976. Harper has been administered antipsychotic drugs for years because of his psychiatric condition; when he does not take his medication his condition worsens, and he becomes violent, according to Justia.com, the U.S. Supreme Court Center for public information. On occasion Harper has become violently out of control in prison and as a result has been transferred to the Special Offender Center (SOC). hile at the SOC (a facility for inmates with "serious mental illness") Harper was required to take the drugs "against his will." He…

Fernandez, Manny. (2012). Two Lawsuits Challenge the Lack of Air-conditioning in Texas

Prisons. The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from   http://www.nytimes.com  .

Michaels, Martin. (2012). Poorly Maintained Facilities, Scorching Heat Lead to Deaths in Texas Prisons. Mint Press. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from   http://www.mintpress.net  .

Turner, Allan. (2012). Behind Bars, Braille's dots fulfill prison inmates, aid the blind. The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from   http://www.houstonchronicle.com  .

Gender Bias in the U S Court System

Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System Statistics regarding male and female criminality Types of cases involving women and men Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities Feminists say women should get less jail time Number of women vs. men arrested omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time Death penalty cases 10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women Leniency of juries on women defendants Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children omen are always given less punishment than men in this area Reaction of judges towards female defendants Male judges Female judges Body a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators Body Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators Conclusion In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…

Works Cited:

Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from   http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568  

Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice

Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.

Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.

How Same-Sex Marriage Decision of Supreme Court Has Impacted Lives

United States Supreme Court ruling on same sex marriage. The paper also examines how that decision impacted management policy decisions in terms of public safety administration. An examination of the ruling's overall impact on public policy is also given. eactions on the ruling are given in the end. Background knowledge on same sex marriage For the majority of Americans, the matter of same sex marriage may have first come to their knowledge when it burst into the political limelight in late 2003. At this time, Massachusetts' highest court ruled that the state had no authority or grounds on which to deny lesbian and gay couples the right to marriage. In the next few months after the ruling in the state same sex marriage ceremonies were conducted in many counties and cities across the United States (U.S.) including mass weddings in the city of San Francisco. This brought a lot of…

Archibald, C. (2014). Is Full Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples Next? The Immediate and Future Impact of the Supreme Court's Decisions in United States v. Windsor. Valparaiso University Law Review, 48(3), 695-713. Retrieved, from   http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2341&context=vu  

Brewer, P., & Wilcox, C. (2005). Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(4), 599-616. Retrieved, from   http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/4/599  

Bruggeman, K. (2015, June 26). NationalJournal.com. Watch These Two GOP Presidential Candidates After the Supreme Court's Gay Marriage Decision - NationalJournal.com. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from   http://www.nationaljournal.com/2016-elections/supreme-court-gay-marriage-republican-presidential-jindal-kasich-20150625  

Flores, A. (2015). Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 79(2), 580-593. Retrieved, from   http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/2/580.abstract

Mental Health Court Study the

Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all. System Flow The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)." Status Hearings The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress. Also,…

Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).

Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).

Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).

Michigan vs Tyler the Supreme Court Decided

Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view" This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days. I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…

1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21

2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at   http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html  

3. Expert Law. On the Internet at   http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16  

4. http://www.health.org/nongovpubs/bac-chart/

Community-Based Corrections Description A Court-Ordered Sanction That

Community-Based Corrections Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org) Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…

Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from   http://criminal.findlaw.com  .

Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from   http://www.pwcgov.org  .

U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from   http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html  .

U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from   http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov  .

Mccourt Is in Session Again Court Is

McCourt" Is in Session Again Court is just another day in the life of the McDonald's Corporation as they have spent a good portion of their time in court since 1990. The purpose of this paper is to explore the "McLibel" case in its' different aspects as well as examining the "Super-Size-Me" issue made controversial by the movie entitled just that, "Super-Size-Me. Further, to examine the issues that Australia is presently handling in the educational system in relation to the McDonald's Corporation. Finally to compare and contrast all of these cases or in their various attributes either the same or different. According to a report from AC Newsnet Online, one-thirds of Australians are either overweight or obese. The plan for a ban on advertising of junk food during children television hours is expected from the Government as a strategic effort in reducing childhood obesity. According to the report at least…

Bibliography Continued:

"Super Size Me: Eating McDonald's, Making Millions" (2004) CNN News Report [Online] available at: http://cnn.entertainment.printthis .clickability.com/pt/cpt? action=cpt& title=CNN.com+-+Eating+McDonald%27s%2C+making+millions+-+Jun+9%2C+2004& expire=06%2F23%2F2004& urlID=10707525& fb=Y& url=http

%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2F2004%2FSHOWBIZ%2FMovies%2F06%2F09%

Ffilm.spurlock.reut%2F& partnerID=2010

Tober, Bruce (2004) "McDonalds Breaks Agreement in McLibel Suit" Albion Monitor [Online] available online at: http://www.monitor.net/monitor/9-2-95/McLibel.html

America Has Been Involved in a War

America has been involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the negative social impacts that they have on society. As public officials, want to limit those substances that are considered to be addictive or dangerous. This has led to increased efforts to enact and enforce laws, with the federal government spending $1 trillion in 40 years. ("After 40 Years," 2010) However, the problem is that during the process of achieving these goals, the criminal justice system is becoming overwhelmed with the large numbers of dealers and addicts. In most situations, the courts will often try to plea bargain the majority of these cases to deal with the backlog. At which point, the system will become full of another round of dealers and users. Once this begins to occur, it means that this repeating cycle will lead to overcrowding in many prisons and…

After 40 Years. (2010). Fox News. Retrieved from:   http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/05/13/ap-impact-years-trillion-war-drugs-failed-meet-goals/  

Huddleston, C. (2008). Painting the Current Picture. Washington DC: National Drug Council Institute.

