different types of infectious diseases essay

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Infectious Diseases

What are infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by harmful organisms (pathogens) that get into your body from the outside. Pathogens that cause infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites and, rarely, prions. You can get infectious diseases from other people, bug bites and contaminated food, water or soil.

What’s the difference between infectious diseases and noninfectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are caused by harmful organisms that get into your body from the outside, like viruses and bacteria. Noninfectious diseases aren’t caused by outside organisms, but by genetics, anatomical differences, getting older and the environment you live in. You can’t get noninfectious diseases from other people, by getting a bug bite or from your food.

The flu, measles, HIV, strep throat, COVID-19 and salmonella are all examples of infectious diseases. Cancer, diabetes, congestive heart failure and Alzheimer’s disease are all examples of noninfectious diseases.

What are the types of infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases can be viral, bacterial, parasitic or fungal infections. There’s also a rare group of infectious diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).

What are common infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are extremely common worldwide, but some are more common than others. For instance, each year in the United States, 1 out of every 5 people is infected with the influenza virus, but less than 300 people are diagnosed with prion diseases.

Some of the most common infectious diseases are listed here by type.

Common infectious diseases caused by viruses:

Common infectious diseases caused by bacteria:

Common infectious diseases caused by fungi:

Common infectious diseases caused by parasites:

Who is most at risk for getting infectious diseases?

Anyone can get an infectious disease. You may be at an increased risk if your immune system is weakened or if you travel to areas with certain highly transmissible diseases.

People at higher risk of infectious disease include:

What complications are associated with infectious diseases?

Many infectious diseases resolve without complications, but some can cause lasting damage.

Serious and life-threatening complications of various infectious diseases include:

Symptoms and Causes

What are the symptoms of infectious diseases.

Symptoms of infectious diseases depend on the type of illness. Fungal infections usually cause localized symptoms, like rash and itching. Viral and bacterial infections can have symptoms in many areas of your body, like:

It’s important to see a doctor if you have any chronic (ongoing) symptoms or symptoms that get worse over time.

What causes infectious diseases?

Infectious diseases are caused by a variety of agents that invade your body from the outside. These include:

You may develop symptoms when your cells are damaged or destroyed by the invading organism and as your immune system responds to the infection.

How do infectious diseases spread?

Depending on the type of infection, there are many ways that infectious diseases can spread. Fortunately, in most cases, there are simple ways to prevent infection.

Your mouth, your nose and cuts in your skin are common places for pathogens to enter your body. Diseases can spread:

Diagnosis and Tests

How are infectious diseases diagnosed.

Your healthcare provider usually diagnoses infectious diseases using one or more lab tests. Your provider can look for signs of disease by:

Some test results, like from a nose swab, come back quickly, but other results might take longer. For instance, sometimes bacteria has to be grown in a lab (cultured) from a sample before you can get your test result.

Management and Treatment

How are infectious diseases treated.

Treatment depends on what causes the infection. Sometimes your healthcare provider will recommend monitoring your symptoms rather than taking medication.

What is antibiotic resistance?

Antibiotic resistance is when bacteria develop mutations that make it harder for our medicines to destroy them. This happens when antibiotics are overused, such as for minor infections that your body could fight off on its own.

Antibiotic resistance makes some bacterial infections very difficult to treat and more likely to be life-threatening. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an example of a bacterial infection that has become antibiotic-resistant.

Healthcare providers are working to reduce antibiotic resistance. You can help — and protect yourself — by finishing all of your antibiotic medication as prescribed. This helps to make sure all of the bacteria are destroyed and can’t mutate.

Swiss Cheese Model shows how vaccinations, hand washing, safe food handling and cleaning work together to prevent disease.

Can infectious diseases be prevented?

There are many simple ways to reduce your risk of infectious disease and even prevent certain illnesses altogether. While each of these helps to reduce your risk of getting and spreading infectious diseases, often there’s no single way that’s 100% effective at preventing disease. That’s why it’s important to have many habits for reducing your risk.

You can think of it as lining up slices of Swiss cheese, a model suggested by James Reason, PhD. Where some slices have holes, other slices give protection. Getting recommended vaccinations, and simple habits like practicing safe food handling and washing your hands, work together to give you layers of protection.

Vaccines reduce your risk of getting an infectious disease by training your immune system to recognize and fight off infections from harmful invaders. While people sometimes do still get sick with a disease after getting vaccinated for it, your symptoms are usually less severe than they would’ve been without the vaccination.

Usually given as a shot or series of shots (or, less commonly, as a nasal spray), vaccines are available for many common infectious diseases, including:

The CDC has up-to-date recommendations for vaccinations for children, adolescents and adults. If you’re traveling, make sure you have all of the recommended vaccinations for your destination before you go.

Safe food handling

Safe food handling habits help prevent certain infectious diseases.

Other ways to help prevent infectious disease

In addition to vaccines and safe food handling habits, you can reduce your risk of coming down with or spreading an infectious disease with a few everyday practices.

Outlook / Prognosis

What are the outcomes after treatment for infectious diseases.

With treatment, most people get better after being sick with an infectious disease.

Sometimes there can still be serious complications, especially with respiratory illnesses. People with compromised immune systems are more at risk for serious complications, but they can happen in healthy people too.

Some diseases, like HIV and hepatitis B, can’t be cured, but medications can help prevent serious complications. Sexually transmitted infections can cause infertility or even lead to cancer, so it’s important to take steps to protect yourself and others.

Prion diseases are very serious and can’t be cured. They are fortunately some of the rarest infectious diseases.

Living With

When should i call my healthcare provider concerning an infectious disease.

Let your healthcare provider know if you have any symptoms of an infectious disease, especially if they’re unusual or don’t go away over time. If you have an ongoing infection, frequent follow-ups with your provider can help ensure your condition doesn’t worsen.

Your provider should also know if you plan to travel to foreign countries. You may need to be vaccinated against infections that are more common at your destination.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are emerging infectious diseases.

Emerging infectious diseases are those that are new or are infecting more people than they had previously. Special research is dedicated to these diseases. Some emerging infectious disease agents include Ebola, salmonella, hepatitis A, certain coronaviruses and West Nile virus.

What are common pediatric infectious diseases?

Babies and children can be more likely to get sick from infectious diseases because their immune systems are still developing. They also can’t practice good hygiene on their own like adults can. Some infectious diseases that can be more common in children include:

A note from Cleveland Clinic

We coexist with viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites every day. In fact, you have 10 times more bacteria inside your body than human cells — we couldn’t live without them!

Some of the organisms that we come across can be harmful. Fortunately, there are many simple things you can do to keep yourself healthy.

It’s also important to remember that there might be people around you who aren’t able to fight off infections easily. Washing your hands, covering your mouth when you cough or sneeze and other simple habits can help protect others from getting seriously ill. A small habit for you could be life-saving for someone else.

Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

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How to prevent infections

A few simple precautions can help you avoid getting sick with an infectious disease.

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Infections are caused by microscopic organisms known as pathogens—bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites—that enter the body, multiply, and interfere with normal functions. Infectious diseases are a leading cause of illness and death in the United States and around the world. For certain people--particularly those with underlying illnesses like heart disease or cancer, those who have serious injuries, or those who are taking medications that weaken the immune system—it's more difficult to avoid getting sick with an infection. Living in an affluent country like the United States, the threat we face from deadly viruses, bacteria, and parasites can seem remote, but these infectious microbes are ever present among us, according to Dr. Michael Klompas, writing in the Harvard Medical School Special Health Report  Viruses and Disease . Dr. Klompas is an infectious disease specialist at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital. However, for most healthy people, following a few basic principles can go a long way in helping to prevent infections.

Understanding how infections are transmitted can help you avoid getting sick

Not long ago, no one understood that infectious diseases were caused by tiny organisms that moved from person to person. Even now, although we know that microscopic living microbes cause disease, how they do so is not always obvious. But we do know that most microbes enter through openings in the body—our noses, mouths, ears, anuses, and genital passages. They can also be transmitted through our skin through insect or animal bites. The best way to prevent infections is to block pathogens from entering the body.

Good hygiene: the primary way to prevent infections

The first line of defense is to keep germs at bay by following good personal hygiene habits. Prevent infection before it begins and avoid spreading it to others with these easy measures.

Practice good food-safety techniques to avoid getting sick

Although most cases of food-borne infection are not dangerous, some can lead to serious medical conditions, including kidney failure and meningitis. You can prevent infections by food-borne pathogens in your household by preparing and storing foods safely. The following precautions will help kill microbes that are present in the food you buy and help you avoid introducing new microbes into your food at home:

Whether you are young or young at heart, getting vaccinated is an essential part of staying healthy. Many serious infections can be prevented by immunization. While vaccines may cause some common side effects, such as a temporarily sore arm or low fever, they are generally safe and effective.

Vaccinations are essential if you are to avoid getting sick

Consult your health care provider regarding your immunization status. In general:

Take travel precautions

If you are planning a trip, ask your doctor if you need any immunizations. Discuss your travel plans with your physician at least three months before you leave.

How to prevent infections by sexual transmission

The only sure way to prevent sexually transmitted diseases is to not have sexual intercourse or other sexual contact. That's not an option for most people, so the next best choice is to follow these safer sex guidelines:

If you do have sex with a new partner, make sure the partner is tested, and take the following precautions:

Avoiding bug-borne pathogens

Both mosquitos and ticks are carriers of viruses and bacteria. And both have been associated with serious epidemics in the last decade.

While it's true that most mosquitoes in northern climates don't transmit disease, some do. Within one decade, West Nile virus has spread throughout the United States and parts of Canada. Several other forms of mosquito-borne encephalitis are also carried by mosquitoes in North America. Tropical diseases pose a threat if the mosquitoes that carry them hitch a ride in boats or expand their range northward from Central America.

Ticks are widespread and can transmit a variety of diseases, including Lyme disease and many others. They live in grassy and brushy areas and are most prevalent during wet seasons. A common hiding place is in wet leaves. They often infest animals, including field mice and deer. And they may be transported into your home by your pets.

The following can help prevent infections from bug bites:

Using animal-control to prevent infections

Controlling the population of mice or rats in and near your home can help you avoid pathogens spread by rodents and also help control the population of ticks that spread disease. Rodents can harbor a number of pathogens, including lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, leptospirosis, plague, and hantavirus. Other wild animals can also transmit rabies and other infections. The following measures can help you avoid getting sick from diseases transmitted by animals:

–   By Beverly Merz Executive Editor,  Harvard Women's Health Watch

Image: marieclaudelemay/Getty Images

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What are pathogens?

different types of infectious diseases essay

Pathogens are organisms that can cause disease. The different types of pathogens and the severity of the diseases that they cause are very diverse.

In this article, we look at different pathogens, how they affect people, and the diseases they cause. We also explain how pathogens spread and how to reduce the risk of infection.

Different types of pathogens

EM image of feline calicivirus which is one type of pathogen

A pathogen brings disease to its host. Another name for a pathogen is an infectious agent, as they cause infections . As with any organism, pathogens prioritize survival and reproduction.

The human body’s immune system acts as a defense against pathogens. The body can easily fight off some pathogens, but others are potentially fatal.

There are five main types of pathogens:

Bacteria are microscopic pathogens that reproduce rapidly after entering the body. They can release toxins that damage tissues and cause illness.

Doctors typically prescribe antibiotics to treat bacterial infections, but some bacteria are becoming resistant to these drugs.

Not all bacteria are pathogenic, though. In the body, there are many types of harmless bacteria, and some may even support essential bodily functions.

Smaller than bacteria, a virus invades a host cell. It then replicates, producing hundreds and thousands of new viruses that go on to infect more host cells. Viruses can pass from person to person in various ways, including:

There are thousands of species of fungi, some of which cause disease in humans. Common fungal skin conditions include athlete’s foot and ringworm . These conditions are contagious and can spread through person-to-person contact.

A study in Trends in Microbiology found that fungal pathogens are evolving a capacity for memory. They can use signals in the body to anticipate imminent threats to their survival, against which they can then prepare themselves.

These single cell organisms cause disease in their host. They infect other organisms to survive and reproduce.

Protist pathogens affect plants and food crops. Foods containing protists can cause dysentery , which is an infection of the intestines that causes diarrhea .

Protist pathogens can also be parasitic and live in other organisms, such as mosquitoes. Protists cause malaria through mosquito bites.

Parasitic worms

Parasitic worms, also known as helminths, are large enough for people to see with the naked eye, and they can live in many areas of the body. Some worms include:

Severity of disease

Pathogens can cause a variety of different diseases, with some being more severe than others. Human bodies are nutrient-rich and can provide a pathogen with an ideal environment in which to grow and multiply.

The severity of infections that pathogens cause will vary. Some infections may be mild, while others can be life threatening. For example, the common cold is a mild viral infection compared with the lethal Ebola virus disease.

Diseases resulting from bacterial pathogens include:

Some scientists believe that viruses are not living organisms. Some reasons for this include :

Viral infections include:

About 300 species of fungi are pathogenic to humans. As with bacteria and viruses, they can have a significant effect on human health.

Fungi cause many different types of illness, including:

Protozoa are responsible for most protist diseases. Protozoa are single cell microorganisms that feed on other microorganisms, organic tissues, and debris. Protist diseases include:

Parasitic worms cause many diseases, which include :

How do pathogens spread?

Pathogens can spread in a variety of different ways. For example, direct skin-to-skin contact during sex can lead to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) .

Coughing or sneezing can cause pathogens to spread through tiny droplets in the air. These droplets can contain microorganisms, which other people breathe in.

Microorganisms can also travel straight into the gut when a person consumes contaminated food or water.

Bites from infected insects can also spread disease. For example, ticks with a bacterial infection can cause Lyme disease if they bite someone, and mosquitoes with a viral infection can cause Zika virus disease.

Alongside maintaining good general health, a person can take certain steps to reduce their risk of infection from pathogens. These include:

Pathogens affect all living organisms and cause illness to humans in a variety of different ways.

They can damage tissues or cells by producing toxins as they replicate.

While some pathogens cause mild problems, others can be life threatening. Medical experts are continuing to research diseases that result from pathogens to learn more about their causes and how to treat them.