The National Association of Drug Court Professionals Drug Court Standards Committee. (1997). Defining Drug Courts: Ten Key Components. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ngo, F. (2006). An Evaluation of Drug Courts. University of South Florida. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasota.usf.edu/Academics/CAS/Capstone/2009-2010/Criminology/Albritton%20-%20An%20Evaluation%20of%20Drug%20Courts.pdf

Narcoterrorism and the Future

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.

Driving While Impaired The Writer

One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999). The study looked at those who had been arrested and convicted of drunk driving in which an accident occurred. It examined those who had been rearrested after being in attendance for a victim impact statement program and compared them to those who had been rearrested but had never been exposed to a victim impact statement program. The study concluded that those who had been exposed to a victim impact statement with regard to their offense had a lower rearrest rate than those who had not heard victim impact statements. The study examined the results of those who did not receive victim impact statements and found that legal punishment was often the only consequence of driving while under the influence (ojek, 1999). By contrast, VIPs address the emotional component of the DUI…

BADOVINAC, K. (1994)The effects of victim impact panels on attitudes and intentions regarding impaired driving. J. Alcohol Drug Educ. 39 (3): 113-118, 1994.

BRAITHWAITE,(1989) J. Crime, Shame and Reintegration, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.

FORS, S. AND ROJEK, D. (1997) DUI offenders' reactions to a required victim impact panel intervention, Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1997, unpublished report.

Mejeur, Jeanne (2003) Still driving drunk: strict drunk driving laws don't do much good unless they are vigorously enforced. From: State Legislatures

Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Crime In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well. When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:   http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp  

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.

Government - Federal Policy National

Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004). III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…

Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)

Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at   http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html

Marijuana Use

Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy. When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…

Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy

Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union:   http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana  

Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from   http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000242  

State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures:   http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx

Against Increasing Funding for Prison-Based

The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…

The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf

Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at   http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm  

Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at   http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf  

Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at   http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html

African-American Males and the Correlation

In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer. Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301. Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72. Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…

The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578  

Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).

African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse

Nation Is One With Finite

However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail entirely to grasp drug problems as a real medical issue and therefore throw out medical treatment over punitive punishment, (Nadelmann 2007). Not to mention many of these programs go only so far, failing to provide the support and structure many drug addicts need in order to get themselves clean. Much research has shown that more intensive inpatient programs prove more successful than less regulation programs (McKay et al. 1997). herefore, ineffective drug treatment programs within prison walls are failing to truly encapsulate the addict as a means of supporting their efforts to get clean. One other major solution that is currently being used in many states is the enactment of a drug court to handle specific drug cases. his court can…

This piece shows both favoritism and opposition for mandatory minimum jail sentencing for drug offenders, however does so not from the viewpoint of looking at addiction as a disease, but rather as a limitation on judicial discretion. While many are supportive of minimum sentencing requirements based on the idea that it is the most powerful weapon against the current war on drugs, others believe it to be restricting when looking at individual cases. Overall, many believe that it should be up to the individual judge and the individual case circumstance which determines the nature of punitive punishment in U.S. courts.

Washington Post. (1994). Low-level drug offenders fill one-fifth of prison space. Washington Post. February 5, 1994.

Astounding numbers of drug offenders fill our nation's prisons. This article uses statistics from the 1990s, an era of a crack epidemic, to show exactly how filled the prison system is with low-level and nonviolent addicts who essentially need medical treatment and not prison time.

Substance Abuse Treatment in Community

Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections A one of the newest developments in research literature that has gained much trend and acceptance in the recent past is the idea which postulates that substance abuse treatment is more effective when competent issues such as culture and gender-specific considerations are taken into account. VanderWaal et. al (2001), for instance, argues that consideration of ethnicity and culture is vital for the treatment of young addicts or offenders. Juvenile drug courts are also considering the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of the young offenders for the effective rehabilitation and treatments (Drug Court Clearinghouse, 1997) As a matter of tradition, gender-based issues were never considered in the juvenile justice system, and female juveniles were meant to fit into the programs that were meant for the delinquent boy-child. This was revised after some research indicated that the girls were more difficult to work with than the delinquent…

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Research Paper

Sports - Drugs

The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on…

Business - Law

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and…

Green County Drug Court The Green County court system has finally decided to implement a "drug court" to bring about some much-needed changes in the current system. The county…

Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising…

"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of…

Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance…

Capstone Project

Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal…

One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers,…

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category…

All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person…

Court Service Management How does a court system cope with a changing of the guard when a new administration is elected and key executives and managers are replaced, and/or…

The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make…

Drugs on the Economy History of drugs in the United States How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand…