Last medically reviewed on August 21, 2020

How we reviewed this article:

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Infectious Disease Essay

different types of infectious diseases essay

Show More Since the turn of the century, diseases have been the major problem for living organisms. Infectious diseases are diseases that are transmitted from person to person either by direct contact or indirect contact. Infectious diseases are most commonly transmitted by direct person-to-person contact. Transmissions can occur differently direct contact involves touching an infected person, or even exchanging body fluids; common diseases that can be transferred by direct contact are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Transmission can also occur via indirect contact, indirect contact involves contaminated objects, and airborne transmission. Contaminated objects carry diseases on them, touching an object after an infected person will expose you to …show more content… Direct contact transmission includes by touching, or exchanging body fluids. Indirect contact is slightly different in a comparison to direct contact. Indirect contact transmission includes object that are contaminated, or though airborne. Also disease /infections may also transfer via a host (vector), such include mosquitos, fleas and etc. If a healthy person is exposed to contaminated air or person strictly speaking shaking hands, or being exposed to contaminated air after a cough or a sneeze by an infected person, then the healthy person is highly likely to acquire the disease/ infection from the infected person, because diseases/infection have the ability to travel from one person to another via direct contact or indirect contact. Healthy person shaking hands and touching their face after not washing their hands properly are most likely to get infected themselves. Healthy person may also acquire the infection by airborne transmission, being exposed to contaminated air after a cough, or sneeze from an infected person will most likely infect them …show more content… The hypothesis stated if a healthy person is exposed to contaminated air or contaminated person, he/she were more likely to get infected themselves. From our results we can see that until student #7 everything is clear and healthy, but starting with student #7 to #15 everyone were infected, and slowly infection died off. The hypothesis was supported because of many reasons, we performed an experiment using direct contact; touching hands with the infected. Shaking hands with the infected passed on the infections to the others, shaking hands with others led the infection to spread from one person to the other until there was nothing to pass. The infected person was student #8, shaking hands with the student #7 and with #9 with #10 and so on respectively led the infection to spread. Taking this experiment into real life situation, washing hands throughout after shaking hands with anyone will likely to decrease the chances of getting infected. Not washing hands throughout, and touching my face, nose or any part of my face will definitely get me infected as

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Biology Discussion

Essays on Diseases: Top 10 Essays on Diseases

different types of infectious diseases essay

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Read this essay to learn about Diseases. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Infectious Diseases 2. Minamata Disease 3. Plague 4. Insect-Borne Diseases 5. Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 6. Asthma 7. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis 8. Typhoid 9. Amoebiosis 10. Malaria.

Essay on Disease # 1. Infectious Diseases :

For most people in the world, the greatest environmental health threat continues to be pathogenic (disease- causing) organisms. Although much of our attention is focused on toxic synthetic chemicals, we also should be aware of the biological hazards to which we are exposed.

In the less developed countries, where nearly 80 per cent of the world population live, infectious agents, parasites and nutritional deficiencies still are the main cause of morbidity (illness) and mortality (death).

Gastrointestinal infections (diarrhea, dysentery and cholera) probably cause more deaths worldwide than any other group of diseases. Again, malnutrition and diarrhea create a vicious cycle. Poor nutrition makes people more susceptible to infection and infections, in turn, make it more difficult to obtain, absorb and retain food.

Improved sanitation and better nutrition could prevent most, if not all. Similar other infectious diseases like malaria, parasitic worm infections, tuberculosis and allied respiratory hazards, tetanous, etc., took lives of millions, particularly in poor nations.

Essay on Disease # 2. Minamata D isease:

It was in the early 1950s that fishermen and their families in the city of Minamata, Japan, first began to show the symptoms of what was to become known as the Minamata Disease. The first signs were loss of sensation at the extremities of the hands and feet and in areas around the mouth.

These symptoms were followed by difficulty in walking, slurred speech, reduced vision and hearing loss. Unfortunately, many persons fell prey to eventual paralysis, followed by coma and death.

Public Health Department officials were at first unable to ascertain the cause of such new disease. Similar symptoms were also reported from sea birds and cats in Minamata. Later it was evidently proved that this is a disease of Industrial Toxicity, more precisely “mercury poisoning”. This poisoning of the food chain was local and quite direct. The Chisso Corporation, a plastic manufacturer, was releasing mercury laden wastes into Minamata Bay.

The mercury—in its toxic methyl form—was then concentrated in the predatory fish through food chain of the bay ecosystem. The fisher folk were first to suffer the effect of the disease, for they subsisted largely on fish. By 1976, over 10,000 people were suffering from this disease.

Essay on Disease # 3. Plague :

Plague is often regarded as a scourge of medieval times, from which the world is now largely free. But the latest evidence suggests that incidence of the disease is on the increase. During 1995, at least 1,400 cases of human plague (including at least 50 deaths) were notified to WHO.

The disease occurs particularly in rodents. It spreads from rat to rat and from rats to humans mainly by rat fleas biting first a sick rat and then a person, thus transmitting Yersinia perstis, the bacterium of the disease.

Plague most commonly has two forms: bubonic and pneumonic. The more frequent form is bubonic, in which there is sudden onset of severe malaise, headache, shaking chills, fever and pain in the affected regional lymph nodes. Large and painful lumps appear under the skin, called buboes.

The more dangerous form of the disease is pneumonic or pulmonary plague, which affects the lungs and can be transmitted from person to person by droplets in the air from sputum discharged by the infected individuals.

Some countries in Africa, the America and Asia report cases almost every year. Madagascar, United Republic of Tanzania and Zaire in Africa; Bolivia, Brazil, Peru and the United States in the Americas, and China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam in Asia.

However, cases occur in areas that had apparently been free from the disease for many decades. For example, it has reappeared in Botswana, India and Malawi in recent years after “calm” periods of up to 30 years. Peru experienced a large outbreak of plague in 1984, followed by another in 1990 and again 1992. These outbreaks are linked to cyclical epidemics of plague in rodents.

Over the last 30 years, the mean annual global plague case fatality rate has been 9 per cent, ranging from just over 14 per cent in Africa to just under 6 per cent in the Americas. These high rates persist despite the availability of highly effective drugs against the disease.

Other factors are involved in the apparent increase in plague. In the United States, for example, rapid suburbanization has resulted in increasing numbers of people living in or near areas where plague exists in nature. The number of states of that country reporting plague cases increased from three during 1944- 1953 to 13 during 1984-1994.

Surveillance of plague in rodents indicates that the disease has spread eastwards in the United States to areas believed to have been free of plague during the previous 50 years (up to 1990).

Essay on Disease # 4 . Insect-Borne Diseases :

The five main diseases spread by mosquitoes—malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis—do not lend themselves to a single, comprehensive approach. Each has to be tackled in its own right. At the same time, however, some methods of prevention or control are common to all of them.

Vaccines against yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis already exist and others are being developed against malaria and dengue, although it will be several years at least before they become available. There is an effective drug against filariasis.

The two key measures to prevent the spread of these five diseases are the elimination of mosquito breeding places and the prevention of mosquito bites. The first involves community action, such as covering water storage containers and removing discarded containers from inside and around houses, house-to-house inspection; and control programmes using insecticide sprays.

The second involves people protecting themselves with insecticide-impregnated materials such as curtains and nets, repellents and screens.

Vector and disease surveillance are extremely important, as are rapid intervention and control when an outbreak occurs. Other important measures are health education campaigns and preparations to guard against outbreaks.

Following high-level political commitment for a Global Malaria Control Strategy made in 1992 at a Ministerial Conference in Amsterdam, a target was set for achieving a reduction in malaria mortality of at least 20 per cent by the year 2000 in at least 75 per cent affected countries.

In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly called upon WHO, as the lead agency for health, to promote the international mobilisation of technical, medical and financial assistance to intensify the struggle against malaria. But malaria resurgence in tropical countries were reported in past three decades.

Drugs such as mefloquine and halofantrine have been developed and registered and artemisinin derivatives developed and brought close to registration. In Africa, large-scale multi centre trials of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets have demonstrated a dramatic reduction in mortality of children under the age of 4. These research-based results are now being translated into operational recommendations for national control programmes.

Essay on Disease # 5 . Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) :

Characteristic symptoms of hay fever, induced following exposure of the nasal mucosa to the allergen through inhalation, include profuse watery nasal discharge with sneezing, frequently accompanied by redness, irritated and watery eyes and headache.

The inciting allergens are often found in windborne plant structures called aeroallergens. The spores from fungi and even certain algae may persist through the year, especially under warm humid conditions; but particularly in temperate regions, wind-pollinated plants elicit symptoms during certain flowering periods.

In North America there are three peaks in the pattern of seasonal rhinitis: the first occurs in the spring when trees shed their pollen; the second, during the summer months, involves pollen from many grasses as well as late flowering trees and weeds; and the last peak, in the autumn, is typified by weed and secondarily by grass pollen grains. Ragweed pollen (Ambrosia) predominates during this time and is the most allergenic pollen found in North America.

In tropical areas both perennial and seasonal patterns can also be observed with this disorder. Fungal spores and grass pollen are common aeroallergens, whereas those from weeds and wind-pollinated trees are of secondary importance. However, the determination of aeroallergens in the more equatorial zones requires further study.

Although the majority of plants that induce allergic rhinitis are wind-pollinated, a number of plants that are typically pollinated by animals (insects, birds, bats) have also been implicated. For example, old- fashioned roses, which are infrequently found in gardens today, are often heavily scented and their anthers are exposed by the loose and open form of the floral bud.

Thus their attractiveness frequently used to lead to sensitization through inhalation of the pollen and the term rose-fever or rose-cold was used to describe plant-associated rhinitis.

Essay on Disease # 6 . Asthma :

Attacks of bronchial asthma are usually precipitated by inhalation of the specific allergen and this form of allergy often has a more chronic course than that seen in allergic rhinitis even though the eliciting agents may be the same. Histamine and, perhaps, serotonin, are involved in symptoms that are characterised by bronchospasm and accompanied with excessive viscid bronchial secretion, which produces the asthmatic “wheezing”.

Extrinsic asthma occurs typically in children and young adults and is often aggravated by emotional factors. It is considered to be an IgE mediated disease caused by the inhalation of aeroallergens such as pollen, spores, feathers and animal dander’s. Although not a common aeroallergen, pollen from the lodge-pole pine of Colorado (Pinus contorta) has also been known to cause bronchial asthma.

The mechanism for induction of intrinsic asthma is somewhat more obscure and is generally found in an older age group. The likely agents are allergic reactions to infectious materials, such as bacteria or viruses, or the inflammatory processes they elicit.

Unlike extrinsic asthma antigens cannot be demonstrated and thus skin testing is of no value. The separation of purely extrinsic from intrinsic asthma can be diagnostically difficult whenever allergic phenomena are combined with infectious factors.

Possibly another IgE-mediated Type I disease is the coffee bean and castor bean workers disease that is characterised by rhinitis, asthma and dermatitis following inhalation of the hapten, chlorogenic acid. As it is widespread in plants and is concentrated in coffee beans and castor beans, chlorogenic acid may act more as a universal allergen than was first suspected.

Essay on Disease # 7 . Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis :

Another type of allergic respiratory condition—known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis—is often associated with specific professions. In these instances, animal, vegetable or bacterial enzyme material may induce the disease.

For example, inhalation of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris or fungal spores of Microsporum faeni, which can contaminate hay, moldy sugarcane, or mushroom compost, have been causally related to farmer’s (thresher’s) lung, bagassosis and mushroom worker’s lung.

In a similar way, Cryptostroma corticale has been associated with maple bark disease of woodworkers, Penicillum caseii to cheese worker’s disease, Aspergillus clavatus and A. fumigatus to brewer’s lung disease and Graphium and Aureobasidium pullulans to sequoiosis. By inhalation of the enzyme of Bacillus subtilis, those who work with detergents may also develop an allergic pneumonitis.

Diseases produced by inhalation of airborne algae such as Gloecapsa and chlorella, are of more general incidence, however Wood and paper mill workers may also develop bronchial asthma through sawdust inhalation of the Gymnosperms, redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), cedar of Lebanon (cedrus libani) and the Angiosperms, iroko or African oak (Chlorophora excelsa), Nicaragua rosewood (Dalbergia retusa), and other exotic woods. The immunopathology suggests that a mixture of many types of immune or allergic reactions may be involved in extrinsic allergic alveolitis and thus is classified as Type III.

It is also possible that symptoms similar to those of allergic respiratory illness may be elicited by inhalation of airborne leaf hairs. Such a series of cases was recently reported among gardeners who had tended saplings of Oriental sycamores or the tree of Hippocrates (Platanus orientalis) at a medical school campus.

It is interesting that, about 2000 years ago, Dioscorides (40-90 AD) had noted watery eyes, sneezing, an irritating sensation in the nasal passages, soreness of the throat, an irritating dry cough and other similar symptoms. 

Essay on Disease # 8 . Typhoid:

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhosa bacteria by ingesting contaminated food or water. Symptoms are characterised by headache, nausea and loss of appetite. About 12 million people get affected by typhoid every year.

Prevention:

Typhoid can be prevented by providing access to safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene.

Essay on Disease # 9 . Amoebiosis:

This water borne disease is caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is characterised by liquid stools with mucus and blood, hepatitis or abscess. Man gets the infection through cut fruits, salads, vegetables, contaminated water.

E. histolytica are found as motile trophozoites or cysts. Trophozoites cause ulcer in the large intestine. Some amoebas reach liver through portal vein and may cause hepatitis or abscess. Intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis are the main manifestations of the disease. The cysts can survive for 6 to 7 weeks outside the human body, if kept moist and cool. They do not survive at moderate (50°C) temperature.

Diagnosis is based on the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool. The antibody of the parasite can be easily detected by Immuno-fluorescence method.

(i) Sanitary disposal of human excreta.

(ii) Drinking boiled and filtered water,

(iii) Protecting food against flies.

(iv)Washing vegetables with disinfectants by iodine solution (200 ppm) or 5% acetic acid. Cysts can be killed in milk by pasteurisation.

The drugs usually prescribed by physicians are:

i. Tnnidazole (1-2 g) to be taken one tablet for 3 days.

ii. Metronidazole (Flagyl) (400-800 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for 5 days.

iii. Furamide (500 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for 7 days.

iv. Entrozyme (250 mg)—one tablet thrice a day for 7 days.

Essay on Disease # 10. Malaria:

Malaria is caused by parasite, Plasmodium and is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. The credit of this discovery goes to Ross (Kolkata) in 1903. The symptoms are periodic paroxyms of fever, associated with shivering and terminating with sweating. Fever is intermittent and occurs after 3 or 4 days.

Control of Malaria:

(i) Destruction of mosquito by spraying with DDT and oil dissolved in freon in houses.

(ii) Destruction of mosquito larvae in water bodies by spraying with DDT or malathion.

(iii) Eliminating the breeding places in stagnant water pools by spraying with pesticides.

Antimalarial drugs are quinine, chloroquinine and camoquinine etc.

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Germs: understand and protect against bacteria, viruses and infections.

Learn how germs work and what you can do to protect yourself.

Germs live everywhere. You can find germs (microbes) in the air; on food, plants and animals; in the soil and water — and on just about every other surface, including your body.

Most germs won't harm you. Your immune system protects you against infectious agents. However, some germs are difficult enemies because they're constantly mutating to breach your immune system's defenses. Knowing how germs work can increase your chances of avoiding infection.

Infectious agents: From bacteria to worms

Different types of infectious agents

Types of infectious agents

Infectious agents come in many shapes and sizes. Bacteria and protozoans are microscopic one-celled organisms. Viruses are even smaller. Fungi grow like plants. Helminths resemble worms.

Infectious agents come in many shapes and sizes. Categories include:

Bacteria are one-celled organisms that can be seen only with a microscope. They're so small that if you lined up a thousand of them end to end, they could fit across the end of a pencil eraser.

Not all bacteria are harmful, and some bacteria that live in your body are helpful. For instance, Lactobacillus acidophilus — a harmless bacterium that resides in your intestines — helps you digest food, destroys some disease-causing organisms and provides nutrients.

Many disease-causing bacteria produce toxins — powerful chemicals that damage cells and make you ill. Other bacteria can directly invade and damage tissues. Some infections caused by bacteria include:

Viruses are much smaller than cells. In fact, viruses are basically just capsules that contain genetic material. To reproduce, viruses invade cells in your body, hijacking the machinery that makes cells work. Host cells are often eventually destroyed during this process.