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.…

Criminal Justice

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many…

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will…

Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious…

According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it…

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can…

Drug Trade The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade…

Criminal Court Observation I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a…

Drug Policy American Drug Policy: Marijuana Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United…

From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the…

Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the…

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of…

Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating…

That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams). It is estimated…

He argues that 15 million Americans used drugs over and over again last year, but very few harms were actually produced. To punish all 15 million users for the…

Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like…

Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition…

" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22) The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its…

CPS Intervention The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described…

Minor's Constitutional Rights courts have recognized some Constitutional rights for students attending public schools that school officials need to be aware of. Even though, school officials have been given…

The plaintiffs were disabled Tennesseans who could not access the upper floors in state courthouses. They sued in Federal Court, arguing that since Tennessee was disallowing them public services…

Business - Ethics

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There…

More people are currently incarcerated than at any other time. In fact, prisons are so over crowded that it is now common practice for judges to simply use deferred…

309). The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these…

The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily…

Pharmacy Ethics The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As…

Office Memo Sub: comment on John's claim as a whistle blower against PharmaCAE and the ethical and legal implications of the case As a member of Dewey, Chetum, and…

Motion to Suppress Drug Evidence in a Case During a regular traffic police check, a criminal defendant was stopped by law enforcement personnel after he was observed speeding. A…

Confidentiality Breaches in Clinical Practice The confidentiality and privacy of patients are considered as one of the fundamental freedoms that they should enjoy and are safeguarded under Health Insurance…

heard in the U.S. Supreme Court -- ashington v. Harper -- will be the focus of the first part of this paper. The second part reviews prison conditions in…

Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System Statistics regarding male and female criminality Types of cases involving women and men Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities Feminists…

Women's Issues - Sexuality

United States Supreme Court ruling on same sex marriage. The paper also examines how that decision impacted management policy decisions in terms of public safety administration. An examination of…

Article Critique

Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all. System Flow The study found…

Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis…

Community-Based Corrections Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail…

Communication - Journalism

McCourt" Is in Session Again Court is just another day in the life of the McDonald's Corporation as they have spent a good portion of their time in court…

America has been involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the negative social impacts that they have on society. As public…

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control…

One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999). The study looked at those who had been arrested and…

Article Review

Crime In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward.…

Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue…

Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety…

The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore,…

In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York,…

However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail…

Literature Review

Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections A one of the newest developments in research literature that has gained much trend and acceptance in the recent past is the idea…

Last Updated 21 Apr 2020

Drug Courts

The drug court is a unique effort that uses the occasion of a drug offence arrest as an intervention opportunity for drug offenders even though historical problems in criminal justice diversion and referral programs the Dade County success rates have shown that these problems can be overcome through unique collaborative relationships, innovative treatment design, and the elimination of conventional gaps in the referral- treatment-monitoring process.

It is the purpose of this paper to explore the concept that drug courts are a far more effective method of punishment for drug offenders than the traditional route of incarceration. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 provided a potential one billions dollars for the subsequent five years to set up drug courts.

As jurisdictions move forward in the establishment of such courts, it is essential to consider the conceptual and clinical elements that have made drug courts successful in drug rehabilitation and crime prevention far more than incarcerations. The first drug court in Dade County, Florida, created in 1989, was the prototype. The three-phase Miami program for first and second cocaine offenders begins with arrest and overnight incarceration in the Dade County Stockade, and appearance the following morning before the drug court judge.

Order custom essay Drug Courts with free plagiarism report

The program was developed under the direction of Dade County Superior Court Judge Herbert Klein, with the assistance of Michael Smith, MD, and Director of Substance Abuse. After two years of the drug court's operation, 4296 felony drug possession arrestees had been diverted to the program. Of these, 1600 had graduated the three-phase program with a 3% re-arrest rate 1153 were still in the program with a 7% re-arrest rate; 500 had their charges dismissed after program entry; and 1043 failed to comply with the program.

Also, 90% of the arrestees who were offered the program accepted the program the other 10% were arraigned in regular Supreme Court no screening for "treatment-readiness" was conducted, meaning that this was a non-selected, typical group of cocaine addicted offenders; 60% of the program graduates required at least a brief in-patient stay during their treatment most of the "failure to comply" drop-out group left the program in the first three weeks of participation 30% of the dropout sgroup later returned to the program either voluntarily, by summons, or by repeat minor arrest.

The cost was given at $750 per client, per year. Clients pay mandated fees for the program, and the program is partially funded by a special fine levied on a certain class of traffic offense. When the program began, seized assets were used for part of the program startup costs. References WWW. DDRS. COM Promptly at 8 o’clock on Tuesday night at the community church in my home town largo, Maryland, there are life changing effort from alcoholics in the community, I have had the pleasure of witnessing these efforts with my own eyes and I must say it is truly eye opening.

The reason for these meetings is for alcoholics to have time to relate to others and share their feelings and concern with their peers. At the start of the meeting the group leader leads the group with a prayer and words of wisdom, shortly after they allow the person in a attends to help themselves to snack and drinks alcohol free, normally the administer name tags but on the particular day on my attendant they were out. The group leader made it clear that if you were not in the mode to speak all you have to do was say pass in order for me to not insult the others in attended at the meeting I sat in the circle with the group.