Viruses are responsible for causing many diseases, including:

Antibiotics designed for bacteria have no effect on viruses.

There are many varieties of fungi, and people eat several of them. Mushrooms are fungi, as are the molds that form the blue or green veins in some types of cheese. And yeast, another type of fungus, is a necessary ingredient in most types of bread.

Other fungi can cause illness. One example is candida — a yeast that can cause infection. Candida can cause thrush — an infection of the mouth and throat — in infants and in people taking antibiotics or who have an impaired immune system. Fungi are also responsible for skin conditions such as athlete's foot and ringworm.

Protozoans are single-celled organisms that behave like tiny animals — hunting and gathering other microbes for food. Many protozoans live in your intestinal tract and are harmless. Others cause diseases, such as:

Protozoans often spend part of their life cycles outside of humans or other hosts, living in food, soil, water or insects. Some protozoans invade your body through the food you eat or the water you drink. Others, such as the malaria protozoans, invade your body through mosquito bites.

Helminths are among the larger parasites. The word "helminth" comes from the Greek word for worm. If these parasites — or their eggs — enter your body, they settle in your intestinal tract, lungs, liver, skin or brain, where they live off your body's nutrients. Helminths include tapeworms and roundworms.

Understanding infection vs. disease

There's a difference between infection and disease. Infection, often the first step, occurs when bacteria, viruses or other microbes that cause disease enter your body and begin to multiply. Disease occurs when the cells in your body are damaged — as a result of the infection — and signs and symptoms of an illness appear.

In response to infection, your immune system springs into action. An army of white blood cells, antibodies and other mechanisms goes to work to rid your body of whatever is causing the infection. For instance, in fighting off the common cold, your body might react with fever, coughing and sneezing.

Warding off germs and infection

What's the best way to stay disease-free? Prevent infections. You can prevent many infections and avoid spreading infections through simple tactics such as these:

You can also prevent infections through:

When to seek medical care

Seek medical care if you suspect that you have an infection and you have experienced:

Your health care provider can perform diagnostic tests to find out whether you're infected, how serious the infection is and how best to treat that infection.

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The Pathogenesis of the Disease, Essay Example

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You are working in a hospital and there is a discussion on what is an infection and how is it different from disease. How would you explain the difference between them in the process explain what is meant by virulence, pathogenesis, primary infective agent and the difference between entry, colonization and invasion.

Infections occur when viruses, bacteria, or other pathogenic organisms enter a host organism. While infections can cause some diseases, diseases are not only caused by infections; disease describes a broad range of ailments that can be caused by factors including infection, physical trauma, and more. Virulence describes the degree of pathogenicity of an infection, which describes the ability of infectious organisms or particles to cause disease. The primary infective agent is what causes disease symptoms. The entry of a primary infective agent describes the entering of the organism into the body, while colonization and invasion describes the growth and spread of the organism.

You are working in a hospital and a patient was brought in with purple rash covering their body. You need to explain to the others that this patient has a Neisseria meningitidis blood poisoning.

Explain the pathogenesis of the disease and what is the virulence factor?

Neisseria meningitidis has an airborne transmission that occurs when an affected individual sneezes. There are several virulence factors. One is that the bacteria is contained within a polysaccharide capsule that prevents phagocytosis via the host’s immune system. In addition, it has fimbriae that help the bacteria attach to the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx, where it colonizes. Its pili are used to infect the cell through associated surface proteins Opa and OpC. Last, this bacteria produces IgA protease, which allows the bacteria to evade attack by the humoral immune system.

How does the bacterium defend its self against the immune system?

The bacteria is able to evade the immune system by being coated with a polysaccharide capsule that helps avoid being phagocytosed by macrophages or targeted by other immune cells. In addition, the bacteria secretes IgA protease that cleaves IgA antibodies that would target this bacteria for destruction.

How such a disease is to be treated and why the use of this treatment method.

Antibiotic treatment is necessary to slow the growth and spread of this bacteria. Penicillin is the recommended drug, and damages and penetrates the cell wall of the bacteria. Once this wall is penetrated, the immune system is able to bypass the bacteria’s immune defenses and the IgA antibodies will be able to target it for destruction and ingestion by macrophages.

Explain how the immune system resolves this disease.

Once antibiotic treatment has begun, IgA antibodies attach themselves to the antigen on the bacteria cell. This recruits macrophages, which are targeted towards the bacteria to digest it and break up the cell. Once this occurs, additional antibodies are produces with different antigen presentation so that the body will be better prepared to attack the remaining bacteria in the body.

What are the types of toxins bacteria produces? Give examples stating their effect. Explain how viruses cause disease and what are mycotoxins and Endotoxin like mycotoxins.

Bacteria produces a broad range of toxins. Broadly, they are classified as endotoxins and exotoxins. Exotoxins are generally secreted from the cell, while endotoxins remain a component of the bacteria. There are many different types of toxins that fall into these categories. However, a majority of these toxins are used to disable the host’s immune system to ensure greater reproductive success. These toxins impact various aspects of the immune system depending upon their specific identity. Some of these toxins target the ability of the immune system to utilize antibodies to target bacteria for destruction, while others interfere with the ability for immune cells like macrophages to enact the actual destruction. Viruses cause disease by infecting the body and taking over the host cell’s reproductive machinery. By doing so, viruses will multiply and then go on to contaminate neighboring cells. This causes disease because the host’s immune system must target its own cells for destruction because the viral DNA cannot easily be targeted. Mycotoxins are typically produced by molds and causes immunological sensitization of a body to an antigen in addition to immune-mediated damage to the body. Endotoxin-like Mycotoxins block protein synthesis that prevent antibodies from being formed.

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Modes of Transmission of Diseases

Transmission is the process by which a pathogen spreads from one host to another. Diseases or infections are transmitted in many ways. It may be directly transmitted from one person to another, or by certain bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi. There are two different modes of transmission of diseases:

Direct Transmission – This occurs when the pathogen is transmitted directly from an infected person. For eg., if an open wound comes in contact with the blood of a Hepatitis B infected patient, the wounded person might contract the disease.

Indirect Transmission- When the pathogens are not transmitted directly from the infected person but through vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, ticks, dogs, etc., it is known as indirect transmission.

Disease Transmission

Direct transmission.

1. Person to Person

When an infected person comes in contact with or exchanges body fluids with a non-infected person. A mother can transmit infections to the unborn child via the placenta. A sexually transmitted disease such as gonorrhoea can be transmitted by direct transmission.

2. Droplet Transmission

The droplets spread during sneezing, speaking, and coughing by an infected person can spread infections. The infections can also spread by touching the nose and mouth with the hands contaminated with infectious droplets. The droplets are so minute that they travel only a short distance before falling. The people nearby might contract infections.

3. Spread by skin

There are a few infections such as chickenpox, conjunctivitis, head lice, ringworm, etc., which spread when the skin of an infected person comes in contact with the skin of the other person.

4. Spread through body fluids or blood

A few diseases spread when the body fluids or blood of an infected person come in contact with the mucous membrane or bloodstream of an uninfected person. Diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, cytomegalovirus infections, etc. spread through semen and vaginal fluids, saliva, breastmilk, urine, etc.

Also read: Health and Diseases

Indirect Transmission

1. Airborne Transmission

Some infectious agents remain suspended in the air for a long period of time. These pathogens might attack the immune system of a person in contact. E.g. if you enter a room that was initially occupied by a patient of measles, you too might catch the infection.

2. Contaminated Objects

The objects around us carry pathogens. Touching the infected objects which were initially used by a diseased person might render us diseased. Contaminated blood and medical supplies can also spread infections.