The group leader asked each individual person to introduce there selves being that the name tags where not at the groups disposal, after being ask for their names they were given an opportunity individual to share what was on their mind most of everyone spoke, A guy named Louis who shared said he is ready for the rain to end and broke down in tears. Right then and there I realize that being a alcoholic was not a life chose but more so a sickness. The group leader would often lecture as well as ask others very specific questions to different individual.

At the end of the meeting the group leader close with more words of wisdom as well as a prayer. The A. A meeting was a great experience as well life changing I was very proud to see others with courage talk about their biggest life problems. I would defiantly recommend these meetings to anyone with addiction, on the simple fact of other and peers being able to relate to the same problem that you have make you feel like you’re getting thru it together. {copied directly from the notepad I brought to the meeting wanted to keep it authentic sorry for all the eras}

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Treatment Court Forms

Request for Candidate Acceptance  - Provides information for drug court teams in determining whether they will admit someone.

Participant Contract   - Provides requirements of participants in drug court as well as what drug court will provide for participants.

Release of Confidential Information   - Authorization for release of limited information from defendant to drug court.

Urinalysis Random Testing Color Assignment  - includes color assignment and signature of drug court participant.

Screening Instrument s   - includes information about defendant.

Screening - Initial Interview Report   - information for drug court team consideration based on initial interview screen.

Public Defender Order   - Order appointing the Office of Public Defender to represent drug court participant.

Indigency Waiver Request   - Request to waive required fees.

Task Order   - Court Order regarding what must be completed by next court date.

Policy and Procedure Manual   - (see attachment for content)

Participant Manual   - (see attachment for content)

Graduation Forms   (Invitations, Petitions, Court Orders, etc) 

Order of Confinement   - Advises defendant of right to be represented by counsel and to have a hearing.

Residential Treatment Order   - Provides order for the drug court participant to enter residential treatment.

Waiver of Rights to a Formal Hearing   - Participant waives his/her rights to a formal hearing when liberty is taken away.

Exit Interview Forms

Brochures   - Informational brochures on local drug courts.

Mental Health Screening Information   - Instruments to be considered as part of a screening process to be used to identify mental health issues.

Treatment Related Forms

Sanction and Incentive Information

Drug Testing Policy

Medically assisted treatment, request for proposals, scram information.

Memorandum of Understanding   (MOU’s)

Recovery Management Policy and Forms  

Miscellaneous Forms

Request for Candidate Acceptance into Drug Court - a form that provides information for drug court teams to consider in determining whether they will admit someone into drug court.

Treatment Court Contract - a form that provides the information as to the requirements of participants in drug court as well as what drug court will provide for participants.

Release of Confidential Information - Authorization for release of limited information from defendant to drug court, e.g. employment, psychological, financial, treatment, medical information.

Random Testing Color Assignment for Drug Court - includes color assignment and signature of drug court participant.

Initial Interview Screening Instrument - includes information about defendant including: family, educational, employment, military, psychological, substance abuse history, medical, financial information as well as legal status and observed signs of substance abuse.

Initial Interview Review Report - information for drug court team consideration based on initial interview screen.

Public Defender Order - Order appointing the Office of Public Defender to represent drug court participant.

Indigency Waiver Request - Request to waive required fees and order accepting or not accepting the waiver and associated conditions.

Task Order - Order of Drug Court regarding what must be completed by next court date.

Policy and Procedure Manual - (see attachment for content)

Participant Manual-(see attachment for content)

Drug Court Graduation Forms (Invitations, Petitions, Court Orders, etc) - Request of drug court participant to graduate. Order of successful completion, sent to originating court if appropriate.

Order of Confinement - Advises defendant of right to be represented by counsel and to have a hearing. Further that the defendant understand his rights (may waive hearing and admit violation, then ordered to confinement, or may request a hearing).

Residential Treatment Order - provides the court’s order for the drug court participant to enter residential treatment at a specific place and time and indicates that if the individual does not show up a warrant may be issued for their arrest.

Waiver of Rights to a Formal Hearing - documents that drug court participant waives his/her rights to a formal hearing when liberty is taken away as a drug court sanction.

Exit Interview Forms - In order to receive feedback from a variety of perspectives, these forms provide questions to ask early leavers and graduates of drug court in order to improve the process.

Examples of Drug Court Brochures - Informational brochures that provide data on the drug court process, performance, eligibility, phases, etc. directed at the public, defense counsel, and others.

Mental Health Screening Information - Instruments to be considered as part of a screening process to be used to identify mental health issues that may need to be resolved as part of the drug court process.

Sanction and Incentive

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU’s)

Recovery Management Policy and Forms - Plan developed primarily by the drug court participant outlining how they intend to stay in recovery in ladder phases of drug court and for lengthy period after graduation. Recovery Management Policy for Drug Court.

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6th JD - BROOME COUNTY

Drug court participant's handbook.

What is Drug Court | Why Choose Drug Court | Basic Rules | Treatment | What We Do for You | Sanctions | Rewards | Testing | Common Questions | Your Responsibilities | Important Phone Numbers

What is Drug Court?

The Binghamton Adult Drug Treatment Court is located within the Binghamton City Court. It is a court monitored treatment program for Broome County residents who have pending criminal charges and who are also addicted to drugs. It is a voluntary program. Participants have agreed to appear at regularly scheduled Drug Court sessions in front of the Drug Court Judge and they have also agreed to follow a treatment plan that is set up to meet their individual needs.

Why Choose the Binghamton Adult Treatment Drug Court?

If you complete the Drug Court Program you will be eligible to have your original legal charges either dismissed or reduced.

The Drug Court team is made up of service providers in the greater Binghamton area who will be there to offer you support and to set up services that can help you make long lasting changes in your life. The Drug Court Team is there to cheer you on when you do well and help get you back on track if you are struggling.

Developing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle can be a difficult process. Learning how to live without alcohol and drugs is challenging enough, but beyond that there are things like getting & keeping a job, getting regular medical care, eating healthy, and developing healthy relationships that you might need help with.

Basic Rules

There are rules everywhere you go in life and Drug Court, as you might expect, has rules too.

The basic rules are:

Treatment? What do you mean I have to be in treatment?

If someone has suggested The Binghamton Adult Drug Treatment Court to you as an option (your probation officer, public defender, Judge etc.) that means you are at the point where you need alcohol and drug treatment. You may have already tried alcohol and drug treatment at some other point in your life - maybe it helped for a while, but then you went back out and used and now you have more legal trouble because of your addiction. If you have had treatment before, you probably know there is no easy fix for someone's addiction.

Treatment works if you are willing to stick with it and put in the effort!

What We Do for You

Yes, Drug Court will last at least one year, maybe more... Remember, it takes people a long time to get their lives messed up and it takes them a long time to put things back together again.

A Drug Court Participant who is not doing what is on their treatment plan or what is put in their contract may result in the Judge imposing a sanction on them. Some examples of things that could lead to a sanction are, not keeping appointments (at Drug Court, treatment, or any other program appointment), testing dirty for drug or alcohol use, providing a fake or altered urine sample, disruptive or disrespectful behavior, not going to self help meetings, not doing a sanction as ordered by the Judge, or a getting a new arrest. Some examples of sanctions the Judge might give you are: Community Service Hours, Writing a paper, or Jail time.

Rewards/Incentives

Your progress in the program will be acknowledged in a lot of ways including positive comments from the Judge, rewards in the court room, certificates, and Phase Movement Ceremonies. In addition to these rewards, drug court team members will always be looking for ways they can recognize and support your efforts at making positive changes.

Alcohol and Drug Testing

As a Drug Court participant, you will be required to do both regular and random alcohol & drug tests. Testing will be done using both urine screens and breath screens. You can be asked to do a drug or alcohol test at any time by Drug Court Staff and/or treatment providers.

You MUST call the Court at 607-772-7006 each night after 5 pm throughout the week and listen to a pre-recorded message. The message will direct participants with a certain color code or codes to present to the Drug Court Office the next business day between the hours of 9 am and 4 pm to do an alcohol/drug screen.

Common Questions

What if I don’t do the drug screening when I am asked to? If you do not show up for a random drug/alcohol screen or do not follow through when asked to do an alcohol/drug screen, you will be sanctioned by the court. Trying to pass a drug test by giving a fake urine sample or urine that has been altered will lead to sanctions by the Judge. If you are believed to be stalling the process of taking an alcohol/drug test, you can also be subject to sanctions.

What if I test positive for drugs and I am 100% certain I didn't use? If you disagree with the results of a urine drug screen done on site, you can have a lab test done on your sample. However, to do this you may need to cover the cost of the laboratory test before the sample can be sent to the lab for testing.

What if I drink alcohol or use drugs while I'm in the program? If you enter drug court, you are not to use alcohol, in any form, or other drugs. You also should not have or keep alcohol/drugs in your home, cars, or on your person at any time. If, for whatever reason, you do drink or use drugs, you have to tell the Drug Court Staff (Judge, Clerks, Coordinator etc.). If you drink or use drugs, but don’t get honest about it, you will be sanctioned by the Judge. It is also important for you to tell the court immediately once any medications are prescribed for you by a doctor, dentist, nurse practitioner, or any other medical provider.

Your Responsibilities

Attendance at appointments As a Drug Court participant, you will need to go to a lot of different appointments for treatment, counseling, educational, and other types of services. It is your responsibility to set up your own appointments, keep track of them, and go to the appointments as scheduled. It is very important to keep all of these appointments and to be on time. Being late to appointments can result in your being considered absent and this could lead to sanctions.

Attendance at Drug Court Sessions You will be scheduled for Drug Court Sessions based on your phase in the program. For example, if you are in stabilization Phase or in Phase I, you will report to Drug Court every week. Currently, drug court meets every Tuesday at 2:45 pm. You need to be on time for Drug Court Sessions and stay until the Judge lets everyone leave the courtroom. During Drug Court sessions the Judge will speak with each participant about their progress and/or problems they may be having.

Releases of Information You will have to sign release of information forms that allow the Drug Court Team members and treatment providers to communicate about your progress. You will also need to sign releases throughout the program to assist in arranging other services as appropriate.