3. Vector-Borne Diseases

Some infectious agents are transmitted by the blood-sucking insects. The insects feed on hosts such as birds, animals, and humans and carry infectious agents from them. These infections are transmitted to some new host. Malaria and Lyme disease are the two vector-borne diseases.

4.Food and Drinking Water

Improperly canned and undercooked food is the main source of infections. Water also carries various pathogens from rivers and lakes. It should be boiled or filtered before use. E.coli is transmitted through contaminated food which causes various stomach problems. Botulism is caused by the consumption of improperly canned food. Cholera is one water-borne disease which has affected millions of people consuming contaminated water.

5.Transmission through Animals

When an infected animal bites or scratches against a person, it transfers the infectious agents to the person. These agents can also be transmitted through animal waste. When diseases are transferred from animals to people, zoonosis occurs. Anthrax (sheep), rabies (dogs), plague (rodents) are some of the diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Pregnant women and people with weak immune systems are more prone to infections.

6.Environmental Factors

The infectious agents are present in soil, water and plants as well. These agents can be transmitted to people and may cause diseases. For eg., Hookworm is transmitted through contaminated soil. Legionnaires’ disease is spread by water supplied to condensers and cooling towers.

Also read: Principles of Prevention

Different Modes of Transmission of Diseases

An overview of different modes of disease transmission is given below:

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infectious disease , in medicine , a process caused by an agent, often a type of microorganism , that impairs a person’s health . In many cases, infectious disease can be spread from person to person, either directly (e.g., via skin contact) or indirectly (e.g., via contaminated food or water).

An infectious disease can differ from simple infection , which is the invasion of and replication in the body by any of various agents—including bacteria , viruses , fungi , protozoans , and worms —as well as the reaction of tissues to their presence or to the toxins that they produce. When health is not altered, the process is called a subclinical infection. Thus, a person may be infected but not have an infectious disease. This principle is illustrated by the use of vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. For example, a virus such as that which causes measles may be attenuated (weakened) and used as an immunizing agent. The immunization is designed to produce a measles infection in the recipient but generally causes no discernible alteration in the state of health. It produces immunity to measles without producing a clinical illness (an infectious disease).

The most important barriers to invasion of the human host by infectious agents are the skin and mucous membranes (the tissues that line the nose, mouth, and upper respiratory tract). When these tissues have been broken or affected by earlier disease, invasion by infectious agents may occur. These infectious agents may produce a local infectious disease, such as boils , or may invade the bloodstream and be carried throughout the body, producing generalized bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) or localized infection at a distant site, such as meningitis (an infection of the coverings of the brain and spinal cord). Infectious agents swallowed in food and drink can attack the wall of the intestinal tract and cause local or general disease. The conjunctiva , which covers the front of the eye, may be penetrated by viruses that cause a local inflammation of the eye or that pass into the bloodstream and cause a severe general disease, such as smallpox . Infectious agents can enter the body through the genital tract, causing the acute inflammatory reaction of gonorrhea in the genital and pelvic organs or spreading out to attack almost any organ of the body with the more chronic and destructive lesions of syphilis . Even before birth , viruses and other infectious agents can pass through the placenta and attack developing cells, so that an infant may be diseased or deformed at birth.

From conception to death, humans are targets for attack by multitudes of other living organisms, all of them competing for a place in the common environment . The air people breathe, the soil they walk on, the waters and vegetation around them, the buildings they inhabit and work in, all can be populated with forms of life that are potentially dangerous. Domestic animals may harbour organisms that are a threat, and wildlife teems with agents of infection that can afflict humans with serious disease. However, the human body is not without defenses against these threats, for it is equipped with a comprehensive immune system that reacts quickly and specifically against disease organisms when they attack. Survival throughout the ages has depended largely on these reactions, which today are supplemented and strengthened through the use of medical drugs .

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Infectious agents

Categories of organisms.

The agents of infection can be divided into different groups on the basis of their size, biochemical characteristics, or manner in which they interact with the human host. The groups of organisms that cause infectious diseases are categorized as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Bacteria can survive within the body but outside individual cells. Some bacteria, classified as aerobes , require oxygen for growth, while others, such as those normally found in the small intestine of healthy persons, grow only in the absence of oxygen and, therefore, are called anaerobes . Most bacteria are surrounded by a capsule that appears to play an important role in their ability to produce disease. Also, a number of bacterial species give off toxins that in turn may damage tissues. Bacteria are generally large enough to be seen under a light microscope . Streptococci, the bacteria that cause scarlet fever , are about 0.75 micrometre (0.00003 inch) in diameter . The spirochetes , which cause syphilis , leptospirosis , and rat-bite fever , are 5 to 15 micrometres long. Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics .

Bacterial infections are commonly caused by pneumococci , staphylococci , and streptococci , all of which are often commensals (that is, organisms living harmlessly on their hosts) in the upper respiratory tract but that can become virulent and cause serious conditions, such as pneumonia, septicemia (blood poisoning), and meningitis. The pneumococcus is the most common cause of lobar pneumonia , the disease in which one or more lobes, or segments, of the lung become solid and airless as a result of inflammation. Staphylococci affect the lungs either in the course of staphylococcal septicemia—when bacteria in the circulating blood cause scattered abscesses in the lungs—or as a complication of a viral infection, commonly influenza —when these organisms invade the damaged lung cells and cause a life-threatening form of pneumonia. Streptococcal pneumonia is the least common of the three and occurs usually as a complication of influenza or other lung disease.

Pneumococci often enter the bloodstream from inflamed lungs and cause septicemia, with continued fever but no other special symptoms . Staphylococci produce a type of septicemia with high spiking fever; the bacteria can reach almost any organ of the body—including the brain, the bones, and especially the lungs—and destructive abscesses form in the infected areas. Streptococci also cause septicemia with fever, but the organisms tend to cause inflammation of surface lining cells rather than abscesses—for example, pleurisy (inflammation of the chest lining) rather than lung abscess , and peritonitis (inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen) rather than liver abscess. In the course of either of the last two forms of septicemia, organisms may enter the nervous system and cause streptococcal or staphylococcal meningitis , but these are rare conditions. Pneumococci, on the other hand, often spread directly into the central nervous system , causing one of the common forms of meningitis.

Staphylococci and streptococci are common causes of skin diseases. Boils and impetigo (in which the skin is covered with blisters, pustules, and yellow crusts) may be caused by either. Staphylococci also can cause a severe skin infection that strips the outer skin layers off the body and leaves the underlayers exposed, as in severe burns, a condition known as toxic epidermal necrolysis. Streptococcal organisms can cause a severe condition known as necrotizing fasciitis , commonly referred to as flesh-eating disease, which has a fatality rate between 25 and 75 percent. Streptococci can be the cause of the red cellulitis of the skin known as erysipelas .

Some staphylococci produce an intestinal toxin and cause food poisoning . Certain streptococci settling in the throat produce a reddening toxin that speeds through the bloodstream and produces the symptoms of scarlet fever . Streptococci and staphylococci also can cause toxic shock syndrome , a potentially fatal disease. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is fatal in some 35 percent of cases.

Meningococci are fairly common inhabitants of the throat, in most cases causing no illness at all. As the number of healthy carriers increases in any population, however, there is a tendency for the meningococcus to become more invasive. When an opportunity is presented, it can gain access to the bloodstream, invade the central nervous system, and cause meningococcal meningitis (formerly called cerebrospinal meningitis or spotted fever). Meningococcal meningitis, at one time a dreaded and still a very serious disease, usually responds to treatment with penicillin if diagnosed early enough. When meningococci invade the bloodstream, some gain access to the skin and cause bloodstained spots, or purpura . If the condition is diagnosed early enough, antibiotics can clear the bloodstream of the bacterium and prevent any from getting far enough to cause meningitis. Sometimes the septicemia takes a mild, chronic, relapsing form with no tendency toward meningitis; this is curable once it is diagnosed. The meningococcus also can cause one of the most fulminating of all forms of septicemia, meningococcemia, in which the body is rapidly covered with a purple rash, purpura fulminans; in this form the blood pressure becomes dangerously low, the heart and blood vessels are affected by shock , and the infected person dies within a matter of hours. Few are saved, despite treatment with appropriate drugs.