Important Phone Numbers & Addresses

AA 722-5983

NA 774-4907

Addictions Center of Broome County (ACBC) 30 West State Street Colonial Plaza, Binghamton, NY 723-7308 New Horizons 42 Mitchell Avenue Binghamton, NY 762-3232

Addictions Crisis Center (ACC) 247 Court Street Binghamton, NY 772-4080

Broome County Mental Health 1 Hawley Street Binghamton, NY 778-1152

Salvation Army Adult Rehabilitation Center 3-5 Griswold Street Binghamton, NY 723-5381

Dept. of Social Services(DSS) 36 Main Street Binghamton, NY 778-8850

Salvation Army Thrift Store 5-9 Griswold Street Binghamton, NY 723-5381

Fairview Recovery Systems 5 Merrick Street Binghamton, NY 722-6767 www.frsinc.org

drug court phase up essay

Free Drug Courts Essays and Papers

drug court phase up essay

Benefits Of Drug Courts

Benefits of Drug Courts Right now in the United States there are over 2 million people incarcerated in the country’s prisons and jails. Out of this population about one-quarter of these inmates have been convicted of a drug offense. With drug offense arrests increasing nationwide and the prison population increasing there is an alternative to incarceration has been used over the past two decades in many cities across the country. This alternative is in the form of local drug courts that are now

Essay On Drug Courts

has produced varying philosophies. With the emanation of drug-induced crimes over the past few decades, the concept of drug treatment courts has emerged. The premise of these courts is to offer a “treatment based alternative to prison,” which consist of intensive treatment services, random drug testing, incentives

Juvenile Drug Courts

Drug Courts came about as a result of a backlogged court system and a steady, rapidly increasing prison population. Drug courts are a form of diversion that helps the offender through rehabilitation and the community through an increased sense of protection, which serves the best interest of everyone. Drug Courts are community based intermediate sanctions that incorporate treatment principles into the Criminal Justice System and divert drug offenders from traditional punishments of probation and

The Juvenile Drug Court

In the juvenile drug court a docket with selected delinquency cases are referred to a designated judge. These youth have been identified for having problems with alcohol and/or other drugs. The juvenile drug court judge maintains close oversight of each case through frequent court report updates through the probation officer and the therapist. The judge both services as the team leader and serve as an integral part of a team that comprises representatives from treatment, juvenile justice, social

Drug Court Problems

Sharon’s drug addiction emerged at the age of 22. She started drinking alcohol at parties, not imagining its future consequences. Drugs replaced the alcohol and she began smoking marijuana. She believed it of little harm to her because she did not consider it a “hard” drug like cocaine or morphine. Fueled by her personal and family problems, Sharon’s abuse of crack cocaine then began. To fund her drug addiction, she worked as a prostitute and a hustler for drug dealers, but started selling drugs herself

What is Drug Court?

What is Drug Court? According to Siegel (2013), drug courts are courts designed for non-violent offenders with substance abuse problems who require integrated sanctions and services such as mandatory drug testing, substance abuse treatment, supervised release, and parole. These courts are designed to help reduce housing nonviolent offenders with violent inmates. Drug courts work on a non-adversarial, coact approach. How were drug courts established? Drug courts were implemented by Judge Gerald Wetherington

History and Function of Drug Courts

Drug courts were first established in Miami in 1989 and have continued to grow today. Over the past twenty-four years, drug courts have provided a treatment-orientated approach to help defendants with drug-related crimes. The constant interaction of the drug court provides the needed structure for participants to maintain their involvement in the program. Understanding the overall goals of the drug court and the outcomes of participants in the drug court program are the key factors in measuring

Juvenile Drug Courts Drugs and our youth, the numbers are rising. More and more children today are using drugs without their parents knowing. What happens when they get caught? It all depends on who caught them. If it is the parents, usually a big punishment. If it is law enforcement they may have to appear in front of drug courts specialized to handle juvenile cases. Sometimes the parents may even turn them in, just for the treatment and help these special courts can offer. The juveniles

Drug Courts in Error

Rhetorical Box Outline Intro One Our judicial system is in dire need of a make-over. Time and again drug and alcohol offenders (numbering in the thousands per year), are pushed like cattle through the revolving doors of courthouses and jails; each, serving varying terms, only to be back in a cell on similar charges in no time at all. Ultimately, it is behaviors that must be changed. Regardless of the length of a prison or jail sentence; simply “doing time” does not change behaviors. Intro Two

Specialized Drug Court Case Study

specialized, or problem-oriented, courts have assumed a predominate role in multiple areas. Three of the major ones discussed here include drug, mental health, and domestic violence courts. In 1996, the American Bar Association provided their interpretation of specialization, stating: Traditionally, specialization refers to a specialized subject matter combined with subject matter expertise. With reference to courts, specialization usually signifies that a court has limited and frequently exclusive

Compare And Contrast Drug Courts Vs. Incarceration

Drug Courts vs. Incarceration Maybe Locking Up Drug Addicts Isn’t the Answer Within our society, there is a gleaming stigma against the drug addicted. We have been taught to believe that if someone uses drugs and commits a crime they should be locked away and shunned for their lifetime. Their past continues to haunt them, even if they have changed their old addictive ways. Everyone deserves a second chance at life, so why do we outcast someone who struggles with this horrible disease? Drug addiction

Drug Court Case Analysis

Drug courts are also proven to be cost-effective. According to Williams: “One analysis in Washington State concluded that drug courts cost an average of $4,333 per client, but save $4,705 for taxpayers and $4,395 for potential crime victims, thus yielding a net cost-benefit of $4,767 per client. An analysis in California concluded that drug courts cost an average of about $3,000 per client but save an average of $11,000 per client.” (Williams, 2009) It is even not uncommon to find out that a specific

Courts of Healing Justice: Juvenile, Family, and Drug Courts

Courts of healing justice are specialized courts that deal in specific types of offenders. The ones that will be covered here are juvenile courts, family courts, and drug courts. These courts keep these specific types of cases out of the general courts. Their goal is to try to heal the offender of what is causing them to offend instead of just locking them up. They are also referred to courts of second chance. These courts work with social services and law enforcement agencies to provide special

First Drug Court Essay

The first drug court was rooted in 1989, in Miami-Dade county Florida and its purpose was to close the divide between drug treatment and the criminal justice system. Many large-scale pharmacies publicized merchandise that contained heroin, cocaine, and codeine as refreshing drinks, medicine for kids, and cough suppressants. It became clear that opiate addiction was increasing widely, doctors turned to cocaine, which was touted as a nonaddictive cure that Sigmund Freud called a “magical drug”. Substance

Drug Courts Case Study

Drug courts started at the state and local level during the early 1980’s as a response to the increasing growth of incarceration rates among drug offenders (Franco, 2011). The researcher also found that many of these offenders had a minor or no background of violence or high-level drug selling activity, however they had drug- abuse issues that led them to engage in criminal activities (Franco, 2011). A growing body of research pointed out that drug abuse treatment could effectively decrease substance

The Lancaster Drug Court Program

gender, or economic status (Lessenger & Roper, 2007). The traditional method of addressing addiction was to refer addicts to the criminal justice system (Lessenger & Roper, 2007). Legislatures resorted to mandatory minimum sentences for dealing with drug addicts (Lessenger & Roper, 2007). Addiction used to be viewed as a crime and not as a disease. The prisons and jails were not able to accommodate the high numbers of prisoners and therefore they were forced to release the prisoners (Lessenger & Roper

Drug Court Research Paper

Why Drug Court? The purpose of Drug Court is to address addiction/ substance use problems of criminal defendants through an intense supervision treatment program and develop productive, healthy members of society, rather than criminals. Offenders who remain incarcerated may or may not get the help or intervention they need. In many cases, the help they do receive is often limited depending on the facility or jurisdiction they are in. However, more and more correctional facilities are focusing

Queensland Drug Court System Case Study

The Queensland Drug Court system (CDP) aims at diverting offenders accused of minor drug offences from the criminal justice system (Department of Justice and Attorney-General, 2012). The program aims to rehabilitate drug offenders from abusing substances and conducting in related criminal activity by providing court enforced rehabilitation services (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2015). The Queensland Drug Court system offers offenders the chance to earn themselves bail if they agree to get

New Jersey Drug Court Case Study

New Jersey Drug courts began in 1996, when Camden and Essex Superior Courts started accepting participants. The New Jersey drug court model was developed through the hard working and dedicated judges, prosecutors, public defenders, drug court professionals, substance abuse evaluators and probation officers (New Jersey Courts, 2015). With local projects increasing into well defined drug court programs that have made it possible for additional pilot program efforts, like Mercer, Passaic and Union

Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court Case Study

from the program. Since 1992 when the local adult drug court was funded, it has successfully graduated about 4,500 people in total. In addition, the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court (BCDTC) is a jurisdiction of interest whose success will be examined. The Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court was established in 1994 prior to a response by a report presented by the Bar Association of Baltimore city in 1990. There was a rough estimate of about 85% of crimes committed in Baltimore city were related

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  1. Sample Phase Up Application

    Home / Sample Phase Up Application - Drug Court. Sample Phase Up Application - Drug Court. Download. Federal Grant Solicitations Now Open. Learn more 625 N. Washington Street, Suite 212, Alexandria, VA 22314. Contact Us +1 703 575 9400. Grant Funding Notice

  2. Adult Treatment Courts

    Defining Drug Courts: The Key Components Key Components to Best Practice Standards Crosswalk Translating Drug Court Research into Practice Resources These sample documents are used by similar treatment court program types across the US and can be adapted for use within your program.

  3. Sample Documents

    NADCP developed the following template documents to help programs apply the skills taught at training. The documents below are free to use and should be adapted to your program's policy and procedures based on the Adult Drug Court Best Practice Standards. Recovery Capital Worksheets for treatment court teammembers to assist clients with identifying positive recovery… Continue Reading ...

  4. Drug Courts Essay Sample

    The drug courts have ten key components that enable them to work efficiently and achieve their goal of stopping drug abuse and other related criminal activity (U.S Department of Justice, 2004). The first component is the integration of drug treatment services with the justice system case processing.

  5. Drug Courts Essay

    Drug Courts Essay Drug courts are specialised programs aimed at criminal offenders who suffer from drug and alcohol addiction (US Department of Justice, 2015, p.1). Drug courts improve offenders' quality of life by decreasing substance dependency and improve mental wellbeing.