Haemophilus influenzae is a microorganism named for its occurrence in the sputum of patients with influenza —an occurrence so common that it was at one time thought to be the cause of the disease. It is now known to be a common inhabitant of the nose and throat that may invade the bloodstream, producing meningitis, pneumonia, and various other diseases. In children it is the most common cause of acute epiglottitis , an infection in which tissue at the back of the tongue becomes rapidly swollen and obstructs the airway, creating a potentially fatal condition. H. influenzae also is the most common cause of meningitis and pneumonia in children under five years of age, and it is known to cause bronchitis in adults. The diagnosis is established by cultures of blood, cerebrospinal fluid , or other tissue from sites of infection. Antibiotic therapy is generally effective, although death from sepsis or meningitis is still common. In developed countries where H. influenza vaccine is used, there has been a great decrease in serious infections and deaths.

Chlamydia are intracellular organisms found in many vertebrates, including birds and humans and other mammals. Clinical illnesses are caused by the species C. trachomatis , which is a frequent cause of genital infections in women. If an infant passes through an infected birth canal, it can produce disease of the eye ( conjunctivitis ) and pneumonia in the newborn. Young children sometimes develop ear infections, laryngitis , and upper respiratory tract disease from Chlamydia . Such infections can be treated with erythromycin .

Another chlamydial organism, Chlamydophila psittaci , produces psittacosis , a disease that results from exposure to the discharges of infected birds. The illness is characterized by high fever with chills, a slow heart rate, pneumonia, headache , weakness, fatigue , muscle pains, anorexia , nausea, and vomiting. The diagnosis is usually suspected if the patient has a history of exposure to birds. It is confirmed by blood tests. Mortality is rare, and specific antibiotic treatment is available.

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different types of infectious diseases essay

Essays on Infectious Diseases

The importance of community engagement in eradication of the ebola virus, the importance of hand hygiene practices for preventing infectious diseases, social epidemiology: the science about health and culture, hand washing: modern fundamental rule, epidemiology: introduction to the study of disease transmission, covid-19 in older adults: findings and lessons from mass screening in a nursing home, eradication of polio in india: pulse polio programme, what is the impact of coronavirus on education, polio: definition, effects on the body and treatment, polio vaccine: from tragedy to a triumph of modern medicine, chasing polio eradication: vaccine development, a comprehensive report on the h1n1 influenza virus, yellow fever - a disease carried by mosquitoes, yellow fever disease - what problems are caused by mosquitoes, yellow fever - the biggest health problem in brazil, impact of coronavirus in kafka on the store, microbial disease report: the plague, rising of an armed forces and non-traditional challenges for future in bangladesh, current scenario of indian economy, feeling stressed about your essay.

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Immunization is a global health and development success story, saving millions of lives every year. Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your body’s natural defences to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds.

We now have vaccines to prevent more than 20 life-threatening diseases, helping people of all ages live longer, healthier lives. Immunization currently prevents 3.5-5 million deaths every year from diseases like diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, influenza and measles.

Immunization is a key component of primary health care and an indisputable human right. It’s also one of the best health investments money can buy. Vaccines are also critical to the prevention and control of infectious disease outbreaks. They underpin global health security and will be a vital tool in the battle against antimicrobial resistance.

Yet despite tremendous progress, vaccination coverage has plateaued in recent years and dropped since 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated disruptions over the past two year have strained health systems, with 25 million children missing out on vaccination in 2021, 6 million more than in 2019 and the highest number since 2009.

By the end of 2021, nearly all countries had introduced COVID-19 vaccination, and by early 2022 one billion doses of COVID-19 vaccine had been delivered through COVAX.

Vaccines train your immune system to create antibodies, just as it does when it’s exposed to a disease. However, because vaccines contain only killed or weakened forms of germs like viruses or bacteria, they do not cause the disease or put you at risk of its complications.

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IA2030 sets an ambitious, overarching global vision and strategy for vaccines and immunization for the decade 2021–2030. It was co-created with thousands of contributions from countries and organizations around the world. It draws on lessons from the past decade and acknowledges continuing and new challenges posed by infectious diseases (e.g. Ebola, COVID-19).

The strategy has been designed to respond to the interests of every country and intends to inspire and align the activities of community, national, regional and global stakeholders towards achieving a world where everyone, everywhere fully benefits from vaccines for good health and well-being. IA2030 is operationalized through regional and national strategies and a mechanism to ensure ownership and accountability and a monitoring and evaluation framework to guide country implementation.

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Fluoroquinolones are types of antibiotics which are useful in treating a wide range of infectious diseases in the human body, and these antibiotics stem from the general classification of Quinolone.  There are a total of four generations of Fluoroquinolone which have been used for medicinal purposes.  Not all of the antibiotics classified in these four generations are currently in use in clinical settings since some have been discontinued and are not being prescribed or used to treat patients any longer.  As mentioned before, Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are known to be a type of Quinolone, and they were created in order to be more effective in antibiotic use than Quinolones through the alteration of the backbone as a nitrogen and fluorine atom were added (Redgrave, Sutton, Webber, & Piddock, 2014).  This structure of the antibiotic is important to the function and capability of Fluoroquinolones, and the creation of new generations has helped in creating stronger antibiotics which can further withstand resistance of certain infections to these antibiotics and which can prove to be more effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

When a Fluoroquinolone is introduced into the body to fight an infection, the antibiotic localizes bacterial type II topoisomerases in order to prevent DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from assisting in the DNA replication process (2014).  DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are type II topoisomerases, and they both work to unwind supercoiled DNA, so fluoroquinolones’ objective is to restrict these type II topoisomerases from continuing the DNA replication process (2014).  In order to do this, the Fluoroquinolone binds first to the DNA in order to be able to specifically bind to either DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV after passing through the DNA which was fragmented.  The binding of the antibiotic to either DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV depends on whether the bacteria is gram-positive or gram-negative.  The antibiotic will bind to DNA gyrase in a bacteria which is gram-negative whereas in a gram-positive bacteria, the antibiotic will bind to topoisomerase IV (2014).  This bound Fluoroquinolone will disable the DNA from winding back or closing off after the antibiotics entrance, and the DNA which is fragmented in order for the Fluoroquinolone to reach the type II topoisomerases is known as a cleaved complex (2014).  Therefore, when working to stop an infection, Fluoroquinolones disrupt not only the replication of DNA but the restoration of the DNA to the proper form as well (Bolon, 2009).

The last Fluoroquinolones which have been introduced are the fourth generation Fluoroquinolones.  These have proven to be effective in their use against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, being able to perform the antibiotic abilities of previous generations while simultaneously excelling in ability compared to those used previously, showing how these antibiotics have been created and altered through generations in order to be able to fight infections and resistance coming from mutations (Mather, Karenchak, Romanowski, & Kowalski, 2002).  Previously, the antibiotics introduced were those in the first, second, and third generations.  The Fluoroquinolones present in the first generation included nalidixic acid and cinoxacin while those in the second generation included norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin (Redgrave, Sutton, Webber, & Piddock, 2014).  Although many Fluoroquinolones were created, not all are still in use today.  For example, the antibiotics in the third generation include three antibiotics by the names of sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, and grepafloxacin, and none of these are currently being used in clinical settings (2014).  The fluoroquinolone antibiotics which are currently still being utilized are nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and two antibiotics in the fourth generation which are moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin, excluding a third fourth generation antibiotic of trovafloxacin (2014).  These fluoroquinolone antibiotics, along with a few others, have advanced after each generation through alterations which make them more effective, and they have also proven to be more effective when there is proper selection of these antibiotics by those individuals administering them (Ball, 2000).  The table below from a journal published by the University of Birmingham provides a list of the four generations of fluoroquinolones as well as a description as to whether they are still in use in clinical settings and in what form they are being utilized.