  6. Developing Phases in Drug/DWI Courts

    Phase II would focus on initiation of abstinence and the offender would be expected to start providing a string of negative tests. A minimum number of days of consecutive drug-negative urine samples (typically 30-90 days) would be expected to advance to Phase III. Community service and other court obligations should be started at this time.

  7. Drug Court changed me

    Drug Court is not an easy program to complete for drug addicts; however, it is the most rewarding and life changing. It takes dedication and the willingness to want to be a better person. One...

  8. Drug Courts

    The research conclusion is that drug courts effort superior to prison jail, Improved than treatment and probation alone. Drug Courts considerably decrease use of drug and or crime rate and are additional lucrative than any additional strategy of criminal justice.

  9. Drug Court Essay

    A drug court is a treatment based alternative to youth detention facilities, prisons, jails, and probation. These courts make use of drug testing, immediate sanctions, and treatment services. The criminal justice system works with treatment systems to provide an offender with proper tools to recover and maintain a crime -free life.

  10. PDF Indiana's Drug Treatment Courts

    Phase 2- court every other week, 2x weekly drug testing, continue treatment, 60 days sober, attend recovery meetings regularly. Developing good habits with people, places, and things. Phase 3- court every 3 weeks, 2x weekly drug testing, engage in aftercare, work on pro-social goals (job, child support, drivers license, legal aid), 90 days sober.

  11. PDF Drug Court Application to Phase up to 2 **********

    *****Drug Court Application to Phase up to 2 ***** APPLICATIONS MUST BE TURNED IN FULLY COMPLETED BY YOUR COURT DATE. You can ... (you can contact the Drug Court office for your official last sanction date if you do not know what it is: 397-2304 / 397-2150 ext 5826) ... (Please attach a copy of course syllabus/ admission papers) * OR *

  12. Drug Courts

    Overview. Drug courts are specialized court docket programs that target adults charged with or convicted of a crime, youth involved in the juvenile justice system, and parents with pending child welfare cases who have alcohol and other drug dependency problems. Drug court participants who successfully complete the program can have their ...

  13. Drug Court Essays: Examples, Topics, Titles, & Outlines

    The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system.

  14. PDF Drug Testing in a Drug Court Environment: Common Issues To Address

    progress in treatment and compliance with drug court program conditions. For a drug court program, drug testing is conducted pri-marily to monitor a defendant's progress in treatment— to determine whether he or she has been using drugs and, if so, the type and quantity of substances being ingested. The drug test result may be used as a ...

  15. Duval County Adult Drug Court Petition to Advance to Phase 2

    10. _____ I have reviewed a webinar on the Use of Creatinine Measurements in Drug Testing and have completed a short essay on what was learned. (attach essay to this petition) 11. _____ I have paid a $30.00 phase-up fee to the Clerk of Court. 12. _____ I have completed a four to five (4-5) page essay on "What's My Story" 13.

  16. Drug Courts

    The first drug court in Dade County, Florida, created in 1989, was the prototype. The three-phase Miami program for first and second cocaine offenders begins with arrest and overnight incarceration in the Dade County Stockade, and appearance the following morning before the drug court judge. The program was developed under the direction of Dade ...

  17. Treatment Court Forms

    Drug Court Graduation Forms (Invitations, Petitions, Court Orders, etc) - Request of drug court participant to graduate. Order of successful completion, sent to originating court if appropriate. 8th Judicial District Order of Expungement Cumberland County Pre-Graduation Questionnaire Graduation Flyer-Grants Pass, Oregon

  18. Drug Court Participant's Handbook

    Testing will be done using both urine screens and breath screens. You can be asked to do a drug or alcohol test at any time by Drug Court Staff and/or treatment providers. You MUST call the Court at 607-772-7006 each night after 5 pm throughout the week and listen to a pre-recorded message.

  19. Free Drug Courts Essays and Papers

    Essay On Drug Courts. has produced varying philosophies. With the emanation of drug-induced crimes over the past few decades, the concept of drug treatment courts has emerged. The premise of these courts is to offer a "treatment based alternative to prison," which consist of intensive treatment services, random drug testing, incentives. 849 ...

  20. PDF ADULT DRUG COURT BEST PRACTICE STANDARDS

    Drug Court field and translated into day-to-day Drug Court operations. Much effort lies ahead to train practitioners on the content of the standards and put the recommended procedures into effect. In addition, future volumes of the standards will address other aspects of Drug Court procedures as new research findings become available.

  21. Mental Health Courts

    Mental health courts (MHC) are a form of collaborative court that provides specific services and treatment to defendants dealing with mental illness. Mental health courts provide an alternative to the traditional court system by emphasizing a problem-solving model and connecting defendants to a variety of rehabilitative services and support ...

  22. PDF INSTR

    The Court's Self Help Center has attorneys who may be able to help you. You can also hire a private attorney through the Santa Clara County Bar Association (Low-cost, 30-minute consultation 408-971-6822) Pleading Paper Self-Help Center/Family Law Facilitator's Office Superior Court, County of Santa Clara 99 Notre Dame Avenue, San Jose, CA 95113