When analyzing the generations of fluoroquinolones, Peter Ball of the University of St. Andrews provides information on what each generation, up to the third-generation, was capable of doing, and Maureen K. Bolon of the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine also provides insight into this and includes the fourth-generation through a journal published after that of Andrews.  Andrews mentions how the first-generation of fluoroquinolones were mainly utilized in order to treat urinary tract infections (2000).  In a later study, Bolon mentions how the first-generation of fluoroquinolones focused mainly on combating gram-negative bacteria with little focus on gram-positive bacteria (2009).  Further information shows how the second-generation of fluoroquinolones were developed in order to enhance the capability of the first generation antibiotics with a focus on increasing the potency or resistance against gram-negative bacteria with a small improvement when it comes to gram-positive bacteria (2009).  The third-generation of fluoroquinolones were adapted and created to be used for respiratory tract infections, and this generation was the first to specifically provide a greater amount of defense when it comes to gram-positive bacteria.  Previous generations were mainly focused on attacking gram-negative bacteria with a slight focus on gram-positive bacteria.  This changed with the introduction of the third-generation of fluoroquinolones.  Both the second and third generations have two different agents each, so there are 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B agents with a slight variance in the activity performed by each.  The fourth-generation of fluoroquinolones, as mentioned previously, perform the same antibiotic abilities as previous generations with a focus on a greater amount of ability to fight pneumococci and anaerobes (2009).

Another aspect which was subject to change through these generations was the dosage amount given to individuals.  As newer fluoroquinolones were developed, this allowed the potency and strength of these antibiotics to increase and simultaneously permit for the antibiotics to be given to patients less often, enabling them to be given to patients on a daily basis instead of more than once a day.  The table below, from a journal by Maureen K. Bolon, shows the dosages along with the bioavailability, protein binding, half-life, elimination, and formulation of four different fluoroquinolones, with Ciprofloxacin being from the second generation and the antibiotic having to be given to the patient most often from the table provided (2009).  

The fluoroquinolones which have been developed have proven to advanced after each generation both in their capabilities and the amount having to be given to patients in need of the antibiotic.  Along with these advances, the newer generations of fluoroquinolones have also been developed in response to fluoroquinolone resistance which has occurred in previous generations.  This resistance can be due to different types of a certain bacteria arising, from the over use of a certain antibiotic along or mutations which can occur in certain genes.  Fluoroquinolone resistance occurs through different mechanisms which include target-site mutation, transmissible resistance, membrane permeability, and efflux (Redgrave, Sutton, Webber, & Piddock, 2014).  Each of these mechanisms and the reason for resistance will be explained further throughout the essay.  

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  8. Infectious Disease Essay

    Infectious diseases are most commonly transmitted by direct person-to-person contact. Transmissions can occur differently direct contact involves touching an infected person, or even exchanging body fluids; common diseases that can be transferred by direct contact are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  9. Essays on Diseases: Top 10 Essays on Diseases

    Essays on Diseases: Top 10 Essays on Diseases Article Shared by ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this essay to learn about Diseases. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Infectious Diseases 2. Minamata Disease 3. Plague 4. Insect-Borne Diseases 5. Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) 6. Asthma 7. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis 8. Typhoid 9. Amoebiosis 10.

  10. Different Types Of Infectious Diseases

    An infectious disease or communicable disease is a medical disorder caused by biological agents including virus, bacterium or parasite. In other words they can be described as foreign replicator, mostly microorganisms usually named as microbes, invisible with the naked eyes that invade the host organism.

  11. Germs: Protect against bacteria, viruses and infections

    Infectious agents: From bacteria to worms Types of infectious agents Infectious agents come in many shapes and sizes. Categories include: Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protozoans Helminths Bacteria Bacteria are one-celled organisms that can be seen only with a microscope.

  12. Pandemic

    pandemic, outbreak of infectious disease that occurs over a wide geographical area and that is of high prevalence, generally affecting a significant proportion of the world's population, usually over the course of several months. Pandemics arise from epidemics, which are outbreaks of disease confined to one part of the world, such as a single country. Pandemics, especially those involving ...

  13. The Pathogenesis of the Disease, Essay Example

    Explain how viruses cause disease and what are mycotoxins and Endotoxin like mycotoxins. Bacteria produces a broad range of toxins. Broadly, they are classified as endotoxins and exotoxins. Exotoxins are generally secreted from the cell, while endotoxins remain a component of the bacteria.

  14. infectious diseases Essay

    The most prominent infectious diseases in developing countries are malaria, schistosomiasis and trypanosomiasis. Malaria is the leading cause of death in tropical countries. More than one million deaths occur each year. Malaria is a vector borne parasitic infection. It is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of the ...

  15. Explore the Modes of Transmission of Diseases in Detail and in ...

    4. Spread through body fluids or blood. A few diseases spread when the body fluids or blood of an infected person come in contact with the mucous membrane or bloodstream of an uninfected person. Diseases such as hepatitis, HIV, cytomegalovirus infections, etc. spread through semen and vaginal fluids, saliva, breastmilk, urine, etc.

  16. Infectious disease

    infectious disease, in medicine, a process caused by an agent, often a type of microorganism, that impairs a person's health. In many cases, infectious disease can be spread from person to person, either directly (e.g., via skin contact) or indirectly (e.g., via contaminated food or water). An infectious disease can differ from simple infection, which is the invasion of and replication in ...

  17. Essays on Infectious Diseases

    The Plague is one of the most recognizable and culturally significant diseases in the world. Plague (or Yersinia Pestis) has become so ubiquitous that the term colloquially refers to any contagious disease that spreads rapidly and is incredibly deadly. Yet, even given its great impact... Black Death Infectious Disease.

  18. Preventing epidemics and pandemics

    Preventing epidemics and pandemics. The number of high-threat infectious hazards continues to rise; some of these are re-emerging and others are new. While outbreaks of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, such as meningococcal disease, yellow fever and cholera, can have disastrous effects in areas with limited health infrastructure and ...

  19. Vaccines and immunization

    Vaccines and immunization. Immunization is a global health and development success story, saving millions of lives every year. Vaccines reduce risks of getting a disease by working with your body's natural defences to build protection. When you get a vaccine, your immune system responds. We now have vaccines to prevent more than 20 life ...

  20. ᐅ Essays On Infectious Disease 📝 Free Argumentative, Persuasive

    Pandemics are disease that spread over a country or the world. Typhus is an example of a pandemic. Typhus is a bacterial disease that is spread by lice and fleas. Brill Zinsser is the discoverer of the disease and typhus is also known as "Brill … Disease Epidemiology Infection Infectious Disease Medicine 6 views Words 371 Pages 2

  21. Classifications of Disease Types

    The spread of diseases can be categorized into direct contact (person to person) and indirect contact (spread through the air or touching an infected surface). Direct contact: Direct contact happens when the infected person transmits the microorganisms to another person without a contaminated object or person.

  22. 2017 11 11 1510425244

    This page of the essay has 1,171 words. Download the full version above. Fluoroquinolones are types of antibiotics which are useful in treating a wide range of infectious diseases in the human body, and these antibiotics stem from the general classification of Quinolone